Mobile genetic elements related to the diffusion of plasmid-mediated AmpC ?-lactamases or carbapenemases from Enterobacteriaceae: findings from a multicenter study in Spain.
ABSTRACT: We examined the genetic context of 74 acquired ampC genes and 17 carbapenemase genes from 85 of 640 Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in 2009. Using S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization, 37 of 74 bla AmpC genes were located on large plasmids of different sizes belonging to six incompatibility groups. We used sequencing and PCR mapping to investigate the regions flanking the acquired ampC genes. The bla CMY-2-like genes were associated with ISEcp1; the surrounding bla DHA genes were similar to Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmid pTN60013 associated with IS26 and the psp and sap operons; and the bla ACC-1 genes were associated with IS26 elements inserted into ISEcp1. All of the carbapenemase genes (bla VIM-1, bla IMP-22, and bla IMP-28) were located in class 1 integrons. Therefore, although plasmids are the main cause of the rapid dissemination of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae, we need to be aware that other mobile genetic elements, such as insertion sequences, transposons, or integrons, can be involved in the mobilization of these genes of chromosomal origin. Additionally, three new integrons (In846 to In848) are described in this study.
Project description:Enterobacter cloacae has recently emerged as one of the most common carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The emergence and spread of metallo-?-lactamase-producing E. cloacae have posed an immediate threat globally. Here, we investigated the molecular characteristics of 84 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae (CREL) collected from three tertiary hospitals in China between 2012 and 2016. Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using a VITEK-2 system. Carbapenems, polymyxins B, and tigecycline were tested by broth microdilution method. The carbapenem in activation method (CIM) and cefoxitin three-dimensional test were used to detect carbapenemase and AmpC ?-lactamase, respectively. Isolates were screened for ?-lactam resistance genes by PCR, and expression of ompC and ompF was determined by qRT-PCR. Genetic relatedness was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), while selected isolates were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Among the 84 CREL isolates, 50 (59.5%) were detected as carbapenemase producers. NDM-1 was the dominant carbapenemase (80.0%), followed by IMP-26 (8.0%) and IMP-4 (6.0%). Notably, we identified the first NDM-1 and IMP-1 co-producing E. cloacae, carrying plasmids of several incompatibility (Inc) groups, including IncHI2, IncHI2A, and IncN. Most isolates showed decreased expression of ompC and/or ompF, and contained a broad distribution of ESBLs and AmpC ?-lactamases. These findings suggested that different molecular mechanisms, including carbapenemase, ESBL and/or AmpC plus loss of porins, have contributed to carbapenem resistance. The bla NDM-1-harboring plasmids contained highly conserved gene environment around bla NDM-1 (bla NDM-1-ble MBL-trpF-dsbD-cutA1-groES-groEL), which could be associated with the potential dissemination of bla NDM-1. IMP-type MBL was located within a variety of integrons and usually contained various gene cassettes encoding multidrug resistance. These isolates produced 54 different pulsotypes, and were classified into 42 STs by MLST. Nineteen bla NDM-1-positive E. cloacae isolates obtained from Ningxia had the same pulsotype (PFGE type 1), belonging to ST78 within clonal complex 74 (CC74). The plasmid-based replicon typing indicated that IncX3 plasmids mediated the dissemination of bla NDM-1 among these homologous strains. This is the first report on the outbreak of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae ST78 with contribution of IncX3 plasmids in Northwestern China. There's an immediate need to intensify surveillance attentively to prevent and control the further spread of NDM-1 in China.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Previously 14 conjugative plasmids from multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli from healthy humans and food-producing animals in Switzerland were sequenced. The aim of this study was to extend the genetic characterization of these plasmids with a focus on bla ESBL genes including bla CTX-M-1 and bla TEM, class 1 integrons and toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems contained therein. METHODS:The nucleotide sequences and subsequent annotation therein of 14 conjugative plasmids were previously determined from their corresponding transconjugants. The TA loci were confirmed by RASTA-Bacteria. RESULTS:Eight of the conjugative plasmids identified were found to encode genes expressing ESBLs. Structural heterogeneity was noted in the regions flanking both the bla CTX-M-1 and bla TEM genes. The bla CTX-M-1 genes were associated with the common insertion sequences ISEcp1 and IS26, and uniquely with an IS5 element in one case; while bla TEM genes were found to be associated with IS26 and Tn2. A new bla TEM-210 gene was identified. Seven class 1 integrons were also identified and assigned into 3 groups, denoted as In54, In369 and In501. Sixteen TA loci belonging to 4 of the TA gene families (relBE, vapBC, ccd and mazEF) were identified on 11 of these plasmids. CONCLUSIONS:Comparative sequence analysis of these plasmids provided data on the structures likely to contribute to sequence diversity associated with these accessory genes, including IS26, ISEcp1 and Tn2. All of them contribute to the dissemination of the corresponding resistance genes located on the different plasmids. There appears to be no association between ?-lactam encoding genes and TA systems.
