Altered Fronto-Temporal Functional Connectivity in Individuals at Ultra-High-Risk of Developing Psychosis.
ABSTRACT: The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is one of the key regions implicated in psychosis, given that abnormalities in this region are associated with an increased risk of conversion from an at-risk mental state to psychosis. However, inconsistent results regarding the functional connectivity strength of the STG have been reported, and the regional heterogeneous characteristics of the STG should be considered.To investigate the distinctive functional connection of each subregion in the STG, we parcellated the STG of each hemisphere into three regions: the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, and planum polare. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained from 22 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, 41 individuals at ultra-high-risk for psychosis (UHR), and 47 demographically matched healthy controls.Significant group differences (in seed-based connectivity) were demonstrated in the left planum temporale and from both the right and left Heschl's gyrus seeds. From the left planum temporale seed, the FEP and UHR groups exhibited increased connectivity to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, the FEP and UHR groups demonstrated decreased connectivity from the bilateral Heschl's gyrus seeds to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. The enhanced connectivity between the left planum temporale and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was positively correlated with positive symptom severity in individuals at UHR (r = .34, p = .03).These findings corroborate the fronto-temporal connectivity disruption hypothesis in schizophrenia by providing evidence supporting the altered fronto-temporal intrinsic functional connection at earlier stages of psychosis. Our data indicate that subregion-specific aberrant fronto-temporal interactions exist in the STG at the early stage of psychosis, thus suggesting that these aberrancies are the neural underpinning of proneness to psychosis.
Project description:Spoken language, both perception and production, is thought to be facilitated by an ensemble of predictive mechanisms. We obtain intracranial recordings in 37 patients using depth probes implanted along the anteroposterior extent of the supratemporal plane during rhythm listening, speech perception, and speech production. These reveal two predictive mechanisms in early auditory cortex with distinct anatomical and functional characteristics. The first, localized to bilateral Heschl's gyri and indexed by low-frequency phase, predicts the timing of acoustic events. The second, localized to planum temporale only in language-dominant cortex and indexed by high-gamma power, shows a transient response to acoustic stimuli that is uniquely suppressed during speech production. Chronometric stimulation of Heschl's gyrus selectively disrupts speech perception, while stimulation of planum temporale selectively disrupts speech production. This work illuminates the fundamental acoustic infrastructure-both architecture and function-for spoken language, grounding cognitive models of speech perception and production in human neurobiology.
Project description:Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder that may consist of multiple etiologies and disease processes. Auditory hallucinations (AH), which are common and often disabling, represent a narrower and more basic dimension of psychosis than schizophrenia. Previous studies suggest that abnormal primary auditory cortex activity is associated with AH pathogenesis. We thus investigated functional connectivity, using a seed in primary auditory cortex, in schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls, to examine neural circuit abnormalities associated more specifically with AH than the myriad other symptoms that comprise schizophrenia.Using resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI), we investigated functional connectivity of the primary auditory cortex, located on Heschl's gyrus, in schizophrenia spectrum patients with AH. Participants were patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder with lifetime AH (n=27); patients with the same diagnoses but no lifetime AH (n=14); and healthy controls (n=28).Patients with AH vulnerability showed increased left Heschl's gyrus functional connectivity with left frontoparietal regions and decreased functional connectivity with right hippocampal formation and mediodorsal thalamus compared to patients without lifetime AH. Furthermore, among AH patients, left Heschl's gyrus functional connectivity covaried positively with AH severity in left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), left lateral STG, right pre- and postcentral gyri, cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. There were no differences between patients with and without lifetime AH in right Heschl's gyrus seeded functional connectivity.Abnormal interactions between left Heschl's gyrus and regions involved in speech/language, memory, and the monitoring of self-generated events may contribute to AH vulnerability.
