Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) in glomerular and tubulointerstitial fibrosis.
ABSTRACT: Renal fibrosis is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease progression and is characterized by an exaggerated wound-healing process with the production of renal scar tissue. It comprises both the glomerular and the tubulointerstitial compartments. Among the factors that contribute to kidney fibrosis, the members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family are among the best characterized ones. They appear to be the key factors in driving renal fibrosis, independent of the underlying kidney disease. The PDGF family consists of four isoforms (PDGF-A, -B, -C, and -D) and two receptor chains (PDGFR-α and -β), which are constitutively or inducibly expressed in most renal cells. These components have an irreplaceable role in kidney development by recruitment of mesenchymal cells to the glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. They further regulate multiple pathophysiologic processes including cell proliferation, cell migration, expression and accumulation of extracellular matrix, production and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, vascular permeability, and hemodynamics. This review provides a brief update on the role of different PDGF isoforms in the development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, newly identified endogeneous PDGF antagonists, and resulting potential therapies.
Project description:Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a common end point of chronic kidney diseases, and preventing its progression is key to avoiding renal failure. Transforming growth factor?? (TGF??) and associated molecules promote tubulointerstitial fibrosis; however, effective therapies targeting these molecules have yet to be developed. Lysyl oxidase?like 2 (LOXL2), which is involved in invasive growth and metastasis of malignant neoplasms, has recently been reported to serve a key role in hepatic and pulmonary fibrosis. However, little is currently known regarding LOXL2 expression in the kidney and its involvement in tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The present study evaluated LOXL2 expression in human and mouse kidney tissues, as well as in cultured renal cells. LOXL2 protein expression was detected in glomerular capillary loops and tubular epithelial cells in human and mouse kidneys. Glomerular LOXL2 was localized to the cytoplasm of podocytes, as determined by double immunofluorescence microscopy using a podocyte marker (synaptopodin). This result was supported by western blot analysis, which demonstrated that LOXL2 protein expression is present in cultured human podocytes and HK?2 human proximal tubular cells. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of LOXL2 were higher in a mouse model of tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with in control mice. In addition, immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that LOXL2 is present in the fibrous interstitium and infiltrating mononuclear cells in a mouse model of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The present study demonstrated that LOXL2 is expressed in compartments of renal tissue, where it appears to contribute to the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis.
Project description:AIM:Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a small peptide that is involved in mucosal protection. TFF3 is widely expressed in multiple tissues including kidney tissue. Previous studies have reported that the levels of urinary TFF3 are significantly increased in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study is to detect the TFF3 mRNA in kidney and elucidate the relationship between renal TFF3 mRNA and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). METHODS:We investigated the renal mRNA expression of TFF3 by real-time PCR analysis in biopsy specimens from patients with IgAN, other glomerulonephritis (OGN) and minor glomerular abnormalities (MGA). We also determined the renal localization of TFF3 and the levels of urinary TFF3 by immunostaining and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS:The renal TFF3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with the urinary TFF3 secretion and the tubulointerstitial fibrosis score in the IgAN group alone. Immunostaining of the renal specimen of IgAN patients revealed that TFF3 is located in the renal tubular epithelial cells. The locations were almost the same as those that showed uromodulin positivity; specifically, the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the loop of Henle and the early portion of the distal tubule. The urinary TFF3 levels were positively correlated with the levels of urinary biomarkers of tubulointerstitial injury in such patients. CONCLUSION:Renal TFF3 mRNA is associated with renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in IgAN patients. The TFF3 located in the renal tubular epithelial cells may play a role in the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in IgAN patients.
Project description:In chronic kidney disease (CKD), progressive nephron loss causes glomerular sclerosis, as well as tubulointerstitial fibrosis and progressive tubular injury. In this study, we aimed to identify molecular changes that reflected the histopathological progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and tubular cell damage. A discovery set of renal biopsies were obtained from 48 patients with histopathologically confirmed CKD, and gene expression profiles were determined by microarray analysis. The results indicated that hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (also known as Kidney Injury Molecule-1, KIM-1), lipocalin 2 (also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL), SRY-box 9, WAP four-disulfide core domain 2, and NK6 homeobox 2 were differentially expressed in CKD. Their expression levels correlated with the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis and tubular cell injury, determined by histopathological examination. The expression of these 5 genes was also increased as kidney damage progressed in a rodent unilateral ureteral obstruction model of CKD. We calculated a molecular score using the microarray gene expression profiles of the biopsy specimens. The composite area under the receiver operating characteristics curve plotted using this molecular score showed a high accuracy for diagnosing tubulointerstitial fibrosis and tubular cell damage. The robust sensitivity of this score was confirmed in a validation set of 5 individuals with CKD. These findings identified novel molecular markers with the potential to contribute to the detection of tubular cell damage and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidney.
