Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.
ABSTRACT: Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Estradiol is a steroid hormone that not only plays an important role in ovarian follicular development but also is associated with many reproductive disorders. Owing to the importance of aromatase in the production of estradiol, the regulation of aromatase gene expression at the transcriptional level has been an extensive area of study for over two decades. However, its regulation at the posttranscriptional level has remained unclear. Here, we show that micro-RNA378 (miR-378) is spatiotemporally expressed in porcine granulosa cells, the cells that generate estradiol in the ovary during follicular development, in an inverse manner compared with the expression of aromatase. In vitro overexpression and inhibition experiments revealed that aromatase expression, and therefore estradiol production, by granulosa cells, is posttranscriptionally down-regulated by miR-378. Furthermore, site-directed mutation studies identified two binding sites in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the aromatase coding sequence that are critical for the action of miR-378. Interestingly, overexpression of the aromatase 3'-UTR enhanced aromatase expression at the protein level in granulosa cells, possibly mediated by the binding of miR-378 within this region, thereby reducing the binding of this micro-RNA to the endogenous aromatase 3'-UTR.
Project description:Background:Evaluation of the action of various traditional plants to treat metabolic syndrome are strongly studied. In our study, we investigated the effect of the Tunisian jojoba seed on a metabolic syndrome induced in rat by the High Fat diet and High Fructose (HFHF) and its renal and hepatic complications. Methods:The rats were fed with HFHF or Normal Diet (ND) for a period of 8?weeks. After that, a switch from HFHF to ND or Normal Diet Jojoba (NDJ),(jojoba diet approach) or High Fat and High Fructose and Jojoba diet (HFHFJ) (nutraceutical approach) has been done. Metabolic disorder was evaluated by measuring the fasting body weight, glycemia and C-peptide and leptin. Oxidative stress parameters like ThioBarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAOC) were analyzed in the plasma and renal and hepatic function were determined by the measure of creatinine and alanine transferase (ALT) respectively. Histological analysis was performed on the liver, kidney and pancreas. Results:HFHF diet exhibited characteristics of metabolic syndrome presented by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, fat mass with hepatic steatosis and renal disorder. HFHF diet was associated with oxidative stress (OS) presented by an increase in TBARS and a decrease in TAOC. Adding jojoba seeds to HFHF rat group diet induced a decrease in body weight, fat mass (58 and 41%), insulin resistance (59 and 56%), oxidative stress (60 and 41%), liver steatosis (from a score?=?3 to a score?=?0) and renal complications (25 and 42%). This effect was emphasized with diet approach. Conclusion:The results demonstrated the beneficial effect of jojoba against metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress, suggesting that jojoba could be used in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. Graphical abstract:
Project description:Context:Inadequate progesterone production from the corpus luteum is associated with pregnancy loss. Data available in model species suggest important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in luteal development and maintenance. Objective:To comprehensively investigate the involvement of miRNAs during the ovarian follicle-luteal transition. Design:The effects of specific miRNAs on survival and steroid production by human luteinized granulosa cells (hLGCs) were tested using specific miRNA inhibitors. Candidate miRNAs were identified through microarray analyses of follicular and luteal tissues in a bovine model. Setting:An academic institution in the United Kingdom associated with a teaching hospital. hLGCs were obtained by standard transvaginal follicular-fluid aspiration from 35 women undergoing assisted conception. Intervention(s):Inhibition of candidate miRNAs in vitro. Main outcome measure(s):Levels of miRNAs, mRNAs, FOXO1 protein, apoptosis, and steroids were measured in tissues and/or cultured cells. Results:Two specific miRNA clusters, miR-183-96-182 and miR-212-132, were dramatically increased in luteal relative to follicular tissues. miR-96 and miR-132 were the most upregulated miRNAs within each cluster. Database analyses identified FOXO1 as a putative target of both these miRNAs. In cultured hLGCs, inhibition of miR-96 increased apoptosis and FOXO1 protein levels, and decreased progesterone production. These effects were prevented by small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of FOXO1. In bovine luteal cells, miR-96 inhibition also led to increases in apoptosis and FOXO1 protein levels. Conclusions:miR-96 targets FOXO1 to regulate luteal development through effects on cell survival and steroid production. The miR-183-96-182 cluster could provide a novel target for the manipulation of luteal function.
