MiR-744 functions as a proto-oncogene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression and metastasis via transcriptional control of ARHGAP5.
ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive and metastasis-prone epithelial cancer. The paucity of effective treatment strategies for recurrent and metastatic NPC is the major cause for stagnating survival rate of NPC. Therefore, it's urgent to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying NPC progression and identify novel avenues for targeted therapy. It has emerged recently that microRNAs are potential pro-tumorigenic or tumor-suppressive factors that participate in oncogenesis. In this study, we found that miR-744 expression was upregulated in NPC specimens compared to nasopharyngeal epithelium (NPE) tissue, and miR- 744 upregulation was significantly associated with TNM stage, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Functional studies revealed that miR-744 acts as a novel tumor promotor in NPC. Moreover, we determined that miR-744 targets ARHGAP5 (Rho GTPase activating protein 5), a protumorigenic gene, by directly interacting with its promoter and thereby regulating its expression at transcriptional level. Reintroduction of ARHGAP5 resembled the effects of miR-744 and silencing of ARHGAP5 clearly abrogated miR-744-induced enhancement of cell migration and invasion. High level of ARHGAP5 was positively correlated with that of miR-744 and with advanced stages of NPC, as well as with lymph node metastasis. Taken together, these data reveal for the first time that miR-744 exerts its proto-oncogenic function by directly targeting ARHGAP5 promoter. This newly identified miR-744/ARHGAP5 pathway provides further insight into the progression and metastasis of NPC and indicates potential novel therapeutic targets for NPC.
Project description:Background: Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is a lethal disease; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear and require further study. Methods: RNA-Seq, PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, ChIP and RNAi assays were performed to investigate Rho GTPase-activating protein 5 (ARHGAP5, aslo known as p190RhoGAP-B, p190-B) expression and the clinical relevance, functional roles and regulatory mechanisms of this protein using human CRC cells and tissues. In vivo, two cell-based xenograft models were used to evaluate the roles of ARHGAP5 in CRC metastasis. Results: Here, we report that ARHGAP5 expression is significantly increased in metastatic CRC tissues and is inversely associated with patient overall survival. The suppression of ARHGAP5 reduces CRC cell metastasis in vitro and in cell-based xenograft models. Furthermore, we show that ARHGAP5 promotes CRC cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition by negatively regulating RhoA activity. Mechanistically, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB1) transcriptionally upregulates ARHGAP5 expression, and decreased miR-137 further contributes to ARHGAP5 mRNA stability in CRC. Conclusions: Overall, our study highlights the crucial function of ARHGAP5 in CRC metastasis, thus suggesting novel prognostic biomarkers and hypothetical therapeutic targets.
Project description:We have previously shown that miR-486-5p is one of the most downregulated micro RNAs in lung cancer. The objective of the study was to investigate the role of miR-486-5p in the progression and metastasis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated miR-486-5p expression status on 76 frozen and 33 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of NSCLC by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR to determine its clinicopathologic significance. We then performed function analysis of miR-486-5p to determine its potential roles on cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. We also investigated the target genes of miR-486-5p in lung tumorigenesis. miR-486-5p expression level was significantly lower in lung tumors compared with their corresponding normal tissues (P<0.0001), and associated with stage (P=0.0001) and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC (P=0.0019). Forced expression of miR-486-5p inhibited NSCLC cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in mice by inhibiting cell proliferation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-486-5p in cancer cells reduced ARHGAP5 expression level, whereas miR-486-5p silencing increased its expression. Luciferase assay demonstrated that miR-486-5p could directly bind to the 3'-untranslated region of ARHGAP5. The expression level of miR-486-5p was inversely correlated with that of ARHGAP5 in lung tumor tissues (P=0.0156). Reduced expression of ARHGAP5 considerably inhibited lung cancer cell migration and invasion, resembling that of miR-486-5p overexpression. miR-486-5p may act as a tumor-suppressor contributing to the progression and metastasis of NSCLC by targeting ARHGAP5. miR-486-5p would provide potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for the disease.
Project description:Upregulation of miR-744 is associated with poor prognosis in many types of cancer patients, but it is still unclear how miR-744 becomes elevated in these tumors. In this study, we found that ectopic c-Jun elevated miR-744 expression, whereas c-Jun attenuation reduced miR-744 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the direct binding of c-Jun to the promoter of miR-744. The binding site of -343 to -349 bp within the most potential promoter like sequence of miR-744 was further validated by luciferase reporter gene assays. C-Jun-induced miR-744 upregulation could significantly promote migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, hence ectopic c-Jun was sufficient to rescue the migratory and invasive ability of these cells when miR-744 was knockdown. Additionally, a positive correlation between the expression levels of miR-744 and c-Jun was revealed in NSCLC samples with high (top 10%) level of miR-744 expression from the TCGA dataset. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time the regulatory mechanism of miR-744 transcription by c-Jun, providing a potential mechanism underlying the upregulation of miR-744 in cancers.
