Absence of both Sos-1 and Sos-2 in peripheral CD4(+) T cells leads to PI3K pathway activation and defects in migration.
ABSTRACT: Sos-1 and Sos-2 are ubiquitously expressed Ras-guanine exchange factors involved in Erk-MAP kinase pathway activation. Using mice lacking genes encoding Sos-1 and Sos-2, we evaluated the role of these proteins in peripheral T-cell signaling and function. Our results confirmed that TCR-mediated Erk activation in peripheral CD4(+) T cells does not depend on Sos-1 and Sos-2, although IL-2-mediated Erk activation does. Unexpectedly, however, we show an increase in AKT phosphorylation in Sos-1/2dKO CD4(+) T cells upon TCR and IL-2 stimulation. Activation of AKT was likely a consequence of increased recruitment of PI3K to Grb2 upon TCR and/or IL-2 stimulation in Sos-1/2dKO CD4(+) T cells. The increased activity of the PI3K/AKT pathway led to downregulation of the surface receptor CD62L in Sos-1/2dKO T cells and a subsequent impairment in T-cell migration.
Project description:Sos proteins are ubiquitously expressed activators of Ras. Lymphoid cells also express RasGRP1, another Ras activator. Sos and RasGRP1 are thought to cooperatively control full Ras activation upon T-cell receptor triggering. Using RNA interference, we evaluated whether this mechanism operates in primary human T cells. We found that T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated Erk activation requires RasGRP1, but not Grb2/Sos. Conversely, Grb2/Sos—but not RasGRP1—are required for IL2-mediated Erk activation. Thus, RasGRP1 and Grb2/Sos are insulators of signals that lead to Ras activation induced by different stimuli, rather than cooperating downstream of the TCR.
Project description:Thymocytes convert graded T cell receptor (TCR) signals into positive selection or deletion, and activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), p38, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) has been postulated to play a discriminatory role. Two families of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs), SOS and RasGRP, activate Ras and the downstream RAF-MEK-ERK pathway. The pathways leading to lymphocyte p38 and JNK activation are less well defined. We previously described how RasGRP alone induces analog Ras-ERK activation while SOS and RasGRP cooperate to establish bimodal ERK activation. Here we employed computational modeling and biochemical experiments with model cell lines and thymocytes to show that TCR-induced ERK activation grows exponentially in thymocytes and that a W729E allosteric pocket mutant, SOS1, can only reconstitute analog ERK signaling. In agreement with RasGRP allosterically priming SOS, exponential ERK activation is severely decreased by pharmacological or genetic perturbation of the phospholipase C? (PLC?)-diacylglycerol-RasGRP1 pathway. In contrast, p38 activation is not sharply thresholded and requires high-level TCR signal input. Rac and p38 activation depends on SOS1 expression but not allosteric activation. Based on computational predictions and experiments exploring whether SOS functions as a RacGEF or adaptor in Rac-p38 activation, we established that the presence of SOS1, but not its enzymatic activity, is critical for p38 activation.
Project description:Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunits p110? and p110? are targets in cancer therapy expressed at high levels in T lymphocytes. The role of p110? PI3K in normal or pathological immune responses is well established, yet the importance of p110? subunits in T cell-dependent immune responses is not clear. To address this problem, mice with p110? conditionally deleted in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (p110?-/-?T) were used. p110?-/-?T mice show normal development of T cell subsets, but slightly reduced numbers of CD4+ T cells in the spleen. "In vitro," TCR/CD3 plus CD28 activation of naive CD4+ and CD8+ p110?-/-?T T cells showed enhanced effector function, particularly IFN-? secretion, T-bet induction, and Akt, Erk, or P38 activation. Tfh derived from p110?-/-?T cells also have enhanced responses when compared to normal mice, and IL-2 expanded p110?-/-?T CD8+ T cells had enhanced levels of LAMP-1 and Granzyme B. By contrast, the expansion of p110?-/-?T iTreg cells was diminished. Also, p110?-/-?T mice had enhanced anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IFN-?, or IL-4 responses and IgG1 and IgG2b anti-KLH antibodies, using CFA or Alum as adjuvant, respectively. When compared to WT mice, p110?-/-?T mice inoculated with B16.F10 melanoma showed delayed tumor progression. The percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes was higher and the percentage of Treg cells lower in the spleen of tumor-bearing p110?-/-?T mice. Also, IFN-? production in tumor antigen-activated spleen cells was enhanced. Thus, PI3K p110? plays a significant role in antigen activation and differentiation of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes modulating antitumor immunity.