Project description:Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is recognized as a key determinant of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fucoidan, a sulphated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, exerts beneficial effects in some nephropathy models. The present study evaluated the inhibitory effect of oligo-fucoidan (800?Da) on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. We established a mouse CKD model by right nephrectomy with transient ischemic injury to the left kidney. Six weeks after the surgery, we fed the CKD mice oligo-fucoidan at 10, 20, and 100?mg/kg/d for 6 weeks and found that the oligo-fucoidan doses less than 100?mg/kg/d improved renal function and reduced renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in CKD mice. Oligo-fucoidan also inhibited pressure-induced fibrotic responses and the expression of CD44, ?-catenin, and TGF-? in rat renal tubular cells (NRK-52E). CD44 knockdown downregulated the expression of ?-catenin and TGF-? in pressure-treated cells. Additional ligands for CD44 reduced the anti-fibrotic effect of oligo-fucoidan in NRK-52E cells. These data suggest that oligo-fucoidan at the particular dose prevents renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in a CKD model. The anti-fibrotic effect of oligo-fucoidan may result from interfering with the interaction between CD44 and its extracellular ligands.
Project description:Collectin-11 is a recently described soluble C-type lectin, a pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system that has distinct roles in host defense, embryonic development, and acute inflammation. However, little is known regarding the role of collectin-11 in tissue fibrosis. Here, we investigated collectin-11 in the context of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Compared with wild-type littermate controls, Collec11 deficient (CL-11-/- ) mice had significantly reduced renal functional impairment, tubular injury, renal leukocyte infiltration, renal tissue inflammation/fibrogenesis, and collagen deposition in the kidneys after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. In vitro, recombinant collectin-11 potently promoted leukocyte migration and renal fibroblast proliferation in a carbohydrate-dependent manner. Additionally, compared with wild-type kidney grafts, CL-11-/-mice kidney grafts displayed significantly reduced tubular injury and collagen deposition after syngeneic kidney transplant. Our findings demonstrate a pathogenic role for collectin-11 in the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis and suggest that local collectin-11 promotes this fibrosis through effects on leukocyte chemotaxis and renal fibroblast proliferation. This insight into the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial fibrosis may have implications for CKD mediated by other causes as well.
Project description:Renal fibrosis arises by the generation of matrix-producing fibroblasts and myofibroblasts through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process in which epithelial cells undergo a transition into a fibroblast phenotype. A key feature of the EMT is the reorganization of the cytoskeletons, which may involve the Ca2+-binding protein S100A16, a newly reported member of the S100 protein family. However, very few studies have examined the role of S100A16 in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In this study, S100A16 expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining of kidney biopsy specimens from patients with various nephropathies and kidney tissues from a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model. Renal histological changes were investigated in S100A16Tg, S100A16+/-, and WT mouse kidneys after UUO. The expression of epithelia marker E-cadherin, mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, and vimentin, extracellular matrix protein, and S100A16, as well as the organization of F-actin, were investigated in S100A16 overexpression or knockdown HK-2 cells. Mass spectrometry was employed to screen for S100A16 binding proteins in HK-2 cells. The results indicated that S100A16 is high expressed and associated with renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in patient kidney biopsies and in those from UUO mice. S100A16 promotes renal interstitial fibrosis in UUO mice. S100A16 expression responded to increasing Ca2+ and interacted with myosin-9 during kidney injury or TGF-? stimulation to promote cytoskeleton reorganization and EMT progression in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Therefore, S100A16 is a critical regulator of renal tubulointerstitial fibroblast activation and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of renal fibrosis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The renal vasculature plays important roles in both homeostasis and pathology. In this study, we examined pathological changes in the renal microvascular in mouse models of kidney diseases.<h4>Methods</h4>Glomerular lesions (GLs) in autoimmune disease-prone male BXSB/MpJ-Yaa (Yaa) mice and tubulointerstitial lesions (TILs) in male C57BL/6 mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) for 7 days were studied. Collected kidneys were examined using histopathological techniques. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test (P < 0.05) was performed to compare healthy controls and the experimental mice. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare three or more groups, and multiple comparisons were performed using Scheffe's method when significant differences were observed (P < 0.05).<h4>Results</h4>Yaa mice developed severe autoimmune glomerulonephritis, and the number of CD34<sup>+</sup> glomerular capillaries decreased significantly in GLs compared to that in control mice. However, UUO-treated mice showed severe TILs only, and CD34<sup>+</sup> tubulointerstitial capillaries were decreased significantly in TILs with the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared to those in untreated control kidneys. Infiltrations of B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages increased significantly in the respective lesions of both disease models (P < 0.05). In observations of vascular corrosion casts by scanning electron microscopy and of microfil rubber-perfused thick kidney sections by fluorescence microscopy, segmental absences of capillaries were observed in the GLs and TILs of Yaa and UUO-treated mice, respectively. Further, transmission electron microscopy revealed capillary endothelial injury in the respective lesions of both models. The numbers of CD34<sup>+</sup> glomerular and tubulointerstitial capillaries were negatively correlated with all examined parameters in GLs (P < 0.05) and TILs (P < 0.01), respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>From the analysis of mouse models, we identified inverse pathological correlations between the number of local capillaries in GLs and TILs and the severity of kidney diseases.