Project description:In a previous microarray study, we identified a subset of micro RNAS (miRNAs), which expression was distinctly higher in atretic than healthy follicles of cattle. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of those miRNAs in granulosa and theca cells during atresia. Reverse Transcription-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) confirmed that miR-21-5p/-3p, miR-150, miR-409a, miR-142-5p, miR-378, miR-222, miR-155, and miR-199a-5p were expressed at higher levels in atretic than healthy follicles (9-17 mm, classified based on steroidogenic capacity). All miRNAs except miR-21-3p and miR-378 were expressed at higher levels in theca than granulosa cells. The expression of 13 predicted miRNA targets was determined in follicular cells by RT-qPCR, revealing downregulation of HIF1A, ETS1, JAG1, VEGFA, and MSH2 in either or both cell types during atresia. Based on increases in miRNA levels simultaneous with decreases in target levels in follicular cells, several predicted miRNA target interactions were confirmed that are putatively involved in follicular atresia, namely miR-199a-5p/miR-155-HIF1A in granulosa cells, miR-155/miR-222-ETS1 in theca cells, miR-199a-5p-JAG1 in theca cells, miR-199a-5p/miR-150/miR-378-VEGFA in granulosa and theca cells, and miR-155-MSH2 in theca cells. These results offer novel insight on the involvement of miRNAs in follicle development by identifying a miRNA target network that is putatively involved in follicle atresia.
Project description:Intraovarian hyperandrogenism is one of the determining factors of follicular arrest in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Using androgenized rat models, we investigated the effects of androgens on metabolism, as well as on factors involved in follicular arrest and the reduced number of estrus cycles. The dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats had fewer estrus cycles, higher numbers of large arrested follicles and an increased in body weight gain compared with the dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA)- and placebo-treated rats. In cultured rat granulosa cells, DHT suppressed follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced granulosa cell proliferation and increased the accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase. DHT decreased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and cyclin D1 levels through increasing PTEN. DHT-promoted PTEN expression was regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) in granulosa cells. Meanwhile, in the large follicles of the DHT-treated rats, the expressions of PPAR? and PTEN were higher, but the expression of p-Akt and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were lower. Conclusively, DHT and DHEA produced differential effects on metabolism in prepubertal female rats like clinical manifestations of women with PCOS. DHT treatment may affect ovarian follicular maturation by altering granulosa cell proliferation through the regulation of enhancing PPAR? dependent PTEN/p-Akt expression in the granulosa cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ovarian follicle growth and maturation requires extensive communication between follicular somatic cells and oocytes. Recently, intercellular cell communication was described involving cell-secreted vesicles called exosomes (50-150 nm), which contain miRNAs and protein, and have been identified in ovarian follicular fluid. The goal of this study was to identify a possible role of exosomes in follicle maturation. METHODS: Follicle contents were collected from mares at mid-estrous (~35 mm, before induction of follicular maturation) and pre-ovulatory follicles (30-34 h after induction of follicular maturation). A real time PCR screen was conducted to reveal significant differences in the presence of exosomal miRNAs isolated from mid-estrous and pre-ovulatory follicles, and according to bioinformatics analysis these exosomal miRNAs are predicted to target members belonging to the TGFB superfamily, including ACVR1 and ID2. Granulosa cells from pre-ovulatory follicles were cultured and treated with exosomes isolated from follicular fluid. Changes in mRNA and protein were measured by real time PCR and Western blot. RESULTS: ACVR1 mRNA and protein was detected in granulosa cells at mid-estrous and pre-ovulatory stages, and real time PCR analysis revealed significantly lower levels of ID2 (an ACVR1 target gene) in granulosa cells from pre-ovulatory follicles. Exposure to exosomes from follicular fluid of mid-estrous follicles decreased ID2 levels in granulosa cells. Moreover, exosomes isolated from mid-estrous and pre-ovulatory follicles contain ACVR1 and miR-27b, miR-372, and miR-382 (predicted regulators of ACVR1 and ID2) were capable of altering ID2 levels in pre-ovulatory granulosa cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that exosomes isolated from follicular fluid can regulate members of the TGFB/BMP signaling pathway in granulosa cells, and possibly play a role in regulating follicle maturation.
