Determinants of footwear difficulties in people with plantar heel pain.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Plantar heel pain is a common foot disorder aggravated by weight-bearing activity. Despite considerable focus on therapeutic interventions such as orthoses, there has been limited investigation of footwear-related issues in people with plantar heel pain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether people with plantar heel pain experience footwear-related difficulties compared to asymptomatic individuals, as well as identifying factors associated with footwear comfort, fit and choice. METHODS: The footwear domain of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) was assessed in 192 people with plantar heel pain and 69 asymptomatic controls. The plantar heel pain group was also assessed on a variety of measures including: foot posture, foot strength and flexibility, pedobarography and pain level. A univariate analysis of covariance, with age as the covariate, was used to compare the heel pain and control groups on the FHSQ footwear domain score. A multiple regression model was then constructed to investigate factors associated with footwear scores among participants with plantar heel pain. RESULTS: When compared to asymptomatic participants, people with plantar heel pain reported lower FHSQ footwear domain scores (mean difference -24.4; p?
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) are two commonly used outcome measures for evaluating foot health. This study aimed to calculate the Minimal Important Difference (MID) of the VAS and the FHSQ. METHODS: 184 participants with plantar heel pain were recruited from the general public to take part in two randomised trials (92 participants in each trial) that studied the effectiveness of two conservative interventions for plantar heel pain. Data from these participants were used to calculate the MIDs of the VAS and the FHSQ. An anchor-based method was used to calculate the MIDs. Two distinct types of pain were investigated for the VAS: average pain and first-step pain. All four domains of the FHSQ were investigated: foot pain, foot function, footwear and general foot health. RESULTS: The MID for the VAS using the anchor-based approach was -8 mm (95% CI: -12 to -4) for average pain and -19 mm (95% CI: -25 to -13) for first-step pain on the 100 mm VAS. The MID for the FHSQ was 13 points (95% CI: 6 to 19) for pain and 7 points (95% CI: 1 to 13) for function. The MID for the footwear domain of the FHSQ was -2 points (95% CI: -8 to 4) and 0 points (95% CI: -7 to 6) for the general foot health domain of the FHSQ. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide additional evidence for MID values of the VAS and the FHSQ for plantar heel pain. This is important for clinicians and researchers as it provides a greater understanding of how much improvement is required by a patient before a minimal, worthwhile change is experienced. The calculated MIDs will also assist researchers with prospective sample size calculations.
Project description:Foot problems are prevalent in older women and are thought to be associated with footwear. This study examined women's shoe wearing patterns over time and evaluated associations between footwear characteristics and foot pain and hallux valgus.Women aged 50-89 years (n = 2,627) completed a survey that included drawings of four toe-box shapes and four heel heights. For each life decade, participants indicated which footwear style they wore most of the time. Foot pain in the past 12 months and hallux valgus were documented by self-report. Logistic regression examined associations between heel height, toe-box shape, foot pain and hallux valgus.Wearing shoes with a high heel and very narrow toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 was common, but decreased to less than 10% by the age of 40. Compared with women who had worn shoes with a very wide toe box, the likelihood of hallux valgus increased in those who had worn shoes with a wide (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% CI 1.03-3.71), narrow (2.39, 1.29-4.42) and very narrow (2.70, 1.46-5.00) toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 and those who wore shoes with a very narrow toe box (1.93, 1.10-3.39) between the ages of 30 and 39.Women wear shoes with a lower heel and broader toe box as they age. Wearing constrictive footwear between the ages of 20 and 39 may be critical for developing hallux valgus in later life.
