Modulation of Hyaluronan Synthesis by the Interaction between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes.
ABSTRACT: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are considered a good source for cellular therapy in cartilage repair. But, their potential to repair the extracellular matrix, in an osteoarthritic environment, is still controversial. In osteoarthritis (OA), anti-inflammatory action and extracellular matrix production are important steps for cartilage healing. This study examined the interaction of BM-MSC and OA-chondrocyte on the production of hyaluronan and inflammatory cytokines in a Transwell system. We compared cocultured BM-MSCs and OA-chondrocytes with the individually cultured controls (monocultures). There was a decrease in BM-MSCs cell count in coculture with OA-chondrocytes when compared to BM-MSCs alone. In monoculture, BM-MSCs produced higher amounts of hyaluronan than OA-chondrocytes and coculture of BM-MSCs with OA-chondrocytes increased hyaluronan production per cell. Hyaluronan synthase-1 mRNA expression was upregulated in BM-MSCs after coculture with OA-chondrocytes, whereas hyaluronidase-1 was downregulated. After coculture, lower IL-6 levels were detected in BM-MSCs compared with OA-chondrocytes. These results indicate that, in response to coculture with OA-chondrocytes, BM-MSCs change their behavior by increasing production of hyaluronan and decreasing inflammatory cytokines. Our results indicate that BM-MSCs per se could be a potential tool for OA regenerative therapy, exerting short-term effects on the local microenvironment even when cell:cell contact is not occurring.
Project description:Coculture of mesenchymal stem cells with chondrocytes increases production of cartilaginous matrix. Chondrocytes isolated from late stage osteoarthritic patients usually lost their phenotype of producing cartilaginous matrix. Fibroblast growth factor 18 is believed to redifferentiate OA chondrocyte into functionally active chondrocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate the supportive effects of MSCs on OA chondrocytes and test if FGF18 could enhance the responsiveness of OA chondrocytes to the support of MSCs in a coculture system. Both pellet and transwell co-cultures were used. GAG quantification, hydroxyproline assay, and qPCR were performed. An ectopic models of cartilage formation was also applied. Our data indicated that, in pellets coculture of MSCs and OA chondrocytes, matrix production was increased in the presence of FGF18, comparing to the monoculture of chondrocytes. Results from transwell coculture study showed that expression of matrix producing genes in OA chondrocytes increased when cocultured with MSCs with FGF18 in culture medium, while hypertrophic genes were not changed by coculture. Finally, coimplantation of MSCs with OA chondrocytes produces more matrix than chondrocytes only. In conclusion, FGF18 can restore the responsiveness of OA chondrocytes to the trophic effects of MSCs. Coimplantation of MSCs and OA chondrocytes treated with FGF18 may be a good alternative cell source for regenerating cartilage tissue that is degraded during OA pathological changes.
Project description:Lesions of hyaline cartilage do not heal spontaneously, and represent a therapeutic challenge. In vitro engineering of articular cartilage using cells and biomaterials may prove to be the best solution. Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) may require tissue engineered cartilage therapy. Chondrocytes obtained from OA joints are thought to be involved in the disease process, and thus to be of insufficient quality to be used for repair strategies. Bone marrow (BM) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from healthy donors may represent an alternative cell source. We have isolated chondrocytes from OA joints, performed cell culture expansion and tissue engineering of cartilage using a disc-shaped alginate scaffold and chondrogenic differentiation medium. We performed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and fluorescence immunohistochemistry to evaluate mRNA and protein expression for a range of molecules involved in chondrogenesis and OA pathogenesis. Results were compared with those obtained by using BM-MSCs in an identical tissue engineering strategy. Finally the two populations were compared using genome-wide mRNA arrays. At three weeks of chondrogenic differentiation we found high and similar levels of hyaline cartilage-specific type II collagen and fibrocartilage-specific type I collagen mRNA and protein in discs containing OA and BM-MSC derived chondrocytes. Aggrecan, the dominant proteoglycan in hyaline cartilage, was more abundantly distributed in the OA chondrocyte extracellular matrix. OA chondrocytes expressed higher mRNA levels also of other hyaline extracellular matrix components. Surprisingly BM-MSC derived chondrocytes expressed higher mRNA levels of OA markers such as COL10A1, SSP1 (osteopontin), ALPL, BMP2, VEGFA, PTGES, IHH, and WNT genes, but lower levels of MMP3 and S100A4. Based on the results presented here, OA chondrocytes may be suitable for tissue engineering of articular cartilage.