Project description:Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated associations between smaller auditory cortex volume and auditory hallucinations (AH) in schizophrenia. Reduced cortical volume can result from a reduction of either cortical thickness or cortical surface area, which may reflect different neuropathology. We investigate for the first time how thickness and surface area of the auditory cortex relate to AH in a large sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients.Schizophrenia spectrum (n = 194) patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Mean cortical thickness and surface area in auditory cortex regions (Heschl's gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT], and superior temporal gyrus [STG]) were compared between patients with (AH+, n = 145) and without (AH-, n = 49) a lifetime history of AH and 279 healthy controls.AH+ patients showed significantly thinner cortex in the left HG compared to AH- patients (d = 0.43, P = .0096). There were no significant differences between AH+ and AH- patients in cortical thickness in the PT or STG, or in auditory cortex surface area in any of the regions investigated. Group differences in cortical thickness in the left HG was not affected by duration of illness or current antipsychotic medication.AH in schizophrenia patients were related to thinner cortex, but not smaller surface area of the left HG, a region which includes the primary auditory cortex. The results support that structural abnormalities of the auditory cortex underlie AH in schizophrenia.
Project description:Neurobiological and behavioral findings suggest that psychosis is associated with corticolimbic hyperactivity during the processing of emotional salience. This has not been widely studied in the early stages of psychosis, and the impact of these abnormalities on psychotic symptoms and global functioning is unknown. We sought to address this issue in 18 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 18 individuals at ultra high risk of psychosis (UHR) and 22 healthy controls (HCs). Corticolimbic response and subjective ratings to emotional and neutral scenes were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The clinical and functional impact of corticolimbic abnormalities was assessed with regression analyses. The FEP and UHR groups reported increased subjective emotional arousal to neutral scenes compared with HCs. Across groups, emotional vs neutral scenes elicited activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula and amygdala. Although FEP and UHR participants showed reduced activation in these regions when viewing emotional scenes compared with controls, this was driven by increased activation to neutral scenes. Corticolimbic hyperactivity to neutral scenes predicted higher levels of positive symptoms and poorer levels of functioning. These results indicate that disruption of emotional brain systems may represent an important biological substrate for the pathophysiology of early psychosis and UHR states.
Project description:This work sought correlates of pitch perception, defined by neural activity above the lower limit of pitch (LLP), in auditory cortical neural ensembles, and examined their topographical distribution. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded in eight patients undergoing invasive recordings for pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Stimuli consisted of bursts of broadband noise followed by regular interval noise (RIN). RIN was presented at rates below and above the LLP to distinguish responses related to the regularity of the stimulus and the presence of pitch itself. LFPs were recorded from human cortical homologues of auditory core, belt, and parabelt regions using multicontact depth electrodes implanted in Heschl's gyrus (HG) and Planum Temporale (PT), and subdural grid electrodes implanted over lateral superior temporal gyrus (STG). Evoked responses corresponding to the temporal regularity of the stimulus were assessed using autocorrelation of the evoked responses, and occurred for stimuli below and above the LLP. Induced responses throughout the high gamma range (60-200?Hz) were present for pitch values above the LLP, with onset latencies of approximately 70?ms. Mapping of the induced responses onto a common brain space demonstrated variability in the topographical distribution of high gamma responses across subjects. Induced responses were present throughout the length of HG and on PT, which is consistent with previous functional neuroimaging studies. Moreover, in each subject, a region within lateral STG showed robust induced responses at pitch-evoking stimulus rates. This work suggests a distributed representation of pitch processing in neural ensembles in human homologues of core and non-core auditory cortex.
Project description:This study combines functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging to test the "asymmetric sampling in time" (AST) hypothesis, which makes assertions about the symmetrical and asymmetrical representation of speech in the primary and nonprimary auditory cortex. Twenty-three volunteers participated in this parametric clustered-sparse fMRI study. The availability of slowly changing acoustic cues in spoken sentences was systematically reduced over continuous segments with varying lengths (100, 150, 200, 250 ms) by utilizing local time-reversion. As predicted by the hypothesis, functional lateralization in Heschl's gyrus could not be observed. Lateralization in the planum temporale and posterior superior temporal gyrus shifted towards the right hemisphere with decreasing suprasegmental temporal integrity. Cortical thickness of the planum temporale was automatically measured. Participants with an L > R cortical thickness performed better on the in-scanner auditory pattern-matching task. Taken together, these findings support the AST hypothesis and provide substantial novel insight into the division of labor between left and right nonprimary auditory cortex functions during comprehension of spoken utterances. In addition, the present data yield support for a structural-behavioral relationship in the nonprimary auditory cortex.