Project description:Recent studies demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) deregulated in many cancer tissues including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and had critical roles in cancer progression and metastasis. In this study, we aimed to assess a lncRNA LINC01420 expression in NPC and explore its role in NPC pathogenesis. Our research revealed that the expression level of LINC01420 in NPC tissues were higher than nasopharyngeal epithelial (NPE) tissues. Moreover, NPC patients with high LINC01420 expression level showed poor overall survival. Knockdown LINC01420 inhibited NPC cell migration and invasion in vitro. In summary, LINC01420 may play a critical role in NPC progression and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in NPC patients.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) ranks among the top five malignant tumors worldwide by the incidence and mortality rate. However, the mechanisms underlying its progression are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT1, a class III deacetylase, in the invasion and metastasis of GC. Here, we found that knockdown of SIRT1 promoted GC cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Forced expression of SIRT1 in GC cells had the opposite effects. Then, we used mRNA microarray to identify the target genes that are regulated by SIRT1 and found that ARHGAP5 was downregulated by SIRT1. The results of the mRNA microarray were confirmed in several GC cell lines. Furthermore, SIRT1 inhibited the expression of ARHGAP5 by physically associating with transcription factor c-JUN and deacetylating and inhibiting the transcriptional activity of c-JUN. Then the expression dynamics and clinical significance of ARHGAP5 were analyzed using clinical samples and database. The expression of ARHGAP5 was increased in GC, and positively correlated with tumor size, tumor infiltration, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage. And multivariate analyses indicated that ARHGAP5 served as an independent prognostic marker of GC. In addition, the biological effects of ARHGAP5 in SIRT1-mediated inhibition of GC migration and invasion were investigated using both in vitro and in vivo models. Silencing of ARHGAP5 considerably inhibited the migration and invasion of GC, and ARHGAP5 was found to be involved in the SIRT1-mediated inhibition of GC migration and invasion. Our results indicate that SIRT1 suppresses migration and invasion of GC by downregulating ARHGAP5 through an interaction with c-JUN, and these phenomena represent a novel mechanism of the antitumor action of SIRT1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs have added a new dimension to our understanding of liver cirrhosis (LC) and associated processes like the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). METHODS:Serum samples were collected from 40 LC patients and 30 healthy donors. CCl4-induced LC mouse model in vivo and in vitro human HSC LX-2 and murine HSC JS-1 cells were researched. RESULTS:The levels of serum microRNA (miR)-744 is inversely correlated with the severity of LC and is a reliable biomarker of LC. In CCl4-induced LC model, the abundance of miR-744 was reduced in both sera and livers compared with sham controls. Importantly, increasing miR-744 abundance with synthetic miR-744 Agomir alleviated liver fibrosis, a critical component of LC, while reducing miR-744 with Antagomir exacerbated it. To elucidate molecular mechanism underlying the suppressive role of miR-744 in LC, we observed that miR-744 and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1) are inversely correlated in LC patients' sera as well as sera/livers from CCl4-induced LC mice. We demonstrated that miR-744 Agomir downregulated the expression of TGF?1 and further confirmed that TGF?1 mRNA was a bona fide miR-744 target in HSCs. Moreover, miR-744 Agomir reduced the degree of F-actin formation and cell proliferation while miR-744 Antagomir promoted these events, suggesting that miR-744 is a negative regulator of HSC activation. CONCLUSIONS:MiR-744-led suppression in HSC activation is most likely through TGF?1 because exogenous TGF?1 nearly negated miR-744 Agomir's action. This study suggests that reduction of miR-744 is a reliable biomarker for LC and miR-744/TGF?1 relationship is a key regulator of LC.
