Genetic deletion of the GATA1-regulated protein ?-synuclein reduces oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthase levels in mature erythrocytes.
ABSTRACT: ?-Synuclein is highly expressed in neural tissue and during erythropoiesis, where the key erythroid regulator GATA1 has been found to modulate its expression. While specific ?-synuclein (SNCA) mutations are known to cause autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease, its wild-type function remains under debate. To investigate the role of ?-synuclein in murine hematopoiesis and erythropoiesis, we utilized Snca knock-out mice and analyzed erythroid compartments for maturation defects, in vivo erythrocyte survival, and erythrocyte-based reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) levels. Our findings show that while bone marrow and spleen erythropoiesis and peripheral blood erythrocyte survival in Snca(-/-) mice was comparable to controls, the levels of ROS and of NOS-2 were significantly decreased in mature erythrocytes in these animals. These results indicate a role for ?-synuclein in regulating oxidative stress in erythrocytes in vivo and could open new avenues for the investigation of its function in non-neural tissue.
Project description:Cyclin A2 is an essential gene for development and in haematopoietic stem cells and therefore its functions in definitive erythropoiesis have not been investigated. We have ablated cyclin A2 in committed erythroid progenitors in vivo using erythropoietin receptor promoter-driven Cre, which revealed its critical role in regulating erythrocyte morphology and numbers. Erythroid-specific cyclin A2 knockout mice are viable but displayed increased mean erythrocyte volume and reduced erythrocyte counts, as well as increased frequency of erythrocytes containing Howell-Jolly bodies. Erythroblasts lacking cyclin A2 displayed defective enucleation, resulting in reduced production of enucleated erythrocytes and increased frequencies of erythrocytes containing nuclear remnants. Deletion of the Cdk inhibitor p27Kip1 but not Cdk2, ameliorated the erythroid defects resulting from deficiency of cyclin A2, confirming the critical role of cyclin A2/Cdk activity in erythroid development. Loss of cyclin A2 in bone marrow cells in semisolid culture prevented the formation of BFU-E but not CFU-E colonies, uncovering its essential role in BFU-E function. Our data unveils the critical functions of cyclin A2 in regulating mammalian erythropoiesis.
Project description:Human erythrocytes are terminally differentiated, anucleate cells long thought to lack RNAs. However, previous studies have shown the persistence of many small-sized RNAs in erythrocytes. To comprehensively define the erythrocyte transcriptome, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify both short (18-24 nt) and long (>200 nt) RNAs in mature erythrocytes.Analysis of the short RNA transcriptome with miRDeep identified 287 known and 72 putative novel microRNAs. Unexpectedly, we also uncover an extensive repertoire of long erythrocyte RNAs that encode many proteins critical for erythrocyte differentiation and function. Additionally, the erythrocyte long RNA transcriptome is significantly enriched in the erythroid progenitor transcriptome. Joint analysis of both short and long RNAs identified several loci with co-expression of both microRNAs and long RNAs spanning microRNA precursor regions. Within the miR-144/451 locus previously implicated in erythroid development, we observed unique co-expression of several primate-specific noncoding RNAs, including a lncRNA, and miR-4732-5p/-3p. We show that miR-4732-3p targets both SMAD2 and SMAD4, two critical components of the TGF-? pathway implicated in erythropoiesis. Furthermore, miR-4732-3p represses SMAD2/4-dependent TGF-? signaling, thereby promoting cell proliferation during erythroid differentiation.Our study presents the most extensive profiling of erythrocyte RNAs to date, and describes primate-specific interactions between the key modulator miR-4732-3p and TGF-? signaling during human erythropoiesis.
Project description:GATA1 is a master transcriptional regulator of the differentiation of several related myeloid blood cell types, including erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. Germ-line mutations that cause loss of full length GATA1, but allow for expression of the short isoform (GATA1s), are associated with defective erythropoiesis in a subset of patients with Diamond Blackfan Anemia. Despite extensive studies of GATA1s in megakaryopoiesis, the mechanism by which GATA1s fails to support normal erythropoiesis is not understood. In this study, we used global gene expression and chromatin occupancy analysis to compare the transcriptional activity of GATA1s to GATA1. We discovered that compared to GATA1, GATA1s is less able to activate the erythroid gene expression program and terminal differentiation in cells with dual erythroid-megakaryocytic differentiation potential. Moreover, we found that GATA1s bound to many of its erythroid-specific target genes less efficiently than full length GATA1. These results suggest that the impaired ability of GATA1s to promote erythropoiesis in DBA may be caused by failure to occupy erythroid-specific gene regulatory elements.
