Simple mechanism whereby the F1-ATPase motor rotates with near-perfect chemomechanical energy conversion.
ABSTRACT: F1-ATPase is a motor enzyme in which a central shaft γ subunit rotates 120° per ATP in the cylinder made of α3β3 subunits. During rotation, the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis (ΔGATP) is converted almost entirely into mechanical work by an elusive mechanism. We measured the force for rotation (torque) under various ΔGATP conditions as a function of rotation angles of the γ subunit with quasi-static, single-molecule manipulation and estimated mechanical work (torque × traveled angle) from the area of the function. The torque functions show three sawtooth-like repeats of a steep jump and linear descent in one catalytic turnover, indicating a simple physical model in which the motor is driven by three springs aligned along a 120° rotation angle. Although the second spring is unaffected by ΔGATP, activation of the first spring (timing of the torque jump) delays at low [ATP] (or high [ADP]) and activation of the third spring delays at high [Pi]. These shifts decrease the size and area of the sawtooth (magnitude of the work). Thus, F1-ATPase responds to the change of ΔGATP by shifting the torque jump timing and uses ΔGATP for the mechanical work with near-perfect efficiency.
Project description:F1-ATPase (F1) is a rotary motor protein that can efficiently convert chemical energy to mechanical work of rotation via fine coordination of its conformational motions and reaction sequences. Compared with reactant binding and product release, the ATP hydrolysis has relatively little contributions to the torque and chemical energy generation. To scrutinize possible roles of ATP hydrolysis, we investigate the detailed statistics of the catalytic dwells from high-speed single wild-type F1 observations. Here we report a small rotation during the catalytic dwell triggered by the ATP hydrolysis that is indiscernible in previous studies. Moreover, we find in freely rotating F1 that ATP hydrolysis is followed by the release of inorganic phosphate with low synthesis rates. Finally, we propose functional roles of the ATP hydrolysis as a key to kinetically unlock the subsequent phosphate release and promote the correct reaction ordering.
Project description:F1-ATPase (F1) is a rotary motor protein that couples ATP hydrolysis to mechanical rotation with high efficiency. In our recent study, we observed a highly temperature-sensitive (TS) step in the reaction catalyzed by a thermophilic F1 that was characterized by a rate constant remarkably sensitive to temperature and had a Q10 factor of 6-19. Since reactions with high Q10 values are considered to involve large conformational changes, we speculated that the TS reaction plays a key role in the rotation of F1. To clarify the role of the TS reaction, in this study, we conducted a stall and release experiment using magnetic tweezers, and assessed the torque generated during the TS reaction. The results indicate that the TS reaction generates the same amount of rotational torque as does ATP binding, but more than that generated during ATP hydrolysis. Thus, we confirmed that the TS reaction contributes significantly to the rotation of F1.
Project description:F1-ATPase is a powerful rotary molecular motor that can rotate an object several hundred times as large as the motor itself against the viscous friction of water. Forced reverse rotation has been shown to lead to ATP synthesis, implying that the mechanical work against the motor's high torque can be converted into the chemical energy of ATP. The minimal composition of the motor protein is ?3?3? subunits, where the central rotor subunit ? turns inside a stator cylinder made of alternately arranged ?3?3 subunits using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. The rotor consists of an axle, a coiled coil of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal ?-helices of ?, which deeply penetrates the stator cylinder, and a globular protrusion that juts out from the stator. Previous work has shown that, for a thermophilic F1, significant portions of the axle can be truncated and the motor still rotates a submicron sized bead duplex, indicating generation of up to half the wild-type (WT) torque. Here, we inquire if any specific interactions between the stator and the rest of the rotor are needed for the generation of a sizable torque. We truncated the protruding portion of the rotor and replaced part of the remaining axle residues such that every residue of the rotor has been deleted or replaced in this or previous truncation mutants. This protrusionless construct showed an unloaded rotary speed about a quarter of the WT, and generated one-third to one-half of the WT torque. No residue-specific interactions are needed for this much performance. F1 is so designed that the basic rotor-stator interactions for torque generation and control of catalysis rely solely upon the shape and size of the rotor at very low resolution. Additional tailored interactions augment the torque to allow ATP synthesis under physiological conditions.