Project description:Regulation of the ERK pathway is intimately involved in determining whether TCR stimulation is productive or induces anergy. T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased ERK responsiveness, which may be relevant for disease pathogenesis. Inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? did not reproduce the TCR hypersensitivity typical for RA in T cells from healthy individuals. In contrast, priming with the homeostatic cytokines (HCs) IL-7 and IL-15 amplified ERK phosphorylation to TCR stimulation 2- to 3-fold. The underlying mechanism involved a priming of the SOS-dependent amplification loop of RAS activation. The sensitization of the TCR signaling pathway has downstream consequences, such as increased proliferation and preferential Th1 differentiation. Importantly, priming with IL-7 or IL-15 enabled T cell responses to autoantigens associated with RA. Production of HCs is induced in lymphopenic conditions, which have been shown to predispose for autoimmunity and which appear to be present in the preclinical stages of RA. We propose that HCs, possibly induced by lymphopenia, decrease the signaling threshold for TCR activation and are thereby partly responsible for autoimmunity in RA.
Project description:CD4(+) T cells use the chemokine receptor CCR7 to home to and migrate within lymphoid tissue, where T-cell activation takes place. Using primary T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic (tg) CD4(+) T cells, we explored the effect of CCR7 ligands, in particular CCL21, on T-cell activation. We found that the presence of CCL21 during early time points strongly increased in vitro T-cell proliferation after TCR stimulation, correlating with increased expression of early activation markers. CCL21 costimulation resulted in increased Ras- and Rac-GTP formation and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK but not p38 or JNK. Kinase-dead PI3Kdelta(D910A/D910A) or PI3Kgamma-deficient TCR-tg CD4(+) T cells showed similar responsiveness to CCL21 costimulation as control CD4(+) T cells. Conversely, deficiency in the Rac guanine exchange factor DOCK2 significantly impaired CCL21-mediated costimulation in TCR-tg CD4(+) T cells, concomitant with impaired Rac- but not Ras-GTP formation. Using lymph node slices for live monitoring of T-cell behavior and activation, we found that G protein-coupled receptor signaling was required for early CD69 expression but not for Ca(2+) signaling. Our data suggest that the presence of CCL21 during early TCR signaling lowers the activation threshold through Ras- and Rac-dependent pathways leading to increased ERK phosphorylation.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection caused PCV2-associated diseases (PCVAD) is one of the major emerging immunosuppression diseases in pig industry. In this study, we investigated how PCV2 inoculation increases interleukin (IL)-10 expression in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). PCV2 inoculation significantly upregulated IL-10 expression compared with PCV1. Upon initial PCV2 inoculation, PI3K/Akt cooperated with NF-?B pathways to promote IL-10 transcription via p50, CREB and Ap1 transcription factors, whereas inhibition of PI3K/Akt activation blocked Ap1 and CREB binding to the il10 promoter, and decreased the binding level of NF-?B1 p50 with il10 promoter, leading to great reduction in early IL-10 transcription. In the later phase of inoculation, PCV2 further activated p38 MAPK and ERK pathways to enhance IL-10 production by promoting Sp1 binding to the il10 promoter. For PCV2-induced IL-10 production in macrophages, PCV2 capsid protein Cap, but not the replicase Rep or ORF3, was the critical component. Cap activated PI3K/Akt, p38 MAPK, and ERK signaling pathways to enhance IL-10 expression. In the whole process, gC1qR mediated PCV2-induced PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation to enhance IL-10 induction by interaction with Cap. Depletion of gC1qR blocked PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation, resulting in significant decrease in IL-10 production in PCV2-inoculated cells. Thus, gC1qR might be a critical functional receptor for PCV2-induced IL-10 production. Taken together, these data demonstrated that Cap protein binding with host gC1qR induction of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signalings activation is a critical process in enhancing PCV2-induced IL-10 production in porcine alveolar macrophages.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase gamma (PI3K?) is a leukocyte-specific lipid kinase with signaling function downstream of G protein-coupled receptors to regulate cell trafficking, but its role in T cells remains unclear. To investigate the requirement of PI3K? kinase activity in T-cell function, we studied T cells from PI3K? kinase-dead knock-in (PI3K?(KD/KD)) mice expressing the kinase-inactive PI3K? protein. We show that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from PI3K?(KD/KD) mice exhibit impaired TCR/CD28-mediated activation that could not be rescued by exogenous IL-2. The defects in proliferation and cytokine production were also evident in naïve and memory T cells. Analysis of signaling events in activated PI3K?(KD/KD) T cells revealed a reduction in phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and ERK1/2, a decrease in lipid raft formation, and a delay in cell cycle progression. Furthermore, PI3K?(KD/KD) CD4(+) T cells displayed compromised differentiation toward Th1, Th2, Th17, and induced Treg cells. PI3K?(KD/KD) mice also exhibited an impaired response to immunization and a reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity to Ag challenge. These findings indicate that PI3K? kinase activity is required for optimal T-cell activation and differentiation, as well as for mounting an efficient T cell-mediated immune response. The results suggest that PI3K? kinase inhibitors could be beneficial in reducing the undesirable immune response in autoimmune diseases.