Project description:We aimed to comprehensively and systematically review studies associating key foot-loading factors (i.e., plantar pressure, weight-bearing activity, adherence or a combination thereof) with ulcer development and ulcer healing in people with diabetes. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE. We included studies if barefoot or in-shoe plantar pressure, weight-bearing activity or footwear or device adherence was measured and associated with either ulcer development or ulcer healing in people with diabetes. Out of 1954 records, 36 studies were included and qualitatively analyzed. We found low to moderate quality evidence that lower barefoot plantar pressure and higher footwear and device adherence associate with lower risk of ulcer development and shorter healing times. For the other foot-loading factors, we found low quality evidence with limited or contradictory results. For combined measures of foot-loading factors, we found low quality evidence suggesting that lower cumulative plantar tissue stress is associated with lower risk of ulcer development and higher ulcer healing incidence. We conclude that evidence for barefoot plantar pressure and adherence in association with ulcer outcome is present, but is limited for the other foot-loading factors. More comprehensive investigation in particularly the combination of foot-loading factors may improve the evidence and targeting preventative treatment.
Project description:Elevated dynamic plantar foot pressures significantly increase the risk of foot ulceration in diabetes mellitus. The aim was to determine which factors predict plantar pressures in a population of diabetic patients who are at high-risk of foot ulceration.Patients with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy and a history of ulceration were eligible for inclusion in this cross sectional study. Demographic data, foot structure and function, and disease-related factors were recorded and used as potential predictor variables in the analyses. Barefoot peak pressures during walking were calculated for the heel, midfoot, forefoot, lesser toes, and hallux regions. Potential predictors were investigated using multivariate linear regression analyses. 167 participants with mean age of 63 years contributed 329 feet to the analyses.The regression models were able to predict between 6% (heel) and 41% (midfoot) of the variation in peak plantar pressures. The largest contributing factor in the heel model was glycosylated haemoglobin concentration, in the midfoot Charcot deformity, in the forefoot prominent metatarsal heads, in the lesser toes hammer toe deformity and in the hallux previous ulceration. Variables with local effects (e.g. foot deformity) were stronger predictors of plantar pressure than global features (e.g. body mass, age, gender, or diabetes duration).The presence of local deformity was the largest contributing factor to barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in high-risk diabetic patients and should therefore be adequately managed to reduce plantar pressure and ulcer risk. However, a significant amount of variance is unexplained by the models, which advocates the quantitative measurement of plantar pressures in the clinical risk assessment of the patient.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Adequate footwear fit is critical in preventing diabetes-related foot ulcers. One important element is the toe gap, the difference between foot length and internal footwear length available to the foot. We summarised the literature on toe gaps in studies assessing footwear worn by people with diabetes, the methods used to measure both foot length and internal footwear length and identify ambiguities which may impact on toe gap assessment in clinical practice, and suggest pragmatic solutions.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>The Google Scholar database was searched to April 2020 for peer-reviewed studies using keywords related to incorrectly fitting or ill-fitting and diabetes, foot and ulcer which returned 979 results. Included studies within this narrative review encompassed toe gap measurement to assess footwear worn by people with diabetes.<br><br><b>Results: </b>A total of eight studies were included after full paper review. Toe gap ranges as used in assessments of footwear worn by people with diabetes vary, with a minimum of 1.0-1.6?cm and a maximum of 1.5-2.0?cm, as do methods of measuring internal footwear length. Only three published studies suggested possible measuring devices.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Toe gap ranged as used when assessing footwear fit in people with diabetes vary and a gold standard device for internal footwear length measurement has yet to emerge. International guidelines provide welcome standardisation, but further research is needed to evaluate both the effect of toe gap ranges upon pressure, plantar stress response and ulceration and available measuring devices to facilitate development of toe gap measurement protocols that may further enhance consistency in practical assessments.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The objectives of this study were to estimate the population prevalence and distribution of plantar heel pain in mid-to-older age groups, examine associations with selected health status and lifestyle factors, and report the frequency of healthcare use.