PLK1 is a binding partner and a negative regulator of FOXO3 tumor suppressor.
ABSTRACT: FOXO family members (FOXOs: FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4 and FOXO6) are important transcription factors and tumor suppressors controlling cell homeostasis and cell fate. They are characterized by an extraordinary functional diversity, being involved in regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, oxidative detoxification, cell differentiation and stem cell maintenance, cell metabolism, angiogenesis, cardiac and other organ's development, aging, and other critical cellular processes. FOXOs are tightly regulated by reversible phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation. Interestingly, the known kinases phosphorylate only a small percentage of the known or predicted FOXOs phosphorylation sites, suggesting that additional kinases that phosphorylate and control FOXOs activity exist. In order to identify novel regulators of FOXO3, we have employed a proteomics screening strategy. Using HeLa cancer cell line and a Tandem Affinity Purification followed by Mass Spectrometry analysis, we identified several proteins as binding partners of FOXO3. Noteworthy, Polo Like Kinase 1 (PLK1) proto-oncogene was one of the identified FOXO3 binding partners. PLK1 plays a critical role during cell cycle (G2-M transition and all phases of mitosis) and in maintenance of genomic stability. Our experimental results presented in this manuscript demonstrate that FOXO3 and PLK1 exist in a molecular complex through most of the phases of the cell cycle, with a higher occurrence in the G2-M cell cycle phases. PLK1 induces translocation of FOXO3 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and suppresses FOXO3 activity, measured by the decrease in the pro-apoptotic Bim protein levels and in the cell cycle inhibitor protein p27. Furthermore, PLK1 can directly phosphorylate FOXO3 in an in vitro kinase assay. These results present the discovery of PLK1 proto-oncogene as a binding partner and a negative regulator of FOXO3 tumor suppressor.
Project description:The gene FOXO3, encoding the transcription factor forkhead box O-3 (FoxO3), is one of only two for which genetic polymorphisms have exhibited consistent associations with longevity in diverse human populations.Here, we review the multitude of actions of FoxO3 that are relevant to health, and thus healthy ageing and longevity.The study involved a literature search for articles retrieved from PubMed using FoxO3 as keyword.We review the molecular genetics of FOXO3 in longevity, then current knowledge of FoxO3 function relevant to ageing and lifespan. We describe how FoxOs are involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, proteostasis, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, metabolic processes, immunity, inflammation and stem cell maintenance. The single FoxO in Hydra confers immortality to this fresh water polyp, but as more complex organisms evolved, this role has been usurped by the need for FoxO to control a broader range of specialized pathways across a wide spectrum of tissues assisted by the advent of as many as 4 FoxO subtypes in mammals. The major themes of FoxO3 are similar, but not identical, to other FoxOs and include regulation of cellular homeostasis, particularly of stem cells, and of inflammation, which is a common theme of age-related diseases. Other functions concern metabolism, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, destruction of potentially damaging reactive oxygen species and proteostasis.The mechanism by which longevity-associated alleles of FOXO3 reduce age-related mortality is currently of great clinical interest. The prospect of optimizing FoxO3 activity in humans to increase lifespan and reduce age-related diseases represents an exciting avenue of clinical investigation. Research strategies directed at developing therapeutic agents that target FoxO3, its gene and proteins in the pathway(s) FoxO3 regulates should be encouraged and supported.
Project description:DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is the key regulator of the non-homologous end joining pathway of DNA double-strand break repair. We have previously reported that DNA-PKcs is required for maintaining chromosomal stability and mitosis progression. Our further investigations reveal that deficiency in DNA-PKcs activity caused a delay in mitotic entry due to dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), the key driving force for cell cycle progression through G2/M transition. Timely activation of Cdk1 requires polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), which affects modulators of Cdk1. We found that DNA-PKcs physically interacts with Plk1 and could facilitate Plk1 activation both in vitro and in vivo. Further, DNA-PKcs-deficient cells are highly sensitive to Plk1 inhibitor BI2536, suggesting that the coordination between DNA-PKcs and Plk1 is not only crucial to ensure normal cell cycle progression through G2/M phases but also required for cellular resistance to mitotic stress. On the basis of the current study, it is predictable that combined inhibition of DNA-PKcs and Plk1 can be employed in cancer therapy strategy for synthetic lethality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The deubiquitinase USP7 has been identified as an oncogene with key roles in tumorigenesis and therapeutic resistance for a series of cancer types. Recently small molecular inhibitors have been developed to target USP7. However, the anticancer mechanism of USP7 inhibitors is still elusive. METHODS:Cell viability or clonogenicity was tested by violet crystal assay. Cell apoptosis or cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and chromosome misalignment was observed by a fluorescent microscopy. The protein interaction of PLK1 and USP7 was detected by tandem affinity purification and high throughput proteomics, and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation, GST pull-down and protein co-localization. The correlation between USP7 level of tumor tissues and taxane-resistance was evaluated. RESULTS:Pharmacological USP7 inhibition by P5091 retarded cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. Further studies showed that P5091 induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and particularly induced chromosome misalignment, indicating the key roles of USP7 in mitosis. USP7 protein was detected in the PLK1-interacted protein complex. USP7 interacts with PLK1 protein through its PBD domain by catalytic activity. USP7 as a deubiquitinase sustained PLK1 protein stability via the C223 site, and inversely, USP7 inhibition by P5091 promoted the protein degradation of PLK1 through the ubiquitination-proteasome pathway. By overexpressing PLK1, USP7 that had been depleted by RNAi ceased to induce chromosome misalignment in mitosis and again supported cell proliferation and cell survival. Both USP7 and PLK1 were overexpressed in taxane-resistant cancer cells, and negatively correlated with the MP scores in tumor tissues. Either USP7 or PLK1 knockdown by RNAi significantly sensitized taxane-resistant cells to taxane cell killing. CONCLUSION:This is the first report that PLK1 is a novel substrate of USP7 deubiquitinase, and that USP7 sustained the protein stability of PLK1. USP7 inhibition induces cell apoptosis and cell cycle G2/M arrest, and overcomes taxane resistance by inducing the protein degradation of PLK1, resulting in chromosome misalignment in mitosis.
