Right ventricular function in preterm and term neonates: reference values for right ventricle areas and fractional area of change.
ABSTRACT: Right ventricular (RV) fractional area of change (FAC) is a quantitative two-dimensional echocardiographic measurement of RV function. RV FAC expresses the percentage change in the RV chamber area between end-diastole (RV end-diastolic area [RVEDA]) to end-systole (RV end-systolic area [RVESA]). The objectives of this study were to determine the maturational (age- and weight-related) changes in RV FAC and RV areas and to establish reference values in healthy preterm and term neonates.A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in 115 preterm infants (23-28 weeks' gestational age at birth, 500-1,500 g). RV FAC was measured at 24 hours of age, 72 hours of age, and 32 and 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). The maturational patterns of RVEDA, RVESA, and RV FAC were compared with those in 60 healthy full-term infants in a cross-sectional study (?37 weeks, 3.5 ± 1 kg), who underwent echocardiography at birth (n = 25) and 1 month of age (n = 35). RVEDA and RVESA were traced in the RV-focused apical four-chamber view, and FAC was calculated using the formula 100 × [(RVEDA - RVESA)/RVEDA)]. Premature infants who developed chronic lung disease or had clinically and hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus were excluded (n = 55) from the reference values. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility analysis was performed.RV FAC ranged from 26% at birth to 35% by 36 weeks' PMA in preterm infants (n = 60) and increased almost 2 times faster in the first month of age compared with healthy term infants (n = 60). Similarly, RVEDA and RVESA increased throughout maturation in both term and preterm infants. RV FAC and RV areas were correlated with weight (r = 0.81, P < .001) but were independent of gestational age at birth (r = 0.3, P = .45). RVEDA and RVESA were correlated with PMA in weeks (r = 0.81, P < .001). RV FAC trended lower in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P = .04) but was not correlated with size of patent ductus arteriosus (P = .56). There was no difference in RV FAC based on gender or need for mechanical ventilation.This study establishes reference values of RV areas (RVEDA and RVESA) and RV FAC in healthy term and preterm infants and tracks their maturational changes during postnatal development. These measures increase from birth to 36 weeks' PMA, and this is reflective of the postnatal cardiac growth as a contributor to the maturation of cardiac function These measures are also linearly associated with increasing weight throughout maturation. This study suggests that two-dimensional RV FAC can be used as a complementary modality to assess global RV systolic function in neonates and facilitates its incorporation into clinical pediatric and neonatal guidelines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine the maturational changes in systolic ventricular strain mechanics by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in extremely preterm neonates from birth to 1 year of age and discern the impact of common cardiopulmonary abnormalities on the deformation measures. METHODS:In a prospective multicenter study of 239 extremely preterm infants (<29 weeks gestation at birth), left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global longitudinal systolic strain rate (GLSRs), interventricular septal wall (IVS) GLS and GLSRs, right ventricular (RV) free wall longitudinal strain and strain rate, and segmental longitudinal strain in the RV free wall, LV free wall, and IVS were serially measured on days 1, 2, and 5 to 7, at 32 and 36 weeks postmenstrual age, and at 1 year corrected age (CA). Premature infants who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia or had echocardiographic findings of pulmonary hypertension were analyzed separately. RESULTS:In uncomplicated preterm infants (n = 103 [48%]), LV GLS and GLSRs remained unchanged from days 5 to 7 to 1 year CA (P = .60 and P = .59). RV free wall longitudinal strain, RV free wall longitudinal strain rate, and IVS GLS and GLSRs significantly increased over the same time period (P < .01 for all measures). A significant base-to-apex (highest to lowest) segmental longitudinal strain gradient (P < .01) was seen in the RV free wall and a reverse apex-to-base gradient (P < .01) in the LV free wall. In infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or pulmonary hypertension (n = 119 [51%]), RV free wall longitudinal strain and IVS GLS were significantly lower (P < .01), LV GLS and GLSRs were similar (P = .56), and IVS segmental longitudinal strain persisted as an RV-dominant base-to-apex gradient from 32 weeks postmenstrual age to 1 year CA. CONCLUSIONS:This study tracks the maturational patterns of global and regional deformation by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in extremely preterm infants from birth to 1 year CA. The maturational patterns are ventricular specific. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension leave a negative impact on RV and IVS strain, while LV strain remains stable.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics is critical in the diagnosis and management of cardiopulmonary disease of premature infants, but reliable noninvasive indices of pulmonary hemodynamics in preterm infants are lacking. Because pulmonary artery acceleration time (PAAT) is a validated noninvasive method to assess right ventricular (RV) afterload in infants and children, the aim of this study was to investigate the maturational changes of PAAT measures in preterm infants over the first year of age and to discern the impact of typical cardiopulmonary abnormalities on these measures. METHODS:In a prospective multicenter study of 239 preterm infants (<29 weeks at birth), PAAT was assessed at days 1, 2, and 5 to 7, at 32 and 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, and at 1-year corrected age. To account for heart rate variability, PAAT was adjusted for RV ejection time. Premature infants who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia or had echocardiographic findings of pulmonary hypertension were analyzed separately. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility analysis was performed. RESULTS:PAAT was feasible in 95% of the image acquisitions, and there was high intra- and interobserver agreement (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.9 and coefficients of variation < 6%). In uncomplicated preterm infants (n = 103 [48%]) PAAT and PAAT adjusted for RV ejection time increased longitudinally from birth to 1-year corrected age (P < .001) and were linearly associated with gestational age at birth (r = 0.81 and r = 0.82, P < .001) and increasing postnatal weight and postnatal age (r > 0.81, P < .001). PAAT measures were significantly reduced (P < .001) in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or pulmonary hypertension (n = 119 [51%]) beyond 1 week of age. CONCLUSIONS:PAAT measures increase in preterm infants from birth to 1-year corrected age, reflective of the physiologic postnatal drop in RV afterload. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension have a negative impact on PAAT measures. By demonstrating excellent reliability and establishing reference patterns of PAAT in preterm infants, this study suggests that PAAT and PAAT adjusted for RV ejection time can be used as complementary parameters to assess physiologic and pathologic changes in pulmonary hemodynamics in neonates.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Furosemide renal clearance is slow after very preterm (VP) birth and increases with postnatal maturation. We compared furosemide dose frequency and total daily dose between postmenstrual age (PMA) groups in VP infants.<h4>Study design</h4>Observational cohort study of VP infants exposed to a repeated-dose course of furosemide in Pediatrix neonatal intensive care units (NICU) from 1997 to 2016.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 6565 furosemide courses among 4638 infants. There were no statistically significant differences between PMA groups on the odds of receiving more frequent furosemide dosing. Furosemide courses initiated at <28 weeks PMA were associated with a higher total daily dose than those initiated at a later PMA.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Furosemide dosing practices in the NICU are similar across PMA groups, despite maturational changes in drug disposition. Research is needed to identify and test rational dosing strategies across the PMA spectrum for this commonly used but unproven pharmacotherapy.
Project description:Minimally invasive, automated cot-side tools for monitoring early neurological development can be used to guide individual treatment and benchmark novel interventional studies. We develop an automated estimate of the EEG maturational age (EMA) for application to serial recordings in preterm infants. The EMA estimate was based on a combination of 23 computational features estimated from both the full EEG recording and a period of low EEG activity (46 features in total). The combination function (support vector regression) was trained using 101 serial EEG recordings from 39 preterm infants with a gestational age less than 28 weeks and normal neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months of age. EEG recordings were performed from 24 to 38 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA). The correlation between the EMA and the clinically determined PMA at the time of EEG recording was 0.936 (95%CI: 0.932-0.976; n?=?39). All infants had an increase in EMA between the first and last EEG recording and 57/62 (92%) of repeated measures within an infant had an increasing EMA with PMA of EEG recording. The EMA is a surrogate measure of age that can accurately determine brain maturation in preterm infants.
