Mucosal B Cells Are Associated with Delayed SIV Acquisition in Vaccinated Female but Not Male Rhesus Macaques Following SIVmac251 Rectal Challenge.
ABSTRACT: Many viral infections, including HIV, exhibit sex-based pathogenic differences. However, few studies have examined vaccine-related sex differences. We compared immunogenicity and protective efficacy of monomeric SIV gp120 with oligomeric SIV gp140 in a pre-clinical rhesus macaque study and explored a subsequent sex bias in vaccine outcome. Each immunization group (16 females, 8 males) was primed twice mucosally with replication-competent Ad-recombinants encoding SIVsmH4env/rev, SIV239gag and SIV239nef?1-13 and boosted twice intramuscularly with SIVmac239 monomeric gp120 or oligomeric gp140 in MF59 adjuvant. Controls (7 females, 5 males) received empty Ad and MF59. Up to 9 weekly intrarectal challenges with low-dose SIVmac251 were administered until macaques became infected. We assessed vaccine-induced binding, neutralizing, and non-neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific memory B cells and plasmablasts/plasma cells (PB/PC) in bone marrow and rectal tissue, mucosal Env-specific antibodies, and Env-specific T-cells. Post-challenge, only one macaque (gp140-immunized) remained uninfected. However, SIV acquisition was significantly delayed in vaccinated females but not males, correlated with Env-specific IgA in rectal secretions, rectal Env-specific memory B cells, and PC in rectal tissue. These results extend previous correlations of mucosal antibodies and memory B cells with protective efficacy. The gp140 regimen was more immunogenic, stimulating elevated gp140 and cyclic V2 binding antibodies, ADCC and ADCP activities, bone marrow Env-specific PB/PC, and rectal gp140-specific IgG. However, immunization with gp120, the form of envelope immunogen used in RV144, the only vaccine trial to show some efficacy, provided more significant acquisition delay. Further over 40 weeks of follow-up, no gp120 immunized macaques met euthanasia criteria in contrast to 7 gp140-immunized and 2 control animals. Although males had higher binding antibodies than females, ADCC and ADCP activities were similar. The complex challenge outcomes may reflect differences in IgG subtypes, Fc glycosylation, Fc-R polymorphisms, and/or the microbiome, key areas for future studies. This first demonstration of a sex-difference in SIV vaccine-induced protection emphasizes the need for sex-balancing in vaccine trials. Our results highlight the importance of mucosal immunity and memory B cells at the SIV exposure site for protection.
Project description:SIV infection of macaques is the most widely employed model for preclinical AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis research. In macaques, high-titer virus-specific antibodies are induced by infection, and antibody responses can drive evolution of viral escape variants. However, neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) induced in response to SIVmac239 and SIVmac251 infection or immunization are generally undetectable or of low titer, and the identification and cloning of potent Nabs from SIVmac-infected macaques remains elusive. Based on recent advances in labeling HIV-specific B lymphocytes [1-3], we have generated recombinant, secreted, soluble SIVmac envelope (Env) proteins (gp120 and gp140) for detection and quantification of SIVmac Env-specific B lymphocytes. In contrast to HIV-1, we found that soluble SIVmac239 gp140 retains the ability to form stable oligomers without the necessity for introducing additional, stabilizing modifications. Soluble oligomeric gp140 reacted with rhesus anti-SIV Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and was used to deplete Env-specific antibodies with SIV neutralization capability from plasma taken from a rhesus macaque immunized with live attenuated SIVmac239?nef. Soluble gp120 and gp140 bound to SIV-specific immortalized B cells, and to SIV Env-specific B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of immunized animals. These reagents will be useful for analyzing development of Env-specific B cell responses in preclinical studies using SIV-infected or vaccinated rhesus macaques.
Project description:An established sex bias in HIV pathogenesis is linked to immune responses. Recently we reported a vaccine-induced sex bias: vaccinated female but not male rhesus macaques exhibited delayed SIV acquisition. This outcome was correlated with SIV Env-specific rectal IgA, rectal memory B cells, and total rectal plasma cells. To uncover additional contributing factors, using samples from the same study, we investigated memory B cell population dynamics in blood, bone marrow, and rectal tissue during immunization and postchallenge; IgG subtypes and Ab avidity; and regulatory B (Breg) cell frequency and function. Few sex differences were seen in Env-specific memory B cell, plasmablast, or plasma cell frequencies in the three compartments. Males had higher IgG Ab titers and avidity indices than females. However, females had elevated levels of Env-specific IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 Abs compared with males. gp140-specific IgG3 Abs of females but not males were correlated with Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity against gp120 targets (p = 0.026) and with Ab-dependent phagocytic activity (p = 0.010). IgG3 Ab of females but not males also correlated with decreased peak viremia (p = 0.028). Peripheral blood CD19(+)CD25(+) Breg cells suppressed T cell proliferation compared with CD19(+)CD25(-) cells (p = 0.031) and exhibited increased IL-10 mRNA expression (p = 0.031). Male macaques postvaccination (p = 0.018) and postinfection (p = 0.0048) exhibited higher Breg frequencies than females. Moreover, male Breg frequencies correlated with peak viremia (p = 0.0071). Our data suggest that vaccinated females developed better Ab quality, contributing to better functionality. The elevated Breg frequencies in males may have facilitated SIV acquisition.