Project description:Fibrosis of the glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments is a common feature of chronic kidney disease leading to end-stage renal failure. This fibrotic process involves a number of pathologic mechanisms, including cell death and inflammation. This review focuses on the role of the c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in the development of renal fibrosis. The JNK pathway is activated in response to various cellular stresses and plays an important role in cell death and inflammation. Activation of JNK signaling is a common feature in most forms of human kidney injury, evident in both intrinsic glomerular and tubular cells as well as in infiltrating leukocytes. Similar patterns of JNK activation are evident in animal models of acute and chronic renal injury. Administration of JNK inhibitors can protect against acute kidney injury and suppress the development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In particular, JNK activation in tubular epithelial cells may be a pivotal mechanism in determining the outcome of both acute kidney injury and progression of chronic kidney disease. JNK signaling promotes tubular epithelial cell production of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic molecules as well as tubular cell de-differentiation toward a mesenchymal phenotype. However, the role of JNK within renal fibroblasts is less well-characterized. The JNK pathway interacts with other pro-fibrotic pathways, most notable with the TGF-?/SMAD pathway. JNK activation can augment TGF-? gene transcription, induce expression of enzymes that activate the latent form of TGF-?, and JNK directly phosphorylates SMAD3 to enhance transcription of pro-fibrotic molecules. In conclusion, JNK signaling plays an integral role in several key mechanisms operating in renal fibrosis. Targeting of JNK enzymes has therapeutic potential for the treatment of fibrotic kidney diseases.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in North Central Province of Sri Lanka has become a key public health concern in the agricultural sector due to the dramatic rise in its prevalence and mortality among young farmers. Although cadmium has been suspected as a causative pathogen, there have been controversies. To date, the pathological characteristics of the disease have not been reported. Histopathological observations of 64 renal biopsies obtained at Anuradhapura General Hospital from October 2008 to July 2009 were scored according to Banff 97 Working Classification of Renal Allograft pathology. The correlations between the histological observations and clinical parameters were statistically analyzed. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with or without nonspecific interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was the dominant histopathological observation. Glomerular sclerosis, glomerular collapse, and features of vascular pathology such as fibrous intimal thickening and arteriolar hyalinosis were also common. Although hypertension was identified as one of the common clinical features among the cases, it did not influence the histopathological lesions in all the cases. This study concludes that tubulointerstitial damage is the major pathological lesion in CKDu. Exposure(s) to an environmental pathogen(s) should be systematically investigated to elucidate such tubulointerstitial damage in CKDu.
Project description:A growing body of evidence indicates that renal tissue injuries are reversible. We investigated whether dietary salt reduction with the combination therapy of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) plus calcium channel blocker (CCB) reverses renal tissue injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) hypertensive rats. DSS rats were fed a high-salt diet (HS; 4% NaCl) for 4 weeks. Then, DSS rats were given one of the following for 10 weeks: HS diet; normal-salt diet (NS; 0.5% NaCl), NS + an ARB (olmesartan, 10 mg/kg/day), NS + a CCB (azelnidipine, 3 mg/kg/day), NS + olmesartan + azelnidipine or NS + hydralazine (50 mg/kg/day). Four weeks of treatment with HS diet induced hypertension, proteinuria, glomerular sclerosis and hypertrophy, glomerular podocyte injury, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DSS rats. A continued HS diet progressed hypertension, proteinuria and renal tissue injury, which was associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and increased proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production in the kidney. In contrast, switching to NS halted the progression of hypertension, renal glomerular and tubular injuries. Dietary salt reduction with ARB or with CCB treatment further reduced blood pressure and partially reversed renal tissues injury. Furthermore, dietary salt reduction with the combination of ARB plus CCB elicited a strong recovery from HS-induced renal tissue injury including the attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These data support the hypothesis that dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of an ARB plus CCB restores glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in DSS rats.