Heterogeneous binding of the SH3 client protein to the DnaK molecular chaperone.
ABSTRACT: The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays a vital role in cellular processes, including protein folding and assembly, and helps prevent aggregation under physiological and stress-related conditions. Although the structural changes undergone by full-length client proteins upon interaction with DnaK (i.e., Escherichia coli Hsp70) are fundamental to understand chaperone-mediated protein folding, these changes are still largely unexplored. Here, we show that multiple conformations of the SRC homology 3 domain (SH3) client protein interact with the ADP-bound form of the DnaK chaperone. Chaperone-bound SH3 is largely unstructured yet distinct from the unfolded state in the absence of DnaK. The bound client protein shares a highly flexible N terminus and multiple slowly interconverting conformations in different parts of the sequence. In all, there is significant structural and dynamical heterogeneity in the DnaK-bound client protein, revealing that proteins may undergo some conformational sampling while chaperone-bound. This result is important because it shows that the surface of the Hsp70 chaperone provides an aggregation-free environment able to support part of the search for the native state.
Project description:The Hsp70 chaperone system is integrated into a myriad of biochemical processes that are critical for cellular proteostasis. Although detailed pictures of Hsp70 bound with peptides have emerged, correspondingly detailed structural information on complexes with folding-competent substrates remains lacking. Here we report a methyl-TROSY based solution NMR study showing that the Escherichia coli version of Hsp70, DnaK, binds to as many as four distinct sites on a small 53-residue client protein, hTRF1. A fraction of hTRF1 chains are also bound to two DnaK molecules simultaneously, resulting in a mixture of DnaK-substrate sub-ensembles that are structurally heterogeneous. The interactions of Hsp70 with a client protein at different sites results in a fuzzy chaperone-substrate ensemble and suggests a mechanism for Hsp70 function whereby the structural heterogeneity of released substrate molecules enables them to circumvent kinetic traps in their conformational free energy landscape and fold efficiently to the native state.
Project description:The 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) chaperone system is ubiquitous, highly conserved, and involved in a myriad of diverse cellular processes. Its function relies on nucleotide-dependent interactions with client proteins, yet the structural features of folding-competent substrates in their Hsp70-bound state remain poorly understood. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to study the human telomere repeat binding factor 1 (hTRF1) in complex with Escherichia coli Hsp70 (DnaK). In the complex, hTRF1 is globally unfolded with up to 40% helical secondary structure in regions distal to the binding site. Very similar conformational ensembles are observed for hTRF1 bound to ATP-, ADP- and nucleotide-free DnaK. The patterns in substrate helicity mirror those found in the unfolded state in the absence of denaturants except near the site of chaperone binding, demonstrating that DnaK-bound hTRF1 retains its intrinsic structural preferences. To our knowledge, our study presents the first atomic resolution structural characterization of a client protein bound to each of the three nucleotide states of DnaK and establishes that the large structural changes in DnaK and the associated energy that accompanies ATP binding and hydrolysis do not affect the overall conformation of the bound substrate protein.
Project description:Most known proteins have at least one local Hsp70 chaperone binding site. Does this mean that all proteins interact with Hsp70 as they fold? This study makes an initial step to address the above question by examining the interaction of the E.coli Hsp70 chaperone (known as DnaK) and its co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE with a slow-folding E.coli substrate, RNase H(D). Importantly, this protein is a nonobligatory client, and it is able to fold in vitro even in the absence of chaperones. We employ stopped-flow mixing, chromatography, and activity assays to analyze the kinetic perturbations induced by DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE (K/J/E) on the folding of RNase H(D). We find that K/J/E slows down RNase H(D)'s apparent folding, consistent with the presence of transient chaperone-substrate interactions. However, kinetic retardation is moderate for this slow-folding client and it is expected to be even smaller for faster-folding substrates. Given that the interaction of folding-competent substrates such as RNase H(D) with the K/J/E chaperones is relatively short-lived, it does not significantly interfere with the timely production of folded biologically active substrate. The above mode of action is important because it preserves K/J/E bioavailability, enabling this chaperone system to act primarily by assisting the folding of other misfolded and (or) aggregation-prone cellular proteins that are unable to fold independently. When refolding is carried out in the presence of K/J and absence of the nucleotide exchange factor GrpE, some of the substrate population becomes trapped as a chaperone-bound partially unfolded state.
Project description:The 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) family of chaperones bind cognate substrates to perform a variety of different processes that are integral to cellular homeostasis. Although detailed structural information is available on the chaperone, the structural features of folding competent substrates in the bound form have not been well characterized. Here we use paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) NMR spectroscopy to probe the existence of long-range interactions in one such folding competent substrate, human telomere repeat binding factor (hTRF1), which is bound to DnaK in a globally unfolded conformation. We show that DnaK binding modifies the energy landscape of the substrate by removing long-range interactions that are otherwise present in the unbound, unfolded conformation of hTRF1. Because the unfolded state of hTRF1 is only marginally populated and transiently formed, it is inaccessible to standard NMR approaches. We therefore developed a (1)H-based CEST experiment that allows measurement of PREs in sparse states, reporting on transiently sampled conformations. Our results suggest that DnaK binding can significantly bias the folding pathway of client substrates such that secondary structure forms first, followed by the development of longer-range contacts between more distal parts of the protein.