Project description:Chondrocyte hypertrophy is a hallmark of osteoarthritis (OA) pathology. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the relationship between the hypertrophy/apoptotic phenotype and OA pathogenesis in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) via gene targeting of distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5). Our primary objectives were (1) to determine whether DLX5 is a predictive biomarker of cellular hypertrophy in human osteoarthritic tissues; (2) To determine whether modulating DLX5 activity can regulate cell hypertrophy in mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells from marrow and cartilage. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed to identify differences in the RNA expression profile between human-cartilage-derived mesenchymal progenitors (C-PCs) and bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitors (BM-MSCs). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was used to compare molecular pathways known to regulate hypertrophic terminal cell differentiation. RT-qPCR was used to measure DLX5 and hypertrophy marker COL10 in healthy human chondrocytes and OA chondrocytes. DLX5 was knocked down or overexpressed in BM-MSCs and C-PCs and RT-qPCR were used to measure the expression of hypertrophy/terminal differentiation markers following DLX5 modulation. Apoptotic cell activity was characterized by immunostaining for cleaved caspase 3/7. We demonstrate that DLX5 and downstream hypertrophy markers were significantly upregulated in BM-MSCs, relative to C-PCs. DLX5 and COL10 were also significantly upregulated in cells from OA knee joint tissues, relative to normal non-arthritic joint tissues. Knocking down DLX5 in BM-MSCs inhibited cell hypertrophy and apoptotic activity without attenuating their chondrogenic potential. Overexpression of DLX5 in C-PCs stimulated hypertrophy markers and increased apoptotic cell activity. Modulating DLX5 activity regulates cell hypertrophy and apoptosis in BM-MSCs and C-PCs. These findings suggest that DLX5 is a biomarker of OA changes in human knee joint tissues and confirms the DLX5 mechanism contributes to hypertrophy and apoptosis in BM-MSCs.
Project description:In patients with osteoarthritis (OA), there is a decrease in both the concentration and molecular size of hyaluronan (HA) in the synovial fluid and cartilage. Cell migration-inducing hyaluronidase 1 (CEMIP), also known as hyaluronan (HA)-binding protein involved in HA depolymerization (HYBID), was recently reported as an HA depolymerization-related molecule expressed in the cartilage of patients with OA. However, the underlying mechanism of CEMIP regulation is not well understood. We found that CEMIP expression was transiently increased by interleukine-1? (IL-1?) stimulation in chondrocytic cells. We also observed that ERK activation and NF-?B nuclear translocation were involved in the induction of CEMIP by IL-1?. In addition, both administration of HA and mechanical strain attenuated the CEMIP induction in IL-1?-stimulated chondrocytes. In conclusion, we clarified the regulatory mechanism of CEMIP in chondrocytes by inflammatory cytokines and suggested the potential involvement in osteoarthritis development.