Project description:ASXL1 mutations are found in a spectrum of myeloid malignancies with poor prognosis. Recently, we reported that Asxl1(+/-) mice develop myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or MDS and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) overlapping diseases (MDS/MPN). Although defective erythroid maturation and anemia are associated with the prognosis of patients with MDS or MDS/MPN, the role of ASXL1 in erythropoiesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) patients with ASXL1 mutations exhibited more severe anemia with a significantly increased proportion of bone marrow (BM) early stage erythroblasts and reduced enucleated erythrocytes compared to CMML patients with WT ASXL1. Knockdown of ASXL1 in cord blood CD34(+) cells reduced erythropoiesis and impaired erythrocyte enucleation. Consistently, the BM and spleens of VavCre(+);Asxl1(f/f) (Asxl1(?/?)) mice had less numbers of erythroid progenitors than Asxl1(f/f) controls. Asxl1(?/?) mice also had an increased percentage of erythroblasts and a reduced erythrocyte enucleation in their BM compared to littermate controls. Furthermore, Asxl1(?/?) erythroblasts revealed altered expression of genes involved in erythroid development and homeostasis, which was associated with lower levels of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3. Our study unveils a key role for ASXL1 in erythropoiesis and indicates that ASXL1 loss hinders erythroid development/maturation, which could be of prognostic value for MDS/MPN patients.
Project description:During erythropoiesis, haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) differentiate in successive steps of commitment and specification to mature erythrocytes. This differentiation process is controlled by transcription factors that establish stage- and cell type-specific gene expression. In this study, we demonstrate that FUSE binding protein 1 (FUBP1), a transcriptional regulator important for HSC self-renewal and survival, is regulated by T-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia 1 (TAL1) in erythroid progenitor cells. TAL1 directly activates the FUBP1 promoter, leading to increased FUBP1 expression during erythroid differentiation. The binding of TAL1 to the FUBP1 promoter is highly dependent on an intact GATA sequence in a combined E-box/GATA motif. We found that FUBP1 expression is required for efficient erythropoiesis, as FUBP1-deficient progenitor cells were limited in their potential of erythroid differentiation. Thus, the finding of an interconnection between GATA1/TAL1 and FUBP1 reveals a molecular mechanism that is part of the switch from progenitor- to erythrocyte-specific gene expression. In summary, we identified a TAL1/FUBP1 transcriptional relationship, whose physiological function in haematopoiesis is connected to proper erythropoiesis.
Project description:Bone marrow medullary erythropoiesis is primarily homeostatic. It produces new erythrocytes at a constant rate, which is balanced by the turnover of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages in the spleen. Despite the enormous capacity of the bone marrow to produce erythrocytes, there are times when it is unable to keep pace with erythroid demand. At these times stress erythropoiesis predominates. Stress erythropoiesis generates a large bolus of new erythrocytes to maintain homeostasis until steady state erythropoiesis can resume. In this review, we outline the mechanistic differences between stress erythropoiesis and steady state erythropoiesis and show that their responses to inflammation are complementary. We propose a new hypothesis that stress erythropoiesis is induced by inflammation and plays a key role in maintaining erythroid homeostasis during inflammatory responses.
Project description:During definitive erythropoiesis, erythroid precursors undergo differentiation through multiple nucleated states to an enucleated reticulocyte, which loses its residual RNA/organelles to become a mature erythrocyte. Over the course of these transformations, continuous changes in membrane proteins occur, including shifts in protein abundance, rates of expression, isoform prominence, states of phosphorylation, and stability. In an effort to understand when assembly of membrane proteins into an architecture characteristic of the mature erythrocyte occurs, we quantitated the lateral diffusion of the most abundant membrane protein, band 3 (AE1), during each stage of erythropoiesis using single particle tracking. Analysis of the lateral trajectories of individual band 3 molecules revealed a gradual reduction in mobility of the anion transporter as erythroblasts differentiated. Evidence for this progressive immobilization included a gradual decline in diffusion coefficients as determined at a video acquisition rate of 120 frames/s and a decrease in the percentage of compartment sizes >100 nm. Because complete acquisition of the properties of band 3 seen in mature erythrocytes is not observed until circulating erythrocytes are formed, we suggest that membrane maturation involves a gradual and cooperative assembly process that is not triggered by the synthesis of any single protein.