Project description:Molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the folding, unfolding, and remodeling of other proteins. In eukaryotes, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) proteins are essential ATP-dependent molecular chaperones that remodel and activate hundreds of client proteins with the assistance of cochaperones. In Escherichia coli, the activity of the Hsp90 homolog, HtpG, has remained elusive. To explore the mechanism of action of E. coli Hsp90, we used in vitro protein reactivation assays. We found that E. coli Hsp90 promotes reactivation of heat-inactivated luciferase in a reaction that requires the prokaryotic Hsp70 chaperone system, known as the DnaK system. An Hsp90 ATPase inhibitor, geldanamycin, inhibits luciferase reactivation demonstrating the importance of the ATP-dependent chaperone activity of E. coli Hsp90 during client protein remodeling. Reactivation also depends upon the ATP-dependent chaperone activity of the DnaK system. Our results suggest that the DnaK system acts first on the client protein, and then E. coli Hsp90 and the DnaK system collaborate synergistically to complete remodeling of the client protein. Results indicate that E. coli Hsp90 and DnaK interact in vivo and in vitro, providing additional evidence to suggest that E. coli Hsp90 and the DnaK system function together.
Project description:It is generally assumed that protein clients fold following their release from chaperones instead of folding while remaining chaperone-bound, in part because binding is assumed to constrain the mobility of bound clients. Previously, we made the surprising observation that the ATP-independent chaperone Spy allows its client protein Im7 to fold into the native state while continuously bound to the chaperone. Spy apparently permits sufficient client mobility to allow folding to occur while chaperone bound. Here, we show that strengthening the interaction between Spy and a recently discovered client SH3 strongly inhibits the ability of the client to fold while chaperone bound. The more tightly Spy binds to its client, the more it slows the folding rate of the bound client. Efficient chaperone-mediated folding while bound appears to represent an evolutionary balance between interactions of sufficient strength to mediate folding and interactions that are too tight, which tend to inhibit folding.
Project description:Many proteins depend on an interaction with molecular chaperones in order to fold into a functional tertiary structure. Previous studies showed that protein interaction with the GroEL/GroES chaperonine and Hsp90 chaperone can buffer the impact of slightly deleterious mutations in the protein sequence. This capacity of GroEL/GroES to prevent protein misfolding has been shown to accelerate the evolution of its client proteins. Whether other bacterial chaperones have a similar effect on their client proteins is currently unknown. Here, we study the impact of DnaK (Hsp70) chaperone on the evolution of its client proteins. Evolutionary parameters were derived from comparison of the Escherichia coli proteome to 1,808,565 orthologous proteins in 1,149 proteobacterial genomes. Our analysis reveals a significant positive correlation between protein binding frequency with DnaK and evolutionary rate. Proteins with high binding affinity to DnaK evolve on average 4.3-fold faster than proteins in the lowest binding affinity class at the genus resolution. Differences in evolutionary rates of DnaK interactor classes are still significant after adjusting for possible effects caused by protein expression level. Furthermore, we observe an additive effect of DnaK and GroEL chaperones on the evolutionary rates of their common interactors. Finally, we found pronounced similarities in the physicochemical profiles that characterize proteins belonging to DnaK and GroEL interactomes. Our results thus implicate DnaK-mediated folding as a major component in shaping protein evolutionary dynamics in bacteria and supply further evidence for the long-term manifestation of chaperone-mediated folding on genome evolution.
Project description:Hsp90 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that remodels hundreds of client proteins, many involved in the progression of cancer and other diseases. It functions with the Hsp70 chaperone and numerous cochaperones. The bacterial Hsp90 functions with an Hsp70 chaperone, DnaK, but is independent of Hsp90 cochaperones. We explored the collaboration between Escherichia coli Hsp90 and DnaK and found that the two chaperones form a complex that is stabilized by client protein binding. A J-domain protein, CbpA, facilitates assembly of the Hsp90Ec-DnaK-client complex. We identified E. coli Hsp90 mutants defective in DnaK interaction in vivo and show that the purified mutant proteins are defective in physical and functional interaction with DnaK. Understanding how Hsp90 and Hsp70 collaborate in protein remodeling will provide the groundwork for the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting multiple chaperones and cochaperones.
Project description:The Hsp70 chaperone system plays a critical role in cellular homeostasis by binding to client protein molecules. We have recently shown by methyl-TROSY NMR methods that the Escherichia coli Hsp70, DnaK, can form multiple bound complexes with a small client protein, hTRF1. In an effort to characterize the interactions further we report here the results of an NMR-based titration study of hTRF1 and DnaK, where both molecular components are monitored simultaneously, leading to a binding model. A central finding is the formation of a previously undetected 3:1 hTRF1-DnaK complex, suggesting that under heat shock conditions, DnaK might be able to protect cytosolic proteins whose net concentrations would exceed that of the chaperone. Moreover, these results provide new insight into the heterogeneous ensemble of complexes formed by DnaK chaperones and further emphasize the unique role of NMR spectroscopy in obtaining information about individual events in a complex binding scheme by exploiting a large number of probes that report uniquely on distinct binding processes.
Project description:Proteins must fold into their native structure and maintain it during their lifespan to display the desired activity. To ensure proper folding and stability, and avoid generation of misfolded conformations that can be potentially cytotoxic, cells synthesize a wide variety of molecular chaperones that assist folding of other proteins and avoid their aggregation, which unfortunately is unavoidable under acute stress conditions. A protein machinery in metazoa, composed of representatives of the Hsp70, Hsp40, and Hsp110 chaperone families, can reactivate protein aggregates. We revised herein the phosphorylation sites found so far in members of these chaperone families and the functional consequences associated with some of them. We also discuss how phosphorylation might regulate the chaperone activity and the interaction of human Hsp70 with its accessory and client proteins. Finally, we present the information that would be necessary to decrypt the effect that post-translational modifications, and especially phosphorylation, could have on the biological activity of the Hsp70 system, known as the "chaperone code".