Project description:This in vitro study investigated the metabolism of human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes encapsulated in a spherical matrix enriched of chitosan. Human OA chondrocytes were encapsulated and cultured for 28 days either in chitosan-alginate beads or in alginate beads. The beads were formed by slowly passing dropwise either the chitosan 0.6%-alginate 1.2% or the alginate 1.2% solution through a syringe into a 102 mM CaCl2 solution. Beads were analyzed histologically after 28 days. Interleukin (IL)-6 and -8, prostaglandin (PG) E2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronan and aggrecan were quantified directly in the culture supernatant by specific ELISA and nitric oxide (NO) by using a colorimetric method based on the Griess reaction. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that chitosan was homogeneously distributed through the matrix and was in direct contact with chondrocytes. The production of IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-3 by chondrocytes significantly decreased in chitosan-alginate beads compared to alginate beads. PGE2 and NO decreased also significantly but only during the first three days of culture. Hyaluronan and aggrecan production tended to increase in chitosan-alginate beads after 28 days of culture. Chitosan-alginate beads reduced the production of inflammatory and catabolic mediators by OA chondrocytes and tended to stimulate the synthesis of cartilage matrix components. These particular effects indicate that chitosan-alginate beads are an interesting scaffold for chondrocytes encapsulation before transplantation to repair cartilage defects.
Project description:The potential of stem cells to repair compromised cartilage tissue, such as in osteoarthritis (OA), depends strongly on how transplanted cells respond to factors secreted from the residing OA chondrocytes. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of morphogenetic signals from OA chondrocytes on chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).The effect of OA chondrocyte-secreted morphogens on chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs was evaluated using a coculture system involving both primary and passaged OA chondrocytes. The findings were compared against findings for human MSCs cultured in OA chondrocyte-conditioned medium. Gene expression analysis, biochemical assays, and immunofluorescence staining were used to characterize the chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs. Mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the soluble factors. Numerical analysis was carried out to model the concentration profile of soluble factors within the human MSC-laden hydrogels.The human MSCs cocultured with primary OA chondrocytes underwent chondrogenic differentiation even in the absence of growth factors; however, the same effect could not be mimicked using OA chondrocyte-conditioned medium or expanded cells. Additionally, the cocultured environment down-regulated hypertrophic differentiation of human MSCs. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated cell-cell communication and chondrocyte phenotype-dependent effects on cell-secreted morphogens.The experimental findings, along with the results of the numerical analysis, suggest a crucial role of soluble morphogens and their local concentrations in the differentiation pattern of human MSCs in a 3-dimensional environment. The concept of using a small number of chondrocytes to promote chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs while preventing their hypertrophic differentiation could be of great importance in formulating effective stem cell-based cartilage repair.
Project description:Cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis (OA) presents an ever-increasing clinical and socioeconomic burden. Synovial inflammation and articular inflammatory environment are the key factor for chondrocytes apoptosis and hypertrophy, ectopic bone formation and OA progression. To effectively treat OA, it is critical to develop a drug that skews inflammation toward a pro-chondrogenic microenvironment. In this narrative and critical review, we aim to see the potential use of immune cells modulation or cell therapy as therapeutic alternatives to OA patients. Macrophages are immune cells that are present in synovial lining, with different roles depending on their subtypes. These cells can polarize to pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes, being the latter associated with wound-healing by the production of ARG-1 and pro-chondrogenic cytokines, such as IL-10, IL-1RA, and TGF-b. Emerging evidence reveals that macrophage shift can be determined by several stimuli, apart from the conventional in vitro IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10. Evidences show the potential of physical exercise to induce type 2 response, favoring M2 polarization. Moreover, macrophages in contact with oxLDL have effect on the production of anabolic mediators as TGF-b. In the same direction, type II collagen, that plays a critical role in development and maturation