Project description:There remains controversy regarding whether the growth charts constructed from data of term infants, such as those produced by the World Health Organization (WHO) standards, can appropriately evaluate the postnatal growth of preterm infants. This retrospective cohort study, conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University in Jinan China, aimed to compare the postnatal growth charts of singleton preterm and term infants using WHO standards at 40-160 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). A total of 5,459 and 15,185 sets of longitudinal measurements [length/height, weight, head circumference (HC), and body mass index (BMI)] from birth to 160 weeks PMA were used to construct growth charts for 559 singleton preterm (mean PMA at birth, 33.84 weeks) and 1,596 singleton term infants (born at 40 weeks PMA), respectively, using the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS) method. Z-scores (prematurity corrected) were calculated using WHO Anthro software. Compared to WHO standards, all parameters of preterm infants were increased, especially in terms of length/height and weight; the gap between the two almost spanned two adjacent centile curves. Compared to term controls, the length/height, weight, and BMI of preterm infants were higher at 40 weeks PMA, surpassed by term infants at 52-64 weeks PMA, and quite consistent thereafter. The HC of preterm infants at 40-160 weeks PMA was quite consistent with both term controls and the WHO standards. The Z-scores for length/height, weight, and BMI of preterm infants relative to the WHO standards gradually decreased from 1.20, 1.13, and 0.74 at 40-44 weeks PMA to 0.67, 0.42, and 0.03 at 132-160 weeks PMA, respectively; Z-scores for HC of preterm infants rapidly decreased from 0.73 to 0.29 at 40-50 weeks PMA, and then fluctuated in the range of 0.08-0.23 at 50-160 weeks PMA. Preterm infants had higher growth trajectories than the WHO standards and similar but not identical trajectories to term infants during the first 2 years of life. These findings reemphasize the necessity of constructing local growth charts for Chinese singleton preterm infants.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To test whether infants randomized to a lower oxygen saturation (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation [SpO2]) target range while on supplemental oxygen from birth will have better growth velocity from birth to 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) and less growth failure at 36 weeks PMA and 18-22 months corrected age. STUDY DESIGN:We evaluated a subgroup of 810 preterm infants from the Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial, randomized at birth to lower (85%-89%, n = 402, PMA 26 ± 1 weeks, birth weight 839 ± 186 g) or higher (91%-95%, n = 408, PMA 26 ± 1 weeks, birth weight 840 ± 191 g) SpO2 target ranges. Anthropometric measures were obtained at birth, postnatal days 7, 14, 21, and 28; then at 32 and 36 weeks PMA; and 18-22 months corrected age. Growth velocities were estimated with the exponential method and analyzed with linear mixed models. Poor growth outcome, defined as weight <10th percentile at 36 weeks PMA and 18-22 months corrected age, was compared across the 2 treatment groups by the use of robust Poisson regression. RESULTS:Growth outcomes including growth at 36 weeks PMA and 18-22 months corrected age, as well as growth velocity were similar in the lower and higher SpO2 target groups. CONCLUSION:Targeting different oxygen saturation ranges between 85% and 95% from birth did not impact growth velocity or reduce growth failure in preterm infants.
Project description:Analyzing heart rate variability (HRV) in preterm infants can help track maturational changes and subclinical signatures of disease. We conducted an observational study to characterize the effect of demographic and cardiorespiratory factors on three features of HRV using a linear mixed-effects model. HRV-features were tailored to capture the unique physiology of preterm infants, including the contribution of transient pathophysiological heart rate (HR) decelerations. Infants were analyzed during stable periods in the incubator and subsequent sessions of Kangaroo care (KC) - an intervention that increases comfort. In total, 957 periods in the incubator and during KC were analyzed from 66 preterm infants. Our primary finding was that gestational age (GA) and postmenstrual age (PMA) have the largest influence on HRV while the HR and breathing rate have a considerably smaller effect. Birth weight and gender do not affect HRV. We identified that with increasing GA and PMA, overall HRV decreased and increased respectively. Potentially these differences can be attributed to distinct trajectories of intra- and extrauterine development. With increasing GA, the propensity towards severe HR decelerations decreases, thereby reducing overall variability, while with increasing PMA, the ratio of decelerations and accelerations approaches unity, increasing overall HRV.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Children with a history of prematurity often have poorly developed foveae but when during development foveal differences arise. We hypothesize that the course of foveal development is altered from the time of preterm birth.<h4>Methods</h4>Eyes of 102 preterm infants undergoing retinopathy of prematurity screening examinations in the STudy of Eye imaging in Premature infantS (BabySTEPS) (NCT02887157) were serially imaged between 30 and 42 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) using handheld optical coherence tomography systems. Total retinal thickness, inner retinal layer (IRL) thickness, and outer retinal layer (ORL) thickness were measured at the foveal center and parafovea. Foveal put depth, IRL thickness, and ORL thickness were compared between infants born at different gestational ages using mixed effects models.<h4>Results</h4>Foveal pit depth and IRL thickness were inversely related to gestational age; on average, the most premature infants had the thickest IRL and shallowest pits at all PMAs. Differences were evident by 30 weeks PMA and persisted through 42 weeks PMA. The foveal pits of the most premature infants did not progressively deepen, and the IRLs did not continue to thin with increasing chronological age.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Foveation in extremely preterm infants is arrested from the earliest observed ages and fails to progress through term equivalent age. The developmental displacement of the IRL from the foveal center into the parafovea does not occur normally after preterm birth. These observations suggest that foveal hypoplasia seen in children with history of prematurity is due to disturbances in foveal development that manifest within weeks of birth.
Project description:In preterm birth, the immature retina can develop a potentially blinding disorder of the eye known as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The vaso-proliferative phase of ROP begins at an approximate postmenstrual age (PMA) of 32 weeks. There is little or no evidence of an association between ROP development and retinal status in the early vaso-proliferative phase. We aimed to evaluate the retinal vascular findings of infants at 33-34 weeks PMA to determine their risk of ROP. We reviewed 130 serial wide-field retinal images from 65 preterm infants born before the gestational age of 31 weeks. ROP occurred more frequently in infants having a leading vascular edge within posterior Zone II. This was in contrast to normal infants, who are characterized by complete retinal vascularization up to Zone II at 34 weeks PMA. The probability of ROP development in preterm infants with retinal edge hemorrhage was 24.58 times higher than in preterm infants without retinal edge hemorrhage. Eyes with ROP that required treatment showed significantly delayed retinal vascularization accompanied by pre-plus disease. In conclusion, retinal status in the early vaso-proliferation phase might determine the risk of ROP.
Project description:Being born preterm (PT, <37 weeks gestation) or at very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) is associated with increased rates of cardiopulmonary disorders in childhood. As survivors age, late cardiac effects, including right ventricular (RV) remodelling and occult pulmonary hypertension are emerging. In this population-based study, we aimed to investigate right heart structure and function in young adults born PT at VLBW compared to normal-weight term-born controls. The New Zealand VLBW Study has followed all infants born in 1986 with birth weight <1500 g. All were born preterm from 24 to 37 weeks. A total of 229 (71% of survivors) had echocardiograms aged 26-30 years which were compared to age-matched, term-born, normal-weight controls (<i>n</i> = 100). Young adults born preterm at very low birth weight exhibited smaller RV dimensions compared to term-born peers. Standard echocardiographic measures of RV function did not differ, but mildly reduced function was detected by RV longitudinal strain. This difference was related to birth weight and gestational age but not lung function or left ventricular function. Echocardiographic strain imaging may be an important tool to detect differences in RV function preterm and VLBW.