Project description:We have constructed a single chain fragment variable (scFv) phage display library from a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque that developed unusually high-titer neutralizing antibody responses against tier-3, neutralization-resistant SIVmac239. The library was screened using trimeric (gp140) and monomeric (gp120) forms of the SIVmac239 envelope (Env) glycoprotein. We also cloned variable-heavy and variable-light (VH-VL) antibody fragments from seven previously described rhesus macaque B-cell lines (BLCLs) that produce SIV gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Thirty-two gp140-specific mAbs were selected along with 20 gp120-specific ones. gp120-specific mAbs were only from the VH4 family, while gp41-specific mAbs were primarily from VH1, followed by VH4 and VH3. Rhesus macaque BLCL-derived mAbs belonged primarily to the VH4 family of antibodies followed by VH3 and a smaller number of VH1s. A preferential VH combination with V? light chain was observed with phage display-selected SIV Env-specific mAbs (gp120 and gp140), but not with BLCL-derived antibodies or the unpanned library. None of the tested antibodies had detectable neutralizing activity against tier-3 SIVmac239. The majority of gp120-specifc mAbs potently neutralized tier-1 SIVmac316 with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values below 1??g/ml. For gp140-specific antibodies, which were all specific for the gp41-subunit, 2 out of 11 tested neutralized SIVmac316 (IC50 of 7 and 5??g/ml, respectively). These data suggest an order of preferential VH segment usage for SIV-specific antibodies in rhesus macaques. These antibodies will be useful in assessing the contribution of non-neutralizing antibodies to inhibition of SIV infection in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Immunization of macaques with multivalent DNA encoding gp120 genes from HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C and E and a gag gene followed by boosting with homologous gp120 proteins elicited strong anti-gp120 antibodies capable of neutralizing homologous and to a lesser degree heterologous HIV-1 isolates. Both Env- and Gag-specific cell mediated immune (CMI) responses were detected in the immunized animals. Following rectal challenge with an SHIV isolate encoding HIV-1(Ba-L)env, plasma viremia in the infected immunized animals was significantly lower than that observed in the naïve animals. Further, one of six immunized animals was completely protected whereas all six naïve animals were infected. These results demonstrate that a vaccine based on priming with a polyvalent DNA vaccine from multiple HIV-1 subtypes followed by boosting with homologous Env proteins elicits anti-HIV-1 immune responses capable of controlling rectal transmission of SHIV(Ba-L).
Project description:We compare the immunogenicity of ALVAC- or NYVAC- based SIVmac251 vaccine regimens combined with gp120/alum boosts and their relative efficacy in a cohort of 65 female rhesus macaques. Both NYVAC- and ALVAC-based regimens induced equivalent titers of serum binding antibodies to gp120, whereas NYVAC elicited significantly higher envelope specific T cell responses. Surprisingly, however, only the ALVAC-based regimen was able to significantly decrease the risk of SIVmac251 acquisition following repeated low-dose intravaginal challenges. The risk of virus acquisition was associated negatively with the frequency of classical monocytes and positively with non-classical. The systems biology approach used to investigate the molecular basis of the different vaccine efficacies demonstrated specific expression profiles elicited by the ALVAC-based regimen that correlate with efficacy. Overall design: A total of 65 female rhesus macaques were randomized into five groups: ALVAC-SIV/gp120 (20 animals), NYVAC-SIV/gp120 (20 animals), ALVAC-control (10 animals), NYVAC-control (10 animals), and naïve (5 animals). The animals in the ALVAC-SIV/gp120 and NYVAC-SIV/gp120 groups were immunized at weeks 0, 4, 12, and 24 with ALVAC-SIV (vCP180) or NYVAC-SIV (VP1071) carrying the identical Env-Gag-Pol genes, respectively. At weeks 12 and 24, the animals from these groups received an alum-formulated gp120 protein boost. The animals in the ALVAC-control and NYVAC-control groups were immunized at weeks 0, 4, 12, and 24 with empty ALVAC-SIV (vCP180) or NYVAC-SIV (VP1071) vectors, respectively. At weeks 12 and 24, the animals from these groups received alum. technical replicate: P168_A06015_w0.6h, P168_A06015_w0.6h_rep1 technical replicate: P168_A06028_w0.6h_rep1, P168_A06028_w0.6h_rep2 technical replicate: P168_A06082_w0.0h, P168_A06082_w0.0h_rep1 technical replicate: P168_A06083_w0.24h, P168_A06083_w0.24h_rep1