Project description:F1-ATPase (F1) is an ATP-driven rotary motor in which the three catalytic ? subunits in the stator ring sequentially induce the unidirectional rotation of the rotary ? subunit. Many lines of evidence have revealed open-to-closed conformational transitions in the ? subunit that swing the C-terminal domain inward. This conformational transition causes a C-terminal protruding loop with conserved sequence DELSEED to push the ? subunit. Previous work, where all residues of DELSEED were substituted with glycine to disrupt the specific interaction with ? and introduce conformational flexibility, showed that F1 still rotated, but that the torque was halved, indicating a remarkable impact on torque transmission. In this study, we conducted a stall-and-release experiment on F1 with a glycine-substituted DELSEED loop to investigate the impact of the glycine substitution on torque transmission upon ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis. The mutant F1 showed a significantly reduced angle-dependent change in ATP affinity, whereas there was no change in the equilibrium for ATP hydrolysis. These findings indicate that the DELSEED loop is predominantly responsible for torque transmission upon ATP binding but not for that upon ATP hydrolysis.
Project description:We combine molecular simulations and mechanical modeling to explore the mechanism of energy conversion in the coupled rotary motors of FoF1-ATP synthase. A torsional viscoelastic model with frictional dissipation quantitatively reproduces the dynamics and energetics seen in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of torque-driven γ-subunit rotation in the F1-ATPase rotary motor. The torsional elastic coefficients determined from the simulations agree with results from independent single-molecule experiments probing different segments of the γ-subunit, which resolves a long-lasting controversy. At steady rotational speeds of ∼ 1 kHz corresponding to experimental turnover, the calculated frictional dissipation of less than k(B)T per rotation is consistent with the high thermodynamic efficiency of the fully reversible motor. Without load, the maximum rotational speed during transitions between dwells is reached at ∼ 1 MHz. Energetic constraints dictate a unique pathway for the coupled rotations of the Fo and F1 rotary motors in ATP synthase, and explain the need for the finer stepping of the F1 motor in the mammalian system, as seen in recent experiments. Compensating for incommensurate eightfold and threefold rotational symmetries in Fo and F1, respectively, a significant fraction of the external mechanical work is transiently stored as elastic energy in the γ-subunit. The general framework developed here should be applicable to other molecular machines.
Project description:Unraveling the molecular nature of the conversion of chemical energy (ATP hydrolysis in the ?/?-subunits) to mechanical energy and torque (rotation of the ?-subunit) in F1-ATPase is very challenging. A major part of the challenge involves understanding the rotary-chemical coupling by a nonphenomenological structure-energy description, while accounting for the observed torque generated on the ?-subunit and its change due to mutation of this unit. Here we extend our previous study that used a coarse-grained model of the F1-ATPase to generate a structure-based free energy landscape of the rotary-chemical process. Our quantitative analysis of the landscape reproduced the observed torque for the wild-type enzyme. In doing so, we found that there are several possibilities of torque generation from landscapes with various shapes and demonstrated that a downhill slope along the chemical coordinate could still result in negligible torque, due to ineffective coupling of the chemistry to the ?-subunit rotation. We then explored the relationship between the functionality and the underlying sequence through systematic examination of the effect of various parts of the ?-subunit on free energy surfaces of F1-ATPase. Furthermore, by constructing several types of ?-deletion systems and calculating the corresponding torque generation, we gained previously unknown insights into the molecular nature of the F1-ATPase rotary motor. Significantly, our results are in excellent agreement with recent experimental findings and indicate that the rotary-chemical coupling is primarily established through electrostatic effects, although specific contacts through ?-ionizable residue side chains are not essential for establishing the basic features of the coupling.
