Piwi-Interacting RNAs (piRNAs) Are Dysregulated in Renal Cell Carcinoma and Associated with Tumor Metastasis and Cancer-Specific Survival.
ABSTRACT: Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a distinct group of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) that silence transposable genetic elements to protect genome integrity. Because of their limited expression in gonads and sequence diversity, piRNAs remain the most mysterious class of small RNAs. Studies have shown piRNAs are present in somatic cells and dysregulated in gastric, breast and liver cancers. By deep sequencing 24 frozen benign kidney and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) specimens and using the publically available piRNA database, we found 26,991 piRNAs present in human kidney tissue. Among 920 piRNAs that had at least two copies in one specimen, 19 were differentially expressed in benign kidney and ccRCC tissues, and 46 were associated with metastasis. Among the metastasis-related piRNAs, we found three piRNAs (piR-32051, piR-39894 and piR-43607) to be derived from the same piRNA cluster at chromosome 17. We confirmed the three selected piRNAs not to be miRNAs or miRNA-like sncRNAs. We further validated the aberrant expression of the three piRNAs in a 68-case formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ccRCC tissue cohort and showed the up-regulation of the three piRNAs to be highly associated with ccRCC metastasis, late clinical stage and poor cancer-specific survival.
Project description:Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a distinct group of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) that silence transposable genetic elements to protect genome integrity. Due to their limited expression in gonads and sequence diversity, piRNAs remain the most mysterious class of small RNAs. Studies have shown piRNAs are present in somatic cells and dysregulated in gastric, breast and liver cancers. By deep sequencing 24 frozen benign kidney and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) specimens and using the publically available piRNA database, we found 26,991 piRNAs present in human kidney tissue. Among 920 piRNAs that at least had two copies in one specimen, 19 were differentially expressed in benign kidney and ccRCC tissues, and 46 were associated with metastasis. Among the metastasis-related piRNAs, we found 3 piRNAs, piR- 32051, piR-39894 and piR-43607, to be derived from the same piRNA cluster at chromosome 17. We confirmed the 3 selected piRNAs not to be miRNAs or miRNA-like sncRNAs. We further validated the aberrant expression of the 3 piRNAs in a 68-case formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ccRCC tissue cohort and showed the upregulation of the 3 piRNAs to be highly associated with ccRCC metastasis, late clinical stage and cancer-specific survival. Overall design: ncRNA sequencing of 18 ccRCC samples and 6 normal renal tissues
Project description:PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are thought to silence transposon and gene expression during development. However, the roles of piRNAs in somatic tissues are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of 555 piRNAs in human lung bronchial epithelial (HBE) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, including 295 that do not exist in databases termed as piRNA-like sncRNAs or piRNA-Ls. Distinctive piRNA/piRNA-L expression patterns are observed between HBE and NSCLC cells. piRNA-like-163 (piR-L-163), the top downregulated piRNA-L in NSCLC cells, binds directly to phosphorylated ERM proteins (p-ERM), which is dependent on the central part of UUNNUUUNNUU motif in piR-L-163 and the RRRKPDT element in ERM. The piR-L-163/p-ERM interaction is critical for p-ERM's binding capability to filamentous actin (F-actin) and ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50). Thus, piRNA/piRNA-L may play a regulatory role through direct interaction with proteins in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
Project description:Emerging studies demonstrate that PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) participate in the development of cancers. 75 pairs of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples and 31 benign thyroid nodule samples were included in this three-phase biomarker identifying study. First, piRNA expression profiles of five pairs of PTC samples were acquired piRNA sequencing. The expression of all upregulated piRNAs were further validated by RT-qPCR. Paired t and nonparametric test were used to evaluate the association between all upregulated piRNAs and clinic stage. The expression levels of key piRNAs were corrected by demographic data to construct a multivariate model to distinguish malignant nodules from benign. Additionally, the intersection between target genes of key piRNAs and differentially expressed genes in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) PTC samples were used to perform enrichment analysis. Only piR-13643 and piR-21238 were significantly upregulated in PTC and associated with clinic stage. Moreover, both piR-13643 (Area Under Curve (AUC): 0.821) and piR-21238 (AUC: 0.823) showed better performance in distinguishing malignant nodules from benign than currently used biomarkers HBME1 (AUC: 0.590). Based on our findings, piR-13643 and piR-21238 were observed to be significantly upregulated in human PTC. PIWI-interacting RNAs could serve as promising novel biomarkers for accurate detection of PTC.