Project description:Identification of reliable characteristics of follicle quality and developmental competence has been pursued in numerous studies, but with inconsistent outcomes. Here, we aimed to identify these characteristics by analysis of the follicular fluid (FF) steroid profile in relation to cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) morphology and follicle size, followed by molecular substantiation. Multiparous sows at weaning were used to facilitate analysis at the start of the follicular phase of the oestrus cycle. Sows with a higher average follicle size (?5 mm vs. <?5 mm) had a higher follicular fluid ?-estradiol concentration, but did not differ in other measured steroids. Sows with high compared to low percentage high-quality COCs (<70% vs. ?70% high-quality) had follicular fluid with a higher concentration of ?-estradiol, 19-norandrostenedione, progesterone, and ?-testosterone, while the concentration of cortisol was lower. Transcriptome analysis of granulosa cells of healthy follicles of sows with a high percentage high-quality COCs showed higher abundance of transcripts involved in ovarian steroidogenesis (e.g., CYP19A2 and 3, POR, VEGFA) and growth (IGF1) and differential abundance of transcripts involved in granulosa cell apoptosis (e.g., GADD45A, INHBB). Differences in aromatase transcript abundance (CYP19A1, 2 and 3) were confirmed at the protein level. In addition, sows with a high percentage high-quality COCs lost less weight during lactation and had higher plasma IGF1 concentration at weaning, which may have affected COC quality. To the best of our knowledge, this study is also the first to report the relation between FF steroid profile and COC quality.
Project description:Follicular atresia is an inevitable degenerative process that occurs in mammalian ovarian follicles. The molecular events involved in atresia, particularly granulosa cell apoptosis, have long attracted researchers' attention. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is downregulated during follicular atresia in porcine ovaries and serves as an inhibitor of apoptosis in granulosa cells. In addition, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?signaling has been considered a central trigger in granulosa cell apoptosis. However, the link between TGF-? signaling and VEGFA is unknown. We proved that miR-361-5p is significantly upregulated during the atresia process and that it promotes GC apoptosis by directly targeting the VEGFA 3'UTR. In addition, we revealed that the miR-361-5p coding gene MIR361 was significantly downregulated by SMAD4, the central intracellular mediator of TGF-? signaling, that bound to the MIR361 promoter. In conclusion, our findings expanded what is known about VEGFA posttranscriptional regulation and revealed a complete SMAD4/miR-361-5p/VEGFA regulatory network in ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis. These data provide useful references for follicular atresia and ovarian physiological function studies.
Project description:BNIP3 (BCL2/adenovirus E1B nineteen kilodalton interacting protein-3), a member of the BCL2 family, is activated under hypoxic conditions and induces apoptosis or mitochondrial autophagy for adapting cells to hypoxia. The physiological roles of BNIP3 in the mammalian ovary are still unclear. In order to understand the role of BNIP3 in the bovine ovary, we examined its mRNA and protein expressions of BNIP3 in follicular granulosa cells and corpus luteum (CL). BNIP3 mRNA and protein expressions in granulosa cells from large follicles (>10 mm) at the follicular stage were much higher than those in small follicles (2-8 mm). BNIP3 mRNA and protein expressions in the CL peaked at the early luteal stage. In bovine granulosa cells cultured for 6 hr under hypoxia (3% O2) and normoxia (20% O2), BNIP3 mRNA expression was higher under hypoxia. These results of the present study suggest that BNIP3 has some roles in luteal formation in the bovine ovary, and that the highly expressed BNIP3 in the granulosa cells from large follicles at the follicular stage is related to the roles of BNIP3 in the luteal formation.
Project description:Picralima nitida is a therapeutic herb used in ethnomedicine for the management of several disease conditions including diabetes. This study examined the potential palliative effect of aqueous seed extract of Picralima nitida (APN) on dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and the expression of some metabolic genes in high-fat high-fructose-fed rats. Experimental rats (2 months old) were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet with 25% fructose (HFHF diet) in their drinking water for nine weeks. APN was administered orally during the last four weeks. Anthropometric and antioxidant parameters, lipid profile, plasma glucose, and insulin levels and the relative expression of some metabolic genes were assessed. APN caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in weight gained, body mass index, insulin resistance, plasma glucose, and insulin levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was significantly increased (P < 0.05), while triacylglycerol, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, cardiac index, atherogenic index, coronary artery index, and malondialdehyde levels in plasma and liver samples were also significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by APN at all experimental doses when compared to the group fed with an HFHF diet only. APN also significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated the relative expression of glucokinase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), and leptin at 400?mg/kg body weight when compared to the group fed with an HFHF diet only. This study showed that APN alleviated dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidant effect associated with the intake of a high-fat high-fructose diet.