Project description:The current study assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of various prime-boost vaccine regimens in rhesus macaques using combinations of recombinant DNA (rDNA), recombinant MVA (rMVA), and subunit gp140 protein. The rDNA and rMVA vectors were constructed to express Env from HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE and Gag-Pol from CRF01_AE or SIVmac 239. One of the rMVAs, MVA/CMDR, has been recently tested in humans. Immunizations were administered at months 0 and 1 (prime) and months 3 and 6 (boost). After priming, HIV env-specific serum IgG was detected in monkeys receiving gp140 alone or rMVA but not in those receiving rDNA. Titers were enhanced in these groups after boosting either with gp140 alone or with rMVA plus gp140. The groups that received the rDNA prime developed env-specific IgG after boosting with rMVA with or without gp140. HIV Env-specific serum IgG binding antibodies were elicited more frequently and of higher titer, and breadth of neutralizing antibodies was increased with the inclusion of the subunit Env boost. T cell responses were measured by tetramer binding to Gag p11c in Mamu-A*01 macaques, and by IFN-? ELISPOT assay to SIV-Gag. T cell responses were induced after vaccination with the highest responses seen in macaques immunized with rDNA and rMVA. Macaques were challenged intravenously with a novel SHIV-E virus (SIVmac239 Gag-Pol with an HIV-1 subtype E-Env CAR402). Post challenge with SHIV-E, antibody titers were boosted in all groups and peaked at 4 weeks. Robust T cell responses were seen in all groups post challenge and in macaques immunized with rDNA and rMVA a clear boosting of responses was seen. A greater than two-log drop in RNA copies/ml at peak viremia and earlier set point was achieved in macaques primed with rDNA, and boosted with rMVA/SHIV-AE plus gp140. Post challenge viremia in macaques immunized with other regimens was not significantly different to that of controls. These results demonstrate that a gp140 subunit and inclusion of SIV Gag-Pol may be critical for control of SHIV post challenge.
Project description:In an attempt to generate broadly cross-reactive, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), we compared two immunization protocols using different preparations of oligomeric SIV envelope (Env) glycoproteins. In the first protocol, mice were immunized with soluble gp140 (sgp140) from CP-MAC, a laboratory-adapted variant of SIVmacBK28. Hybridomas were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a panel of 65 MAbs that recognized epitopes throughout the Env protein was generated. In general, these MAbs detected Env by Western blotting, were at least weakly positive in fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of Env-expressing cells, and preferentially recognized monomeric Env protein. A subset of these antibodies directed toward the V1/V2 loop, the V3 loop, or nonlinear epitopes were capable of neutralizing CP-MAC, a closely related isolate (SIVmac1A11), and/or two more divergent strains (SIVsmDeltaB670 CL3 and SIVsm543-3E). In the second protocol, mice were immunized with unfixed CP-MAC-infected cells and MAbs were screened for the ability to inhibit cell-cell fusion. In contrast to MAbs generated against sgp140, the seven MAbs produced using this protocol did not react with Env by Western blotting and were strongly positive by FACS analysis, and several reacted preferentially with oligomeric Env. All seven MAbs potently neutralized SIVmac1A11, and several neutralized SIVsmDeltaB670 CL3 and/or SIVsm543-3E. MAbs that inhibited gp120 binding to CD4, CCR5, or both were identified in both groups. MAbs to the V3 loop and one MAb reactive with the V1/V2 loop interfered with CCR5 binding, indicating that these regions of Env play similar roles for SIV and human immunodeficiency virus. Remarkably, several of the MAbs generated against infected cells blocked CCR5 binding in a V3-independent manner, suggesting that they may recognize a region analogous to the conserved coreceptor binding site in gp120. Finally, all neutralizing MAbs blocked infection through the alternate coreceptor STRL33 much more efficiently than infection through CCR5, a finding that has important implications for SIV neutralization assays using CCR5-negative human T-cell lines.