Project description:Molecular machines fueled by NTP play pivotal roles in a wide range of cellular activities. One common feature among NTP-driven molecular machines is that NTP binding is a major force-generating step among the elementary reaction steps comprising NTP hydrolysis. To understand the mechanism in detail,in this study, we conducted a single-molecule rotation assay of the ATP-driven rotary motor protein F1-ATPase using uridine triphosphate (UTP) and a base-free nucleotide (ribose triphosphate) to investigate the impact of a pyrimidine base or base depletion on kinetics and force generation. Although the binding rates of UTP and ribose triphosphate were 10(3) and 10(6) times, respectively, slower than that of ATP, they supported rotation, generating torque comparable to that generated by ATP. Affinity change of F1 to UTP coupled with rotation was determined, and the results again were comparable to those for ATP, suggesting that F1 exerts torque upon the affinity change to UTP via rotation similar to ATP-driven rotation. Thus, the adenine-ring significantly enhances the binding rate, although it is not directly involved in force generation. Taking into account the findings from another study on F1 with mutated phosphate-binding residues, it was proposed that progressive bond formation between the phosphate region and catalytic residues is responsible for the rotation-coupled change in affinity.
Project description:F1- and V1-ATPase are rotary molecular motors that convert chemical energy released upon ATP hydrolysis into torque to rotate a central rotor axle against the surrounding catalytic stator cylinder with high efficiency. How conformational change occurring in the stator is coupled to the rotary motion of the axle is the key unknown in the mechanism of rotary motors. Here, we generated chimeric motor proteins by inserting an exogenous rod protein, FliJ, into the stator ring of F1 or of V1 and tested the rotation properties of these chimeric motors. Both motors showed unidirectional and continuous rotation, despite no obvious homology in amino acid sequence between FliJ and the intrinsic rotor subunit of F1 or V1 These results showed that any residue-specific interactions between the stator and rotor are not a prerequisite for unidirectional rotation of both F1 and V1 The torque of chimeric motors estimated from viscous friction of the rotation probe against medium revealed that whereas the F1-FliJ chimera generates only 10% of WT F1, the V1-FliJ chimera generates torque comparable to that of V1 with the native axle protein that is structurally more similar to FliJ than the native rotor of F1 This suggests that the gross structural mismatch hinders smooth rotation of FliJ accompanied with the stator ring of F1.
Project description:F1-ATPase (F1) is the rotary motor protein fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Previous studies have suggested that three charged residues are indispensable for catalysis of F1 as follows: the P-loop lysine in the phosphate-binding loop, GXXXXGK(T/S); a glutamic acid that activates water molecules for nucleophilic attack on the ?-phosphate of ATP (general base); and an arginine directly contacting the ?-phosphate (arginine finger). These residues are well conserved among P-loop NTPases. In this study, we investigated the role of these charged residues in catalysis and torque generation by analyzing alanine-substituted mutants in the single-molecule rotation assay. Surprisingly, all mutants continuously drove rotary motion, even though the rotational velocity was at least 100,000 times slower than that of wild type. Thus, although these charged residues contribute to highly efficient catalysis, they are not indispensable to chemo-mechanical energy coupling, and the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1 is far more robust than previously thought.
Project description:F1F0 ATP synthases are bidirectional molecular motors that translocate protons across the cell membrane by either synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP. Alkaliphile ATP synthases are highly adapted, performing oxidative phosphorylation at high pH against an inverted pH gradient (acidin/alkalineout). Unlike mesophilic ATP synthases, alkaliphilic enzymes have tightly regulated ATP hydrolysis activity, which can be relieved in the presence of lauryldimethylamine oxide. Here, we characterized the rotary dynamics of the Caldalkalibacillus thermarum TA2.A1 F1 ATPase (TA2F1) with two forms of single molecule analysis, a magnetic bead duplex and a gold nanoparticle. TA2F1 rotated in a counterclockwise direction in both systems, adhering to Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a maximum rotation rate (Vmax) of 112.4 revolutions/s. TA2F1 displayed 120° unitary steps coupled with ATP hydrolysis. Torque measurements revealed the highest torque (52.4 piconewtons) derived from an F1 molecule using fluctuation theorem. The implications of high torque in terms of extreme environment adaptation are discussed.