Project description:We investigated whether variation in auditory experience in humans during development alters the macroscopic neuroanatomy of primary or auditory association cortices. Volumetric analyses were based on MRI data from 25 congenitally deaf subjects and 25 hearing subjects, all right-handed. The groups were matched for gender and age. Gray and white matter volumes were determined for the temporal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus (HG), and the planum temporale. Deaf and hearing subjects did not differ in the total volume or the gray matter volume of HG, which suggests that auditory deafferentation does not lead to cell loss within primary auditory cortex in humans. However, deaf subjects had significantly larger gray matter-white matter ratios than hearing subjects in HG, with deaf subjects exhibiting significantly less white matter in both left and right HG. Deaf subjects also had higher gray matter-white matter ratios in the rest of the superior temporal gyrus, but this pattern was not observed for the temporal lobe as a whole. These findings suggest that auditory deprivation from birth results in less myelination and/or fewer fibers projecting to and from auditory cortices. Finally, the volumes of planum temporale and HG were significantly larger in the left hemisphere for both groups, suggesting that leftward asymmetries within "auditory" cortices do not arise from experience with auditory processing.
Project description:The human auditory cortex includes several interconnected areas. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in auditory cortical functions requires a detailed knowledge of neuronal connectivity between functional cortical regions. In human, it is difficult to track in vivo neuronal connectivity. We investigated the interarea connection in vivo in the auditory cortex using a method of directed coherence (DCOH) applied to depth auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). This paper presents simultaneous AEPs recordings from insular gyrus (IG), primary and secondary cortices (Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale), and associative areas (Brodmann area [BA] 22) with multilead intracerebral electrodes in response to sinusoidal modulated white noises in 4 epileptic patients who underwent invasive monitoring with depth electrodes for epilepsy surgery. DCOH allowed estimation of the causality between 2 signals recorded from different cortical sites. The results showed 1) a predominant auditory stream within the primary auditory cortex from the most medial region to the most lateral one whatever the modulation frequency, 2) unidirectional functional connection from the primary to secondary auditory cortex, 3) a major auditory propagation from the posterior areas to the anterior ones, particularly at 8, 16, and 32 Hz, and 4) a particular role of Heschl's sulcus dispatching information to the different auditory areas. These findings suggest that cortical processing of auditory information is performed in serial and parallel streams. Our data showed that the auditory propagation could not be associated to a unidirectional traveling wave but to a constant interaction between these areas that could reflect the large adaptive and plastic capacities of auditory cortex. The role of the IG is discussed.
Project description:To test whether spatial and social neighbourhood patterning of people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis differs from first-episode psychosis (FEP) participants or controls and to determine whether exposure to different social environments is evident before disorder onset.We tested differences in the spatial distributions of representative samples of FEP, UHR and control participants and fitted two-level multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for individual-level covariates, to examine group differences in neighbourhood-level characteristics.The spatial distribution of controls (n = 41) differed from UHR (n = 48; P = 0.04) and FEP participants (n = 159; P = 0.01), whose distribution was similar (P = 0.17). Risk in FEP and UHR groups was associated with the same neighbourhood-level exposures: proportion of single-parent households [FEP adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.56 95% CI: 1.00-2.45; UHR aOR: 1.59; 95% CI: 0.99-2.57], ethnic diversity (FEP aOR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.58; UHR aOR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.00-1.63) and multiple deprivation (FEP aOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78-1.00; UHR aOR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76-0.99).Similar neighbourhood-level exposures predicted UHR and FEP risk, whose residential patterning was closer to each other's than controls. Adverse social environments are associated with psychosis before FEP onset.
Project description:This work examines the computational architecture used by the brain during the analysis of the spectral envelope of sounds, an important acoustic feature for defining auditory objects. Dynamic causal modelling and Bayesian model selection were used to evaluate a family of 16 network models explaining functional magnetic resonance imaging responses in the right temporal lobe during spectral envelope analysis. The models encode different hypotheses about the effective connectivity between Heschl's Gyrus (HG), containing the primary auditory cortex, planum temporale (PT), and superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the modulation of that coupling during spectral envelope analysis. In particular, we aimed to determine whether information processing during spectral envelope analysis takes place in a serial or parallel fashion. The analysis provides strong support for a serial architecture with connections from HG to PT and from PT to STS and an increase of the HG to PT connection during spectral envelope analysis. The work supports a computational model of auditory object processing, based on the abstraction of spectro-temporal "templates" in the PT before further analysis of the abstracted form in anterior temporal lobe areas.