Project description:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is one of the most common diagnostic tumor, with nearly one third patients diagnosed as metastatic ccRCC. Although increasing number of studies have revealed that piwi-interacting RNAs were aberrantly expressed in diverse type of cancers, few of them explored the detailed molecular mechanism of piRNAs in carcinogenesis, particular in ccRCC. In this study, differentially expressed piRNAs associated with ccRCC was selected by using piRNA-sequencing combined with analyzing TCGA data, from which piR-57125 was identified. PiR-57125 was found remarkably downregulated in ccRCC samples. Functionally, knockdown of piR-57125 promoted migration and invasion of ccRCC, while overexpression of piR-57125 suppressed ccRCC metastasis. In vivo lung metastasis model also confirmed the same results. CCL3 was identified as the direct target of piR-57125 which could reverse the inhibition effect of piR-57125 in ccRCC metastasis. Further studies revealed that piR-57125 modulated ccRCC metastasis through AKT/ERK pathway. Those data indicate that piR-57125 restrains ccRCC metastasis through directly targeting CCL3 and inhibiting AKT/ERK pathway, and could be a potential therapeutic target for ccRCC. Overall design: piRNA profiling in 2 paired clear cell renal cell carcinoma tissues.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine the expression profile of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in leiomyoma, which has not been investigated to date. DESIGN:Laboratory-based investigation. SETTING:Academic center. PATIENT(S):Women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications. INTERVENTION(S):Next-generation sequencing and screening of an sncRNA database with confirmatory analysis by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Expression profile of sncRNAs in leiomyoma and matched myometrium. RESULT(S):Screening our previously determined RNA sequencing data with the sncRNA database resulted in identification of 15 small nuclear (sn) RNAs, 284 small nucleolar (sno) RNAs, 98 Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs, 152 transfer (t) RNAs, and 45 ribosomal (r) RNAs, of which 15 snoRNAs, 24 piRNAs, 7 tRNAs, and 6 rRNAs were differentially expressed at a 1.5-fold change cutoff in leiomyoma compared with myometrium. We selected 5 snoRNAs, 4 piRNAs, 1 tRNA, and 1 rRNA that were differentially expressed and confirmed their expression in paired tissues (n = 20) from both phases of the menstrual cycle with the use of qRT-PCR. The results indicated up-regulation of the snoRNAs (SNORD30, SNORD27, SNORA16A, SNORD46, and SNORD56) and down-regulation of the piRNAs (piR-1311, piR-16677, piR-20365, piR-4153), tRNA (TRG-GCC5-1), and rRNA (RNA5SP202) expression in leiomyoma compared with myometrium (P<.05). The pattern of expression of these sncRNAs was similar to RNA sequencing analysis, with no menstrual cycle-dependent differences detected except for SNORD30. Because Argonaute 2 (AGO2) is required for sncRNA-mediated gene silencing, we determined its expression and found greater abundance in leiomyoma. CONCLUSION(S):Our results provide the first evidence for the differential expression of additional classes of sncRNAs and AGO2 in leiomyoma, implicating their roles as a gene regulatory mechanism.
Project description:PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are thought to silence transposon and gene expression during development. However, the roles of piRNAs in somatic tissues are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of 555 piRNAs in human lung bronchial epithelial (HBE) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, including 295 that don’t exist in databases termed as piRNA-Like sncRNAs or piRNA-Ls. Distinctive piRNA/piRNA-L expression patterns are observed between HBE and NSCLC cells. piRNA-L-163 (piR-L-163), the top down-regulated piRNA-L in NSCLC cells, binds directly to phosphorylated ERM proteins (p-ERM), which is dependent on the central part of UUNNUUUNNUU motif in piR-L-163 and the RRRKPDT element in ERM, and. The piR-L-163/p-ERM interaction is critical for p-ERM’s binding capability to filamentous actin (F-actin) and ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50). Thus, piRNA/piRNA-L may play a regulatory role through direct interaction with proteins in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
Project description:PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that partner with PIWI proteins to protect germline tissues from destabilizing transposon activity. While the aberrant expression of PIWI proteins has been linked with poor outcomes for many cancers, less is known about the expression or function of piRNAs in cancer. We performed array-based piRNA expression profiling in seven pairs of normal brain and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tissue specimens, and identified expression of ~350 piRNAs in both tissues and a subset with dysregulated expression in GBM. Over-expression of the most down-regulated piRNA in GBM tissue, piR-8041, was found to reduce glioma cell line proliferation, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibit cell survival pathways. Furthermore, pre-treatment with piR-8041 significantly reduced the volume of intracranial mouse xenograft tumors. Taken together, our study reveals reduced expression in GBM of piR-8041 and other piRNAs with tumor suppressive properties, and suggests that restoration of such piRNAs may be a potential strategy for GBM therapy.
