Biogeography of the Phalaenopsis amabilis species complex inferred from nuclear and plastid DNAs.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Phalaenopsis is one of the important commercial orchids in the world. Members of the P. amabilis species complex represent invaluable germplasm for the breeding program. However, the phylogeny of the P. amabilis species complex is still uncertain. The Phalaenopsis amabilis species complex (Orchidaceae) consists of subspecies amabilis, moluccana, and rosenstromii of P. amabilis, as well as P. aphrodite ssp. aphrodite, P. ap. ssp. formosana, and P. sanderiana. The aims of this study were to reconstruct the phylogeny and biogeographcial patterns of the species complex using Neighbor Joining (NJ), Maxinum Parsimony (MP), Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST) and Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP) analyses based on sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 from the nuclear ribosomal DNA and the trnH-psbA spacer from the plastid DNA. RESULTS:A pattern of vicariance, dispersal, and vicariance?+?dispersal among disjunctly distributed taxa was uncovered based on RASP analysis. Although two subspecies of P. aphrodite could not be differentiated from each other in dispersal state, they were distinct from P. amabilis and P. sanderiana. Within P. amabilis, three subspecies were separated phylogenetically, in agreement with the vicariance or vicariance?+?dispersal scenario, with geographic subdivision along Huxley's, Wallace's and Lydekker's Lines. Molecular dating revealed such subdivisions among taxa of P. amabilis complex dating back to the late Pleistocene. Population-dynamic analyses using a Bayesian skyline plot suggested that the species complex experienced an in situ range expansion and population concentration during the late Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). CONCLUSIONS:Taxa of the P. amabilis complex with disjunct distributions were differentiated due to vicariance or vicariance?+?dispersal, with events likely occurring in the late Pleistocene. Demographic growth associated with the climatic oscillations in the Würm glacial period followed the species splits. Nevertheless, a subsequent population slowdown occurred in the late LGM due to extinction of regional populations. The reduction of suitable habitats resulted in geographic fragmenttation of the remaining taxa.
Project description:The moth orchid (Phalaenopsis species) is an ornamental crop that is highly commercialized worldwide. Over 30,000 cultivars of moth orchids have been registered at the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS). These cultivars were obtained by artificial pollination of interspecific hybridization. Therefore, the identification of different cultivars is highly important in the worldwide market.We used Illumina sequencing technology to analyze an important species for breeding, Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana and develop the expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. After de novo assembly, the obtained sequence covered 29.1 Mb, approximately 2.2% of the P. aphrodite subsp. formosana genome (1,300 Mb), and a total of 1,439 EST-SSR loci were detected. SSR occurs in the exon region, including the 5' untranslated region (UTR), coding region (CDS), and 3'UTR, on average every 20.22 kb. The di- and tri-nucleotide motifs (51.49% and 35.23%, respectively) were the two most frequent motifs in the P. aphrodite subsp. formosana. To validate the developed EST-SSR loci and to evaluate the transferability to the genus Phalaenopsis, thirty tri-nucleotide motifs of the EST-SSR loci were randomly selected to design EST-SSR primers and to evaluate the polymorphism and transferability across 22 native Phalaenopsis species that are usually used as parents for moth orchid breeding. Of the 30 EST-SSR loci, ten polymorphic and transferable SSR loci across the 22 native taxa can be obtained. The validated EST-SSR markers were further proven to discriminate 12 closely related Phalaenopsis cultivars. The results show that it is not difficult to obtain universal SSR markers by transcriptome deep sequencing in Phalaenopsis species.This study supported that transcriptome analysis based on deep sequencing is a powerful tool to develop SSR loci in non-model species. A large number of EST-SSR loci can be isolated, and about 33.33% EST-SSR loci are universal markers across the Phalaenopsis breeding germplasm after preliminary validation. The potential universal EST-SSR markers are highly valuable for identifying all of Phalaenopsis cultivars.
Project description:The study of island fauna has greatly informed our understanding of the evolution of diversity. We here examine the phylogenetics, biogeography, and diversification of the damselfly genera Nesobasis and Melanesobasis, endemic to the Fiji Islands, to explore mechanisms of speciation in these highly speciose groups. Using mitochondrial (COI, 12S) and nuclear (ITS) replicons, we recovered garli-part maximum likelihood and mrbayes Bayesian phylogenetic hypotheses for 26 species of Nesobasis and eight species/subspecies of Melanesobasis. Biogeographical patterns were explored using lagrange and bayes-lagrange and interpreted through beast relaxed clock dating analyses. We found that Nesobasis and Melanesobasis have radiated throughout Fiji, but are not sister groups. For Nesobasis, while the two largest islands of the archipelago-Viti Levu and Vanua Levu-currently host two distinct species assemblages, they do not represent phylogenetic clades; of the three major groupings each contains some Viti Levu and some Vanua Levu species, suggesting independent colonization events across the archipelago. Our beast analysis suggests a high level of species diversification around 2-6 Ma. Our ancestral area reconstruction (rasp-lagrange) suggests that both dispersal and vicariance events contributed to the evolution of diversity. We thus conclude that the evolutionary history of Nesobasis and Melanesobasis is complex; while inter-island dispersal followed by speciation (i.e., peripatry) has contributed to diversity, speciation within islands appears to have taken place a number of times as well. This speciation has taken place relatively recently and appears to be driven more by reproductive isolation than by ecological differentiation: while species in Nesobasis are morphologically distinct from one another, they are ecologically very similar, and currently are found to exist sympatrically throughout the islands on which they are distributed. We consider the potential for allopatric speciation within islands, as well as the influence of parasitic endosymbionts, to explain the high rates of speciation in these damselflies.
Project description:'Suture zones' are areas where hybrid and contact zones of multiple taxa are clustered. Such zones have been regarded as strong evidence for allopatric divergence by proponents of the Pleistocene forest refugia theory, a vicariance hypothesis frequently used to explain diversification in the Amazon basin. A central prediction of the refugia and other vicariance theories is that the taxa should have a common history so that divergence times should be coincident among taxa. A suture zone for Ithomiinae butterflies near Tarapoto, NE Peru, was therefore studied to examine divergence times of taxa in contact across the zone. We sequenced 1619bp of the mitochondrial COI/COII region in 172 individuals of 31 species from across the suture zone. Inferred divergence times differed remarkably, with divergence between some pairs of widespread species (each of which may have two or more subspecies interacting in the zone, as in the genus Melinaea) being considerably less than that between hybridizing subspecies in other genera (for instance in Oleria). Our data therefore strongly refute a simple hypothesis of simultaneous vicariance and suggest that ongoing parapatric or other modes of differentiation in continuous forest may be important in driving diversification in Amazonia.
Project description:Allopatry and allopatric speciation can arise through two different mechanisms: vicariance or colonization through dispersal. Distinguishing between these different allopatric mechanisms is difficult and one of the major challenges in biogeographical research. Here, we address whether allopatric isolation in an endemic island lizard is the result of vicariance or dispersal. We estimated the amount and direction of gene flow during the divergence of isolated islet populations and subspecies of the endemic Skyros wall lizard Podarcis gaigeae, a phenotypically variable species that inhabits a major island and small islets in the Greek archipelago. We applied isolation-with-migration models to estimate population divergence times, population sizes and gene flow between islet-mainland population pairs. Divergence times were significantly correlated with independently estimated geological divergence times. This correlation strongly supports a vicariance scenario where islet populations have sequentially become isolated from the major island. We did not find evidence for significant gene flow within P. g. gaigeae. However, gene-flow estimates from the islet to the mainland populations were positively affected by islet area and negatively by distance between the islet and mainland. We also found evidence for gene flow from one subspecies (P. g. weigandi) into another (P. g. gaigeae), but not in the other direction. Ongoing gene flow between the subspecies suggests that even in this geographically allopatric scenario with the sea posing a strong barrier to dispersal, divergence with some gene flow is still feasible.
Project description:We investigated the relative importance of dispersal and vicariance in forming the Madagascar insect fauna, sequencing approximately 2300bp from three rRNA gene regions to investigate the phylogeny of Afrotropical small minnow mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Six lineages contained trans-oceanic sister taxa, and variation in genetic divergence between sister taxa revealed relationships that range from very recent dispersal to ancient vicariance. Dispersal was most recent and frequent in species that spend the larval stage in standing water, adding to evidence that these evolutionarily unstable habitats may select for ecological traits that increase dispersal in insects. Ancestral state likelihood analysis suggested at least one Afrotropical lineage had its origin in Madagascar, demonstrating that unidirectional dispersal from a continental source may be too simplistic. We conclude that the Malagasy mayfly fauna should be considered in a biogeographical context that extends beyond Madagascar itself, encompassing trans-oceanic dispersal within multiple lineages.
Project description:: The butterfly tribe Aeromachini Tutt, 1906 is a large group of skippers. In this study, a total of 10 genera and 45 species of putative members of this tribe, which represent most of the generic diversity and nearly all the species diversity of the group in China, were sequenced for two mitochondrial genes and three nuclear genes (2093 bp). The combined dataset was analyzed with maximum likelihood inference using IQtree. We found strong support for monophyly of Aeromachini from China and support for the most recent accepted species in the tribe. Two paraphyletic genera within Aeromachini are presented and discussed. The divergence time estimates with BEAST and ancestral-area reconstructions with RASP provide a detailed description about the historical biogeography of the Aeromachini from China. The tribe very likely originated from the Hengduan Mountains in the late Ecocene and expanded to the Himalaya Mountains and Central China Regions. A dispersal-vicariance analysis suggests that dispersal events have played essential roles in the distribution of extant species, and geological and climatic changes have been important factors driving current distribution patterns.
Project description:Pollen biology in P. aphrodite. Orchids have a distinct reproductive program. Pollination triggers ovule development and differentiation within flowers, and fertilization occurs days to months after pollination. It is unclear how pollen tubes travel through the developing ovaries during ovule development and when pollen tubes arrive at the mature embryo sac to achieve fertilization. Here, we report a robust staining protocol to image and record the timing of pollen germination, progressive growth of pollen tubes in ovaries, and arrival of pollen tubes at embryo sacs in Phalaenopsis aphrodite. The pollen germinated and pollen tubes entered the ovary 3 days after pollination. Pollen tubes continued to grow and filled the entire cavity of the ovary as the ovary elongated and ovules developed. Pollen tubes were found to enter the matured embryo sacs at approximately 60-65 days after pollination in an acropetal manner. Moreover, these temporal changes in developmental events such as growth of pollen tubes and fertilization were associated with expression of molecular markers. In addition, we developed an in vitro pollen germination protocol, which is valuable to enable studies on pollen tube guidance and tip growth regulation in Phalaenopsis orchids and possibly in other orchid species.
Project description:During the Late Devonian Biodiversity Crisis, the primary driver of biodiversity decline was the dramatic reduction in speciation rates, not elevated extinction rates; however, the causes of speciation decline have been previously unstudied. Speciation, the formation of new species from ancestral populations, occurs by two primary allopatric mechanisms: vicariance, where the ancestral population is passively divided into two large subpopulations that later diverge and form two daughter species, and dispersal, in which a small subset of the ancestral population actively migrates then diverges to form a new species. Studies of modern and fossil clades typically document speciation by vicariance in much higher frequencies than speciation by dispersal. To assess the mechanism behind Late Devonian speciation reduction, speciation rates were calculated within stratigraphically constrained species-level phylogenetic hypotheses for three representative clades and mode of speciation at cladogenetic events was assessed across four clades in three phyla: Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, and Mollusca. In all cases, Devonian taxa exhibited a congruent reduction in speciation rate between the Middle Devonian pre-crisis interval and the Late Devonian crisis interval. Furthermore, speciation via vicariance is almost entirely absent during the crisis interval; most episodes of speciation during this time were due to dispersal. The shutdown of speciation by vicariance during this interval was related to widespread interbasinal species invasions. The lack of Late Devonian vicariance is diametrically opposed to the pattern observed in other geologic intervals, which suggests the loss of vicariant speciation attributable to species invasions during the Late Devonian was a causal factor in the biodiversity crisis. Similarly, modern ecosystems, in which invasive species are rampant, may be expected to exhibit similar shutdown of speciation by vicariance as an outcome of the modern biodiversity crisis.
Project description:CONSTANS (CO) and CONSTANS-like (COL) genes play important roles in coalescing signals from photoperiod and temperature pathways. However, the mechanism of CO and COLs involved in regulating the developmental stage transition and photoperiod/temperature senescing remains unclear. In this study, we identified a COL ortholog gene from the Taiwan native orchid Phalaenopsis aphrodite. The Phalaenopsis aphrodite CONSTANS-like 1 (PaCOL1) belongs to the B-box protein family and functions in the nucleus and cytosol. Expression profile analysis of Phalaenopsis aphrodite revealed that PaCOL1 was significantly expressed in leaves, but its accumulation was repressed during environmental temperature shifts. We found a differential profile for PaCOL1 accumulation, with peak accumulation at late afternoon and at the middle of the night. Arabidopsis with PaCOL1 overexpression showed earlier flowering under short-day (SD) conditions (8 h/23 °C light and 16 h/23 °C dark) but similar flowering time under long-day (LD) conditions (16 h/23 °C light and 8 h/23 °C dark). Transcriptome sequencing revealed several genes upregulated in PaCOL1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants that were previously involved in flowering regulation of the photoperiod pathway. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis revealed that PaCOL1 could interact with a crucial clock-associated regulator, AtCCA1, and a flowering repressor, AtFLC. Furthermore, expressing PaCOL1 in cca1.lhy partially reversed the mutant flowering time under photoperiod treatment, which confirms the role of PaCOL1 function in the rhythmic associated factors for modulating flowering.
Project description:Phalaenopsis is one of the most important potted plants in the ornamental market of the world. Previous reports implied that crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) orchids at their young seedling stages might perform C3 or weak CAM photosynthetic pathways, but the detailed molecular evidence is still lacking. In this study, we used a key species in white Phalaenopsis breeding line, Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana, to study the ontogenetical changes of CAM performance in Phalaenopsis. Based on the investigations of rhythms of day/night CO2 exchange, malate contents and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities, it is suggested that a progressive shift from C3 to CAM occurred as the protocorms differentiated the first leaf. To understand the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PEPC kinase) in relation to its target PEPC in CAM performance in Phalaenopsis, the expression profiles of the genes encoding PEPC (PPC) and PEPC kinase (PPCK) were measured in different developmental stages. In Phalaenopsis, two PPC isogenes were constitutively expressed over a 24-h cycle similar to the housekeeping genes in all stages, whereas the significant day/night difference in PaPPCK expression corresponds to the day/night fluctuations in PEPC activity and malate level. These results suggest that the PaPPCK gene product is most likely involved in regulation of CAM performance in different developmental stages of Phalaenopsis seedlings.