Project description:Cefoxitin-resistant Escherichia coli (n = 109) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 16) isolates collected from patients in India in 2009 to 2010 were screened for bla(ampC) families and mobilizing elements (ISEcp1, IS26, ISCR1, and sul-1-type class 1 integrons) and their association with bla(ampC) and for the occurrence of class A beta-lactamases (BLs) (CTX-M, TEM, and SHV). The concurrent occurrences of two distinct AmpC families (bla(CIT) and bla(EBC)) and of class A with class C beta-lactamase were observed. All but one of the isolates harboring CTX-M extended-spectrum BLs (ESBLs) were carrying bla(CTX-M) genogroup 1; the remaining isolate carried bla(CTX-M) genogroup 9. The mobilizing elements occurred in different combinations in the study isolates.
Project description:The complete nucleotide sequences of six IMP-4-encoding plasmids recovered from Enterobacteriaceae isolates of wildlife origin were characterized. Sequencing data showed that plasmids of different incompatibility groups (IncM, IncI1, IncF, and nontypeable [including an IncX5_2 and two pPrY2001-like]) carried the blaIMP-4-carrying integrons In809 or In1460. Most of the plasmids carried an mph(A) region, and chrA-like, aac(3)-IId, and blaTEM-1b genes. Finally, plasmid analysis revealed the involvement of two different IS26- and Tn1696-associated mechanisms in the mobilization of IMP-4-encoding integrons.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We determined the prevalence and evidence for physical linkage amongst integrons, insertion sequences, Tn21 and Tn7 transposons in a collection of 1327 E. coli obtained over a 19-year period from patients in Kenya. RESULTS: The prevalence of class 1 integrons was 35%, class 2 integrons were detected in 3 isolates but no isolate contained a class 3 integron. Integron lacking the 3'-CS or those linked to sul3 gene or IS26 or those containing the ISCR1 were only detected in multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. The dfrAs were the most common cassettes and their prevalence was: - dfrA1(28%), dfrA12(20%), dfA17(9%), dfrA7(9%), and dfrA16(5%). The aadA were the second most abundant cassettes and their prevalence was: - aadA1(25%), aadA2(21%), and aadA5(14%). Other cassettes occurred in lower prevalence of below 5%. Prevalence of Tn21, ISEcp1, ISCR1 and IS26 was 22%, 10%, 15%, and 7% respectively. Majority of Tn21 containing integrons carried a complete set of transposition genes while class 2 integrons were borne on Tn7 transposon. The qnrA genes were detected in 34(3%) isolates while 19(1%) carried qnrB. All qnr genes were in MDR strains carrying integrons containing the ISCR1. Close to 88% of bla(TEM-52) were linked to IS26 while ? 80% of bla(CTX-Ms) and bla(CMYs) were linked to ISEcp1. Only a few studies have identified a bla(CTX-M-9) containing an ISEcp1 element as reported in this study. Multiple genetic elements, especially those borne on incIl, incFII, and incL/M plasmids, and their associated resistance genes were transferrable en bloc to E. coli strain J53 in mating experiments. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed study on the prevalence of selected elements implicated in evolution of resistance determinants in a large collection of clinical E. coli in Africa. Proliferation of such strains carrying multiple resistance elements is likely to compromise the use of affordable and available treatment options for majority of poor patients in Africa. There is therefore a need to monitor the spread of these highly resistant strains in developing countries through proper infection control and appropriate use of antimicrobials.
Project description:We studied the genetic organization of bla(ACC-1) in 14 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from France, Tunisia, and Germany. In a common ancestor, ISEcp1 was likely involved in the mobilization of this gene from the Hafnia alvei chromosome to a plasmid. Other genetic events involving insertion sequences (particularly IS26), transposons (particularly Tn1696), or sulI-type integrons have occurred, leading to complex genetic environments.
Project description:BACKGROUND: CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli strains are regarded as major global pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The nucleotide sequence of three plasmids (pEC_B24: 73801-bp; pEC_L8: 118525-bp and pEC_L46: 144871-bp) from Escherichia coli isolates obtained from patients with urinary tract infections and one plasmid (pEC_Bactec: 92970-bp) from an Escherichia coli strain isolated from the joint of a horse with arthritis were determined. Plasmid pEC_Bactec belongs to the IncI1 group and carries two resistance genes: bla(TEM-1) and bla(CTX-M-15). It shares more than 90% homology with a previously published bla(CTX-M)-plasmid from E. coli of human origin. Plasmid pEC_B24 belongs to the IncFII group whereas plasmids pEC_L8 and pEC_L46 represent a fusion of two replicons of type FII and FIA. On the pEC_B24 backbone, two resistance genes, bla(TEM-1) and bla(CTX-M-15), were found. Six resistance genes, bla(TEM-1), bla(CTX-M-15), bla(OXA-1), aac6'-lb-cr, tetA and catB4, were detected on the pEC_L8 backbone. The same antimicrobial drug resistance genes, with the exception of tetA, were also identified on the pEC_L46 backbone. Genome analysis of all 4 plasmids studied provides evidence of a seemingly frequent transposition event of the bla(CTX-M-15)-ISEcp1 element. This element seems to have a preferred insertion site at the tnpA gene of a bla(TEM)-carrying Tn3-like transposon, the latter itself being inserted by a transposition event. The IS26-composite transposon, which contains the bla(OXA-1), aac6'-lb-cr and catB4 genes, was inserted into plasmids pEC_L8 and pEC_L46 by homologous recombination rather than a transposition event. Results obtained for pEC_L46 indicated that IS26 also plays an important role in structural rearrangements of the plasmid backbone and seems to facilitate the mobilisation of fragments from other plasmids. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data suggests that IS26 together with ISEcp1 could play a critical role in the evolution of diverse multiresistant plasmids found in clinical Enterobacteriaceae.
Project description:New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM) represents a serious challenge for treatment and public health. A carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli clinical strain WCHEC13-8 was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests, whole genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. It was resistant to imipenem (MIC, >256 ?g/ml) and meropenem (MIC, 128 ?g/ml) and belonged to ST3835. bla NDM-1 was the only carbapenemase gene detected. Strain WCHEC13-8 also had a plasmid-borne AmpC gene (bla CMY-42) and two extended-spectrum ?-lactamase genes (bla CTX-M-15 and bla SHV-12). bla NDM-1 and bla SHV-12 were carried by a 54-kb IncX3 self-transmissible plasmid, which is identical to plasmid pNDM-HF727 from Enterobacter cloacae. bla CMY-42 was carried by a 64-kb IncI1 plasmid and bla CTX-M-15 was located on a 141-kb plasmid with multiple F replicons (replicon type: F36:A4:B1). bla CMY-42 was in a complicated context and the mobilisation of bla CMY-42 was due to the transposition of ISEcp1 by misidentifying its right-end boundary. Genetic context of bla NDM-1 in strain WCHEC13-8 was closely related to those on IncX3 plasmids in various Enterobacteriaceae species in China. In conclusion, a multidrug-resistant ST3835 E. coli clinical strain carrying bla NDM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-42 and bla SHV-12 was identified. IncX3 plasmids may be making a significant contribution to the dissemination of bla NDM among Enterobacteriaceae in China.
Project description:The presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) including those expressing ESBLs and AmpC-?-lactamases in Escherichia coli inhabiting the aquatic environments is a serious health problem. The situation is further complicated by the fact that ARGs can be easily transferred among bacterial species with the help of mobile genetic elements - plasmids, integrons, insertion sequences (IS), and transposons. Therefore, the analysis of genetic environment and mobile genetic elements associated with ARGs is important as these provide useful information about the epidemiology of these genes. In our previous study, we had reported presence of various ?-lactam resistance genes present in E. coli strains inhabiting the river Yamuna traversing the National Capital Territory of Delhi (India). In the present study, we have analyzed the genetic environment of three ARGs blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15, and blaCMY -42 of those E. coli strains. The structure of class 1 integrons and their gene cassettes was also analyzed. Insertion sequence IS26 was present upstream of blaTEM-1, ISEcp1 was present upstream of blaCTXM-15 gene and orf477 was present downstream of blaCTXM-15. ISEcp1 was also present upstream of blaCMY -42 and, blc and sugE genes were present in the downstream region of this gene. Thus, the overall genetic environment surrounding these genes was similar to that reported from E. coli strains isolated globally. Conjugation assays, isolation and analysis of plasmid DNA of the transconjugants indicated that blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaCMY -42 and class 1 integron were plasmid-mediated and possibly transmit between genera through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This might lead to dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes in aquatic environment. The work embodied in this paper is the first describing the genetic environment of bla and integrons in aquatic E. coli isolated from India.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli from chickens and to characterize the plasmids carrying fosA3. A total of 661 E. coli isolates of chicken origin collected from 2009 to 2011 were screened for plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants by PCR. Plasmids were characterized using PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Associated addiction systems and resistance genes were identified by PCR. PCR-mapping was used for analysis of the genetic context of fosA3. Fosfomycin resistance was detected in 58 isolates that also carried the fosA3 gene. Fifty-seven, 17, and 52 FosA3-producers also harbored bla CTX-M, rmtB, and floR genes, respectively. Most of the 58 fosA3-carrying isolates were clonally unrelated, and all fosA3 genes were located on plasmids belonged to F33:A-:B- (n = 18), IncN-F33:A-:B- (n = 7), IncHI2/ST3 (n = 10), IncI1/ST71 (n = 3), IncI1/ST108 (n = 3), and others. The genetic structures, IS26-ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-55-orf477-bla TEM-1-IS26-fosA3-1758bp-IS26 and ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-65-IS903-iroN-IS26-fosA3-536bp-IS26 were located on highly similar F33:A-:B- plasmids. In addition, bla CTX-M-14-fosA3-IS26 was frequently present on similar IncHI2/ST3 plasmids. IncFII plasmids had a significantly higher frequency of addiction systems (mean 3.5) than other plasmids. Our results showed a surprisingly high prevalence of fosA3 gene in E. coli isolates recovered from chicken in China. The spread of fosA3 can be attributed to horizontal dissemination of several epidemic plasmids, especially F33:A-:B- plasmids. Since coselection by other antimicrobials is the major driving force for the diffusion of the fosA3 gene, a strict antibiotic use policy is urgently needed in China.