Project description:The piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that specifically bind to the PIWI proteins, a functional requirement. The piRNAs regulate germline development, transposons control, and gene expression. However, piRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation in human somatic cells is not well understood. We discovered a human piRNA (piR-FTH1) which has a complementary sequence in the ferritin heavy chain 1 (Fth1) mRNA. We demonstrated that expression of piR-FTH1 and Fth1 are inversely correlated in the tested tumor cell lines. We found that piR-FTH1 negatively regulates the Fth1 expression at post-transcriptional level in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Additionally, we confirmed that transfected piR-FTH1 knocks down the Fth1 mRNA via the HIWI2 and HILI mediated mechanism. piR-FTH1 mediated Fth1 repression also increased doxorubicin sensitivity by a remarkable 20-fold in TNBC cells. Since the current piRNA-mediated knockdowns of target mRNA are mostly reported in germ line cells, piRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation in somatic cells is rather unique in its application and mechanistically uses an alternative pathway to siRNA and miRNA. This work begins to lay the groundwork with a broader impact on treatment of various diseases that are linked to elevated levels of specific mRNAs which have a piRNA target.
Project description:Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) represent a novel class of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that have been shown to have a deregulated expression in several cancers, although their clinical significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. With an aim of delineating the piRNA distribution in CRC, we conducted a systematic discovery and validation of piRNAs within two clinical cohorts. In the discovery phase, we profiled tumor and adjacent normal tissues from 18 CRC patients by deep sequencing and identified a global piRNA downregulation in CRC. Moreover, we identified piR-24000 as an unexplored piRNA that was significantly overexpressed in CRC. Using qPCR, we validated the overexpression of piR-24000 in 87 CRC patients. Additionally, we identified a significant association between a high expression of piR-24000 and an aggressive CRC phenotype including poor differentiation, presence of distant metastases, and a higher stage. Lastly, ROC analysis demonstrated a strong diagnostic power of piR-24000 in discriminating CRC patients from normal subjects. Taken together, this study provides one of the earliest large-scale reports of the global distribution of piRNAs in CRC. In addition, piR-24000 was identified as a likely oncogene in CRC that can serve as a biomarker or a therapeutic target.
Project description:RASSF1C up-regulates important genes involved in lung cancer cell growth, including a stem cell self-renewal gene, piwil1. In this article, we report the identification of small noncoding PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in lung cancer cells over-expressing RASSF1C. A piRNA microarray screen was performed using RNA isolated from the lung cancer cell line H1299 stably over-expressing RASSF1C and corresponding control. The piRNA microarray screen identified several piRNAs that are regulated by RASSF1C and we have validated the expression of two up-regulated piRNAs (piR-34871 and piR-52200) and two down-regulated piRNAs (piR-35127 and piR-46545) in lung cancer cells with silenced and over-expressed RASSF1C using RT-PCR. We also assessed the expression of these four piRNAs in lung tumor and matched normal tissues (n = 12). We found that piR-34871 and piR-52200 were up-regulated in 58% and 50%, respectively; while piR-35127 and piR-46545 were down-regulated in 50% in lung tumor tissues tested. The expression of piR-35127 was inversely correlated with RASSF1C expression in 10/12 tumor tissues. Over-expression of piR-35127 and piR-46545 and knock-down of piR-34871 and piR-52200 significantly reduced normal lung and breast epithelial cell proliferation and cell colony formation as well as proliferation of lung cancer cell lines (A549 and H1299) and breast cancer cell lines (Hs578T and MDA-MB-231). This suggests that these novel piRNAs may potentially be involved in regulating lung cell transformation and tumorigenesis. RASSF1C may potentially modulate the expression of its piRNA target genes through attenuation of the AMPK pathway, as over-expression of RASSF1C resulted in reduction of p-AMPK, p21, and p27 protein levels.