process of chondrocytes, can also induce M2 macrophages, increasing TGF-b. The mTOR pathway activation in macrophages was shown to be able to polarize macrophages in vitro, though further studies are required. The possibility to use mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cartilage restoration have a more concrete literature, besides, MSCs also have the capability to induce M2 macrophages. In the other direction, M1 polarized macrophages inhibit the proliferation and viability of MSCs and impair their ability to immunosuppress the environment, preventing cartilage repair. Therefore, even though MSCs therapeutic researches advances, other sources of M2 polarization are attractive issues, and further studies will contribute to the possibility to manipulate this polarization and to use it as a therapeutic approach in OA patients.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) exert chondroprotective effects in preclinical models of osteoarthritis (OA). Most of their therapeutic effects are mediated via soluble mediators, which can be conveyed within extracellular vesicles (EVs). The objective of the study was to compare the respective role of exosomes (Exos) or microvesicles/microparticles (MPs) in OA. MPs and Exos were isolated from bone marrow murine BM-MSCs through differential centrifugation. Effect of MPs or Exos was evaluated on OA-like murine chondrocytes and chondroprotection was quantified by RT-qPCR. In OA-like chondrocytes, BM-MSC-derived MPs and Exos could reinduce the expression of chondrocyte markers (type II collagen, aggrecan) while inhibiting catabolic (MMP-13, ADAMTS5) and inflammatory (iNOS) markers. Exos and MPs were also shown to protect chondrocytes from apoptosis and to inhibit macrophage activation. In vivo, Exos or MPs were injected in the collagenase-induced OA (CIOA) model and histomorphometric analyses of joints were performed by µCT and confocal laser microscopy. BM-MSCs, MPs and Exos equally protected mice from joint damage. In conclusion, MPs and Exos exerted similar chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory function in vitro and protected mice from developing OA in vivo, suggesting that either Exos or MPs reproduced the main therapeutic effect of BM-MSCs.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold promise for cartilage engineering. Here, we aimed to determine the best culture conditions to induce chondrogenesis of MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BM) of aged osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We showed that these BM-MSCs proliferate slowly, are not uniformly positive for stem cell markers, and maintain their multilineage potential throughout multiple passages. The chondrogenic lineage of BM-MSCs was induced in collagen scaffolds, under normoxia or hypoxia, by BMP-2 and/or TGF-?1. The best chondrogenic induction, with the least hypertrophic induction, was obtained with the combination of BMP-2 and TGF-?1 under hypoxia. Differentiated BM-MSCs were then transfected with siRNAs targeting two markers overexpressed in OA chondrocytes, type I collagen and/or HtrA1 protease. siRNAs significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of type I collagen and HtrA1, resulting in a more typical chondrocyte phenotype, but with frequent calcification of the subcutaneously implanted constructs in a nude mouse model. Our 3D culture model with BMP-2/TGF-?1 and COL1A1/HtrA1 siRNAs was not effective in producing a cartilage-like matrix in vivo. Further optimization is needed to stabilize the chondrocyte phenotype of differentiated BM-MSCs. Nevertheless, this study offers the opportunity to develop a combinatory cellular therapy strategy for cartilage tissue engineering.
Project description:Introduction. The participation of an inflammatory joint milieu has been described in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play an important role in modulating inflammatory processes. Based on previous studies in an allogeneic T-cell coculture model, we aimed at further determining the role of synovial MSCs in OA pathogenesis. Methods. Bone-marrow (BM) and synovial membrane (SM) MSCs from hip joints of late stage OA patients and CD4+ T-cells from healthy donors were analysed regarding surface marker expression before and after coculture. Proliferation upon CD3/CD28 stimulation and cytokine analyses were compared between MSCs. Results. SM-MSCs differed from BM-MSCs in several surface markers and their osteogenic differentiation potential. Cocultures of both MSCs with CD4+ T-cells resulted in recruitment of CD45RA+ FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells. Upon stimulation, only SM-MSCs suppressed CD4+ T-cell proliferation, while both SM-MSCs and BM-MSCs modified cytokine profiles through suppressing IL-2 and TNF-? as well as increasing IL-6 secretion. Conclusions. Synovial MSCs from OA joints are a unique fraction that can be distinguished from their bone-marrow derived counterparts. Their unique ability to suppress CD3/CD28 induced CD4+ T-cell proliferation makes them a potential target for future therapeutic approaches.