Project description:The antibody responses elicited in rhesus macaques immunized with soluble human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Env gp140 proteins derived from the R5-tropic HIV-1 SF162 virus were analyzed and compared to the broadly reactive neutralizing antibody responses elicited during chronic infection of a macaque with a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) expressing the HIV-1 SF162 Env, SHIV(SF162P4), and humans infected with heterologous HIV-1 isolates. Four gp140 immunogens were evaluated: SF162gp140, DeltaV2gp140 (lacking the crown of the V2 loop), DeltaV3gp140 (lacking the crown of the V3 loop), and DeltaV2DeltaV3gp140 (lacking both the V2 and V3 loop crowns). SF162gp140 and DeltaV2gp140 have been previously evaluated by our group in a pilot study, but here, a more comprehensive analysis of their immunogenic properties was performed. All four gp140 immunogens elicited stronger anti-gp120 than anti-gp41 antibodies and potent homologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that primarily targeted the first hypervariable region (V1 loop) of gp120, although SF162gp140 also elicited anti-V3 NAbs. Heterologous NAbs were elicited by SF162gp140 and DeltaV2gp140 but were weak in potency and narrow in specificity. No heterologous NAbs were elicited by DeltaV3gp140 or DeltaV2DeltaV3gp140. In contrast, the SHIV(SF162P4)-infected macaque and HIV-infected humans generated similar titers of anti-gp120 and anti-gp41 antibodies and NAbs of significant breadth against primary HIV-1 isolates, which did not target the V1 loop. The difference in V1 loop immunogenicity between soluble gp140 and virion-associated gp160 Env proteins derived from SF162 may be the basis for the observed difference in the breadth of neutralization in sera from the immunized and infected animals studied here.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ten to 30% of HIV-1 infected subjects develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) during chronic infection. We hypothesized that immunizing rabbits with viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from these patients may induce bNAbs, when formulated as a trimeric protein and in the presence of an adjuvant.<h4>Methods</h4>Based on in vitro neutralizing activity in serum, patients with bNAbs were selected for cloning of their HIV-1 Env. Seven stable soluble trimeric gp140 proteins were generated from sequences derived from four adults and two children infected with either clade A or B HIV-1. From one of the clade A Envs both the monomeric and trimeric Env were produced for comparison. Rabbits were immunized with soluble gp120 or trimeric gp140 proteins in combination with the adjuvant dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium/trehalose dibehenate (CAF01). Env binding in rabbit immune serum was determined using ELISAs based on gp120-IIIB protein. Neutralizing activity of IgG purified from rabbit immune sera was measured with the pseudovirus-TZMbl assay and a PBMC-based neutralization assay for selected experiments.<h4>Results</h4>It was initially established that gp140 trimers induce better antibody responses over gp120 monomers and that the adjuvant CAF01 was necessary for such strong responses. Gp140 trimers, based on HIV-1 variants from patients with bNAbs, were able to elicit both gp120IIIB specific IgG and NAbs to Tier 1 viruses of different subtypes. Potency of NAbs closely correlated with titers, and an gp120-binding IgG titer above a threshold of 100,000 was predictive of neutralization capability. Finally, peptide inhibition experiments showed that a large fraction of the neutralizing IgG was directed against the gp120 V3 region.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results indicate that the strategy of reverse immunology based on selected Env sequences is promising when immunogens are delivered as stabilized trimers in CAF01 adjuvant and that the rabbit is a valuable model for HIV vaccine studies.
Project description:Eliciting neutralizing antibodies capable of inactivating a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccine design. The challenge is that envelopes (Envs) of circulating viruses are almost certainly different from any Env used in a vaccine. A novel immunogen composed of a highly diverse set of gp140 Envs including subtypes A, B, C, D and F was developed to stimulate a more cross-neutralizing antibody response. Env heterotrimers composed of up to 54 different gp140s were produced with the aim of focusing the response to the conserved regions of Env while reducing the dominance of any individual hypervariable region. Heterotrimeric gp140 Envs of inter- and intra-subtype combinations were shown to bind CD4 and a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies with similar affinity to monovalent UG37 gp140. Macaques immunized with six groups of heterotrimer mixtures showed slightly more potent neutralizing antibody responses in TZM-BL tier 1 and A3R5 tier 2 pseudovirus assays than macaques immunized with monovalent Env gp140, and exhibited a marginally greater focus on the CD4-binding site. Carbopol enhanced neutralization when used as an adjuvant instead of RIBI in combination with UG37 gp140. These data indicate that cross-subtype heterotrimeric gp140 Envs may elicit some improvement of the neutralizing antibody response in macaques compared to monovalent gp140 Env.