Project description:This study aims to explore novel microRNAs in plasma for screening cancer and predicting clinical outcomes in pancreatic cancer (PCa) patients using a microRNA array-based approach.We used the Toray 3D-Gene microRNA array-based approach to compare plasma levels between PCa patients and healthy volunteers.(1) Six oncogenic microRNAs (miR-615-5p, -744, -575, -557, -675, and -550a) with high expression in plasma were selected. (2) By quantitative RT-PCR using plasma samples from 94 PCa patients and 68 healthy volunteers, a significantly higher level of plasma miR-744 in PCa patients than in healthy volunteers was validated in small-scale analysis (P=0.0038), two independent cohort analyses, and large-scale analysis (P<0.0001, AUC 0.8307). (3) miR-744 expression was significantly higher in PCa tissues (P=0.0069) and PCa cell lines (P=0.0074) than in normal tissues and fibroblasts, respectively. Preoperative plasma level of miR-744 was significantly reduced in postoperative samples (P=0.0063). (4) A high level of plasma miR-744, which was correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.0407) and recurrences (P=0.0376), was an independent poor prognostic factor of PCa patients after pancreatectomy (P=0.0007, HR 21.2 (3.17-436)). Furthermore, a high level of plasma miR-744 contributed to poorer progression-free survival of non-operable PCa patients who underwent gemcitabine-based chemotherapy (P=0.0533). Overexpression of miR-744 in PCa cells induced significant chemoresistance to gemcitabine in vitro.Plasma miR-744 might be useful biomarker for screening PCa, monitoring, and predicting poor prognosis and chemoresistance in PCa patients.
Project description:Chemotherapy is a crucial adjuvant therapy of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, enhancing sensitivity and tolerance of chemotherapeutics in NPC treatment have been challenging. Both Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, 2 pro-survival proteins of Bcl-2 family, play essential roles on the chemotherapy tolerance of numerous cancers. In the present study, we explored the influences of TW-37, a small molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, on the efficiency of chemotherapy for NPC. Oncomine cancer database shows that NPC tissues have higher expression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 than those of normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (NPE) tissues. And our results reveal that chemotherapeutics, Cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-Fluoracil (5-FU), result in the greater decrease of protein level of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 in NPC cells than those in NPE cells. TW-37 does not have significant impact on the chemotherapeutics-treated NPE cell viability at a dosage that efficiently reduces chemotherapeutics-treated NPC cell viability. Moreover, impacts of TW-37 on the cell viability of chemotherapeutics-treated NPC cells are dependent on the expression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 in NPC cells. Further explorations suggest that TW-37 prominently promotes apoptosis in NPC cells under chemotherapeutics treatments but not in NPE cells. Meanwhile, TW-37 also remarkably reduces colony formation ability of chemotherapeutics-treated NPC cells. Importantly, in vivo models, TW-37 observably increases chemosensitivity of NPC tumors but has not markedly influence on the normal tissues in mice. In conclusion, our results point to TW-37 as a promising ancillary drug for the chemotherapy of NPC.
Project description:Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) are commonly present with latent EBV infection. However, events regulating EBV infection at early stages of the disease and the role of EBV in disease pathogenesis are largely undefined. Genetic alterations leading to activation of cyclin D1 signaling in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial (NPE) cells have been postulated to predispose cells to EBV infection. We previously reported that loss of p16, a negative regulator of cyclin D1 signaling, is a frequent feature of NPC tumors. Here, we report that early premalignant lesions of nasopharyngeal epithelium overexpress cyclin D1. Furthermore, overexpression of cyclin D1 is closely associated with EBV infection. Therefore we investigated the potential role of cyclin D1 overexpression in dysplastic NPE cells in vitro. In human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized NPE cells, overexpression of cyclin D1 or a p16-resistant form of CDK4 (CDK4(R24C)) suppressed differentiation. This suppression may have implications for the close association of EBV infection with undifferentiated NPC. In these in vitro models, we found that cellular growth arrest and senescence occurred in EBV-infected cell populations immediately after infection. Nevertheless, overexpression of cyclin D1 or a p16-resistant form of CDK4 or knockdown of p16 in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized NPE cell lines could counteract the EBV-induced growth arrest and senescence. We conclude that dysregulated expression of cyclin D1 in NPE cells may contribute to NPC pathogenesis by enabling persistent infection of EBV.
Project description:Accumulated evidence indicate that miR-744 functions as either tumor suppressor or oncogene in the progression of a variety of tumors, with a tumor type-specific way. However, little is known about how miR-744 impacts on the tumorigenesis of human prostate cancer. In this study, employing the analyses of microarray, qRT-PCR and re-analysis of MSKCC data, we found that CRPC tissues expressed much more miR-744 than ADPC tissues did, and the expression level of miR-744 was inversely associated with survival of CRPC patients. In vitro studies revealed that miR-744 promotes PCa cells proliferation, enhances migration, invasion; in vivo results demonstrated that silencing of miR-744 mediated by shRNA dramatically reduces PCa xenograft tumor growth. Importantly, through human gene expression array, pathway enrichment analysis and Western blot, we identified that miR-744 dramatically activated Wnt/?-catenin pathway by targeting multiple negative regulators of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, including SFRP1, GSK3?, TLE3 and NKD1. At molecular level, we further defined that NKD1 is a major functional target of miR-744. Our findings indicate that miR-744 acts as one of oncogenic factor in the progression of CRPC by recruiting a mechanism of aberrant activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling.