ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To investigate the correlation between KCNA5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and idiopathic atrial fibrillation (IAF). METHODS:A case-control study was conducted, including 282 cases of IAF patients and 300 cases of age and sex-matched normal controls; gene sequencing method was used to detect the distribution of KCNA5 SNP (rs3741930 and rs1056468) in the two groups. The IAF patients were divided into two groups based on the different genotypes of rs1056468 and rs3741930; differences in clinical parameters between the two groups of patients were compared. RESULTS:For rs3741930, the CC, CT and TT genotype frequencies in the IAF group were 16.7%, 50.0%, and 33.3% respectively; C allele frequency in IAF group was 41.7%; in the normal control group, those were 10.0%, 49.3%, 40.7% and 34.7% respectively; CC genotype frequency and C allele frequency in IAF group were significantly higher compared with the control group (P=0.019, P=0.014). For rs1056468, the AA, AT and TT genotype frequencies in the IAF group were 44.3%, 48.6%, and 7.1% respectively; in 300 cases of normal controls, those were 38.7%, 50.7%, and 10.6% respectively; A allele frequency in IAF group was 68.6 %, and it was 64.0% in normal controls. There were no significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies between control and IAF groups (P>0.05). In IAF group, among different genotypes of rs1741930 and rs1056468, there were no significant differences in age, SBP, DBP, HR, LAD and LVEF (P>0.05). While the BMI in CC and CC+TT groups of rs3741930 locus were 26.9±2.3 Kg/m(2) and 24.8±2.5 Kg/m(2) respectively. There were statistical differences between the two groups (P=0.019). BMI in AA and AA+TT groups of rs1056468 locus were 24.9±2.7 Kg/m(2) and 26.4±2.4 Kg/m(2) respectively; There was statistically significant significance between the two groups (P=0.014). CONCLUSION:The single nucleotide polymorphism rs3741930 locus in KCNA5 gene was related to the risk of IAF; the population carrying C allele was more susceptible to IAF; the polymorphic loci, rs3741930 and rs1056468, were correlated with the BMI of IAF patients.