Project description:Homologous recombination (HR) plays an important role in the maintenance of genome integrity. HR repairs broken DNA during S and G2 phases of the cell cycle but its regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), which is vital for cell proliferation and is frequently upregulated in cancer cells, phosphorylates the essential Rad51 recombinase at serine 14 (S14) during the cell cycle and in response to DNA damage. Strikingly, S14 phosphorylation licenses subsequent Rad51 phosphorylation at threonine 13 (T13) by casein kinase 2 (CK2), which in turn triggers direct binding to the Nijmegen breakage syndrome gene product, Nbs1. This mechanism facilitates Rad51 recruitment to damage sites, thus enhancing cellular resistance to genotoxic stresses. Our results uncover a role of Plk1 in linking DNA damage recognition with HR repair and suggest a molecular mechanism for cancer development associated with elevated activity of Plk1.
Project description:RATIONALE:In the mammalian heart, cardiomyocytes withdraw from the cell cycle and initiate hypertrophic growth soon after birth, but the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control these neonatal transitions are not well-defined. OBJECTIVE:Forkhead family transcription factors have been implicated as positive (forkhead box [Fox] transcription factor M1) and negative (FoxO1 and FoxO3) regulators of cardiomyocyte proliferation prenatally, but their regulatory interactions and functions in neonatal cell-cycle withdrawal have not been reported previously. Potential regulators of Fox activity, including the metabolic indicator AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Fox transcriptional targets (p21, p27, insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF1]) also were examined. METHODS AND RESULTS:In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, AMPK activates FoxOs, and AMPK inhibition is sufficient to induce cell proliferation. In vivo, combined loss of FoxO1 and FoxO3 specifically in cardiomyocytes leads to delayed cell-cycle withdrawal and increased expression of IGF1 and FoxM1. Conversely, cardiomyocyte-specific loss of FoxM1 results in decreased neonatal cardiomyocyte cell proliferation, decreased expression of IGF1, and increased expression of cell-cycle inhibitors p21 and p27. IGF1 is a direct downstream target of cardiac Fox transcription factors, which is negatively regulated by FoxOs and positively regulated by FoxM1, dependent on AMPK activation status. CONCLUSIONS:These data support a regulatory mechanism whereby the balance of FoxO and FoxM1 transcription factors integrates metabolic status, mediated by AMPK, and cell-cycle regulation, through competitive regulation of target genes, including IGF1, in neonatal cardiomyocytes.
Project description:This 89-node Boolean model of mammalian growth factor signaling can reproduce oscillations in PI3K signaling in cycling cells, and links these oscillations to the regulatory networks that drive each phase of cell cycle progression, as well as apoptosis. It builds on our previous work on modeling cell cycle progression as the interaction of two linked multi-stable switches (Deritei et al, Sci Rep 6:21957, 2016) and extends it to capture the role of Plk1 in cell cycle progression.
The resulting model reproduces the following experimentally documented cell behaviors:
— cyclic PI3K/AKT1 activity in dividing cells, which remain in sync with the cell cycle
— apoptosis in response to prolonged mitosis or mitotic catastrophe
— four distinct, experimentally documented cell fates caused by Plk1 inhibition, depending on the
timing of Plk1 loss; namely, G2 arrest, mitotic catastrophe, premature anaphase and chromosome mis-segregation leading to aneuploidy, and failure to complete cytokinesis following telophase, which can lead to genome duplication
— failure of cytokinesis and accumulation of binucleate telophase cells driven by hyperactive PI3K, hyperactive Ak1, or FoxO inhibition.
— the effect of a large number of knockdown / forced activation mutations
— PI3K degradation in response to high PI3K activation is driven by the Neddl4 ubiquitin ligase activated by PLCγ, while its re-synthesis requires nuclear re-accumulation of FoxO3.
— The degradation/re-synthesis cycle of PI3K occurs twice per division cycle, synchronized by Plk1-mediated inhibition of FoxO3 during metaphase/anaphase.
— Cells in which PI3K is inhibited after the start of DNA synthesis can nevertheless pre-commit to another cell cycle in the presence of saturating growth stimulation (passing the restriction point in late metaphase), albeit at lower rates than wild-type cells.