Project description:The simultaneous increases in blood lactic acid and erythrocytes after intense exercise could suggest a link between lactate and the erythropoiesis. However, the effects of lactic acid on erythropoiesis remain to be elucidated. Here, we utilized a mouse model to determine the role of lactic acid in this process in parallel with studies using leukaemic K562 cells. Treatment of K562 cells in vitro with lactic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression of haemoglobin genes and the frequency of GPA+ cells. Also, increases in haematocrit and CD71-/Ter119+ erythroid cells were observed in lactic acid-treated mice, which showed a physiological increase in blood lactate. Mouse bone marrow CD34+/CD117- cells showed an increase in erythroid burst-forming units after stimulation with lactic acid in vitro. Furthermore, lactic acid increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in bone marrow and in K562 cells. Erythroid differentiation induced in Haematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) and K562 cells by lactic acid was abolished by reducing ROS levels with SOD or 2-mercaptoethanol, which suggests that ROS is a critical regulator of this process. These findings provide a better understanding of the role of lactic acid in cellular metabolism and physiological functions.
Project description:We demonstrate that in zebrafish, the microRNA miR-451 plays a crucial role in promoting erythroid maturation, in part via its target transcript gata2. Zebrafish miR-144 and miR-451 are processed from a single precursor transcript selectively expressed in erythrocytes. In contrast to other hematopoietic mutants, the zebrafish mutant meunier (mnr) showed intact erythroid specification but diminished miR-144/451 expression. Although erythropoiesis initiated normally in mnr, erythrocyte maturation was morphologically retarded. Morpholino knockdown of miR-451 increased erythrocyte immaturity in wild-type embryos, and miR-451 RNA duplexes partially rescued erythroid maturation in mnr, demonstrating a requirement and role for miR-451 in erythrocyte maturation. mnr provided a selectively miR-144/451-deficient background, facilitating studies to discern miRNA function and validate candidate targets. Among computer-predicted miR-451 targets potentially mediating these biologic effects, the pro-stem cell transcription factor gata2 was an attractive candidate. In vivo reporter assays validated the predicted miR-451/gata2-3'UTR interaction, gata2 down-regulation was delayed in miR-451-knockdown and mnr embryos, and gata2 knockdown partially restored erythroid maturation in mnr, collectively confirming gata2 down-regulation as pivotal for miR-451-driven erythroid maturation. These studies define a new genetic pathway promoting erythroid maturation (mnr/miR-451/gata2) and provide a rare example of partial rescue of a mutant phenotype solely by miRNA overexpression.
Project description:Erythroid cells accumulate hemoglobin as they mature and as a result are highly prone to oxidative damage. However, mechanisms of transcriptional control of antioxidant defense in erythroid cells have thus far been poorly characterized. We observed that animals deficient in the forkhead box O3 (Foxo3) transcription factor died rapidly when exposed to erythroid oxidative stress-induced conditions, while wild-type mice showed no decreased viability. In view of this striking finding, we investigated the potential role of Foxo3 in the regulation of ROS in erythropoiesis. Foxo3 expression, nuclear localization, and transcriptional activity were all enhanced during normal erythroid cell maturation. Foxo3-deficient erythrocytes exhibited decreased expression of ROS scavenging enzymes and had a ROS-mediated shortened lifespan and evidence of oxidative damage. Furthermore, loss of Foxo3 induced mitotic arrest in erythroid precursor cells, leading to a significant decrease in the rate of in vivo erythroid maturation. We identified ROS-mediated upregulation of p21(CIP1/WAF1/Sdi1) (also known as Cdkn1a) as a major contributor to the interference with cell cycle progression in Foxo3-deficient erythroid precursor cells. These findings establish an essential nonredundant function for Foxo3 in the regulation of oxidative stress, cell cycle, maturation, and lifespan of erythroid cells. These results may have an impact on the understanding of human disorders in which ROS play a role.