Project description:High glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) surface expression is associated with increased glycolytic activity in activated CD4+ T cells. Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) activation measured by p-Akt and OX40 is elevated in CD4+Glut1+ T cells from HIV+ subjects. TCR engagement of CD4+Glut1+ T cells from HIV+ subjects demonstrates hyperresponsive PI3K-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. High basal Glut1 and OX40 on CD4+ T cells from combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated HIV+ patients represent a sufficiently metabolically active state permissive for HIV infection in vitro without external stimuli. The majority of CD4+OX40+ T cells express Glut1, thus OX40 rather than Glut1 itself may facilitate HIV infection. Furthermore, infection of CD4+ T cells is limited by p110? PI3K inhibition. Modulating glucose metabolism may limit cellular activation and prevent residual HIV replication in 'virologically suppressed' cART-treated HIV+ persons.
Project description:TLR2 activation plays a crucial role in Neisseria gonorrheae-mediated enhancement of HIV infection of resting CD4(+) T cells. We examined signaling pathways involved in the HIV enhancing effect of TLR2. TLR2 but not IL-2 signals promoted HIV nuclear import; however, both signals were required for the maximal enhancing effect. Although TLR2 signaling could not activate T cells, it increased IL-2-induced T cell activation. Cyclosporin A and IkB? inhibitor blocked TLR2-mediated enhancement of HIV infection/nuclear import. PI3K inhibitor blocked HIV infection/nuclear import and T cell activation and exerted a moderate inhibitory effect on cell cycle progression in CD4(+) T cells activated by TLR2/IL-2. Blockade of p38 signaling suppressed TLR2-mediated enhancement of HIV nuclear import/infection. However, the p38 inhibitor did not have a significant effect on T cell activation or TCR/CD3-mediated enhancement of HIV infection/nuclear import. The cell cycle arresting reagent aphidicolin blocked TLR2- and TCR/CD3-induced HIV infection/nuclear import. Finally, cyclosporin A and I?B? and PI3K inhibitors but not the p38 inhibitor blocked TLR2-mediated I?B? phosphorylation. Our results suggest that TLR2 activation enhances HIV infection/nuclear import in resting CD4(+) T cells through both T cell activation-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
Project description:Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are implicated in many cellular responses controlled by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Within this pathway, Rac is a key downstream target/effector of PI3K. However, how the signal is routed from PI3K to Rac is unclear. One possible candidate for this function is the Rac-activating complex Eps8-Abi1-Sos-1, which possesses Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity. Here, we show that Abi1 (also known as E3b1) recruits PI3K, via p85, into a multimolecular signaling complex that includes Eps8 and Sos-1. The recruitment of p85 to the Eps8-Abi1-Sos-1 complex and phosphatidylinositol 3, 4, 5 phosphate (PIP3), the catalytic product of PI3K, concur to unmask its Rac-GEF activity in vitro. Moreover, they are indispensable for the activation of Rac and Rac-dependent actin remodeling in vivo. On growth factor stimulation, endogenous p85 and Abi1 consistently colocalize into membrane ruffles, and cells lacking p85 fail to support Abi1-dependent Rac activation. Our results define a mechanism whereby propagation of signals, originating from RTKs or Ras and leading to actin reorganization, is controlled by direct physical interaction between PI3K and a Rac-specific GEF complex.