— Cell cycle defects in response to PI3K/Ak1 over-activation or FoxO knockdown are driven by a loss of Plk1 in telophase.
Project description:Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors are key players in diverse cellular processes affecting tumorigenesis, stem cell maintenance and lifespan. To gain insight into the mechanisms of FOXO-regulated target gene expression, we studied genome-wide effects of FOXO3 activation. Profiling RNA polymerase II changes shows that FOXO3 regulates gene expression through transcription initiation. Correlative analysis of FOXO3 and RNA polymerase II ChIP-seq profiles demonstrates FOXO3 to act as a transcriptional activator. Furthermore, this analysis reveals a significant part of FOXO3 gene regulation proceeds through enhancer regions. FOXO3 binds to pre-existing enhancers and further activates these enhancers as shown by changes in histone acetylation and RNA polymerase II recruitment. In addition, FOXO3-mediated enhancer activation correlates with regulation of adjacent genes and pre-existence of chromatin loops between FOXO3 bound enhancers and target genes. Combined, our data elucidate how FOXOs regulate gene transcription and provide insight into mechanisms by which FOXOs can induce different gene expression programs depending on chromatin architecture.
Project description:Activation of the DNA damage checkpoint causes a cell-cycle arrest through inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). To successfully recover from the arrest, a cell should somehow be maintained in its proper cell-cycle phase. This problem is particularly eminent when a cell arrests in G2, as cdk activity is important to establish a G2 state. Here, we identify the phosphatase Wip1 (PPM1D) as a factor that maintains a cell competent for cell-cycle re-entry during an ongoing DNA damage response in G2. We show that Wip1 function is required throughout the arrest, and that Wip1 acts by antagonizing p53-dependent repression of crucial mitotic inducers, such as Cyclin B and Plk1. Our data show that the primary function of Wip1 is to retain cellular competence to divide, rather than to silence the checkpoint to promote recovery. Our findings uncover Wip1 as a first in class recovery competence gene, and suggest that the principal function of Wip1 in cellular transformation is to retain proliferative capacity in the face of oncogene-induced stress.
Project description:Supernumerary centrioles lead to abnormal mitosis, which in turn promotes tumorigenesis. Thus, centriole duplication must be coordinated with the cell cycle to ensure that the number of centrioles in the cell doubles precisely during each cell cycle. However, in some transformed cells, centrioles undergo multiple rounds of duplication (reduplication) during prolonged interphase. Mechanisms responsible for centriole reduplication are poorly understood. Here, we report that centrioles reduplicate consistently in cancerous and nontransformed human cells during G2 arrests and that this reduplication requires the activity of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). We also find that a cell's ability to reduplicate centrioles during S arrests depends on the presence of activated (Thr210-phosphorylated) Plk1 at the centrosome. In the absence of activated Plk1, nascent procentrioles remain associated with mother centrioles, which prevents centriole reduplication. In contrast, if Plk1(pT210) appears at the centrosome, procentrioles mature, disengage from mother centrioles, and ultimately duplicate. Plk1 activity is not required for the assembly of procentrioles, however. Thus, the role of Plk1 is to coordinate the centriole duplication cycle with the cell cycle. Activation of Plk1 during late S/G2 induces procentriole maturation, and after this point, the centriole cycle can be completed autonomously, even in the absence of cell-cycle progression.
Project description:CD8 T cell responses have three phases: expansion, contraction, and memory. Dynamic alterations in proliferation and apoptotic rates control CD8 T cell numbers at each phase, which in turn dictate the magnitude of CD8 T cell memory. Identification of signaling pathways that control CD8 T cell memory is incomplete. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway controls cell growth in many cell types by modulating the activity of FOXO transcription factors. But the role of FOXOs in regulating CD8 T cell memory remains unknown. We show that phosphorylation of Akt, FOXO and mTOR in CD8 T cells occurs in a dynamic fashion in vivo during an acute viral infection. To elucidate the potentially dynamic role for FOXO3 in regulating homeostasis of activated CD8 T cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, we infected global and T cell-specific FOXO3-deficient mice with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV). We found that FOXO3 deficiency induced a marked increase in the expansion of effector CD8 T cells, preferentially in the spleen, by T cell-intrinsic mechanisms. Mechanistically, the enhanced accumulation of proliferating CD8 T cells in FOXO3-deficient mice was not attributed to an augmented rate of cell division, but instead was linked to a reduction in cellular apoptosis. These data suggested that FOXO3 might inhibit accumulation of growth factor-deprived proliferating CD8 T cells by reducing their viability. By virtue of greater accumulation of memory precursor effector cells during expansion, the numbers of memory CD8 T cells were strikingly increased in the spleens of both global and T cell-specific FOXO3-deficient mice. The augmented CD8 T cell memory was durable, and FOXO3 deficiency did not perturb any of the qualitative attributes of memory T cells. In summary, we have identified FOXO3 as a critical regulator of CD8 T cell memory, and therapeutic modulation of FOXO3 might enhance vaccine-induced protective immunity against intracellular pathogens.