<h4>Methods</h4>Adults aged ?50?years registered with four general practices were mailed a health survey (n?=?5109 responders). Plantar heel pain in the last month was defined by self-reported shading on a foot manikin, and was defined as disabling if at least one of the function items of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index were also reported. Population prevalence estimates and associations between plantar heel pain and demographic characteristics, health status measures and lifestyle factors were estimated using multiple imputation and weighted logistic regression. Healthcare professional consultation was summarised as the 12-month period prevalence of foot pain-related consultation.<h4>Results</h4>The population prevalence of plantar heel pain was 9.6% (95% CI: 8.8, 10.5) and 7.9% (7.1, 8.7) for disabling plantar heel pain. Occurrence was slightly higher in females, comparable across age-groups, and significantly higher in those with intermediate/routine and manual occupations. Plantar heel pain was associated with physical and mental impairment, more anxiety and depression, being overweight, a low previous use of high-heeled footwear, and lower levels of physical activity and participation. The 12-month period prevalence of foot pain-related consultation with a general practitioner, physiotherapist or podiatrist/chiropodist was 43.0, 15.1 and 32.8%, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Plantar heel pain is a common, disabling symptom among adults aged 50?years and over. Observed patterns of association indicate that in addition to focused foot-specific management, primary care interventions should also target more general physical and psychological factors that could potentially act as barriers to treatment adherence and recovery.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>To assess the effect of data-driven custom-made footwear concepts on plantar pressure relief to prevent diabetic foot ulceration.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-four neuropathic diabetic patients at high risk of foot ulceration were measured for in-shoe plantar pressures during walking in four data-driven custom-made footwear conditions, an athletic shoe and an off-the-shelf non-therapeutic shoe. Two evidence-based footwear conditions (Shoe-A; Insole-A) follow a scientific-based design protocol, are handmade, and use in-shoe plantar pressure guided optimization. One evidence-based insole condition (Insole-B) uses a barefoot plantar pressure and 3D foot shape-based computer-assisted design and manufacturing (CADCAM) routine. And one insole condition (Insole-C) uses a barefoot and in-shoe plantar pressure and 3D foot shape-based CADCAM design and optimization routine. Patient satisfaction was scored on walking comfort, shoe fit, weight and appearance.<h4>Results</h4>All data-driven footwear conditions significantly reduced metatarsal head peak pressure compared with the non-therapeutic shoe (17-53% relief). Shoe-A and Insole-A showed the lowest metatarsal head peak pressures (mean 112-155 kPa, 90-98% of cases <200 kPa), significantly lower than for Insole-B and Insole-C (mean 119-199 kPa, 52-100% <200 kPa). Patient satisfaction was not significantly different between footwear concepts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study proves the offloading efficacy of a scientific-based, handmade, and in-shoe plantar pressure data-driven approach to custom-made footwear design, and advocates its implementation to optimize diabetic footwear for plantar foot ulcer prevention.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Frequently, toe walking gait is the result of disease processes, trauma or neurogenic influences. Idiopathic toe walking (ITW) is, by definition, the diagnosis of a toe walking gait adopted in the absence of one of these medical conditions. Long-term ITW has been associated with reduced ankle range of motion. Reported treatments have included serial casting, Botulinum toxin type A or surgery to improve the ankle range of motion. Investigating the impact of simple and non-invasive treatment options for ITW is important for future research and clinical outcomes. This study investigates the immediate impact of footwear, footwear with orthotics and whole body vibration on ITW to determine if any one intervention improves heel contact and spatial-temporal gait measures. This determination is important for future clinical trials into treatment effectiveness.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4><h4>Design</h4>this protocol describes a within-subject randomised controlled trial that measures changes in gait following changes in external stimuli.<h4>Participants</h4>15 children diagnosed with an ITW gait will be recruited from the Victorian Paediatric Rehabilitation Service at Monash Children's Hospital Toe Walking Clinic provided they have ITW and meet the inclusion criteria.<h4>Procedure</h4>participants will have their gait recorded walking barefoot, in usual footwear, a custom-made, full-length carbon fibre orthotic in usual footwear and following whole body vibration. Outcome measures will include the presence of bilateral heel contact preintervention and postintervention, stride length (cm), stride width (cm), left and right stride time (s), left and right stance and swing percentage of the gait cycle, gait velocity (m/s), left and right foot toe in/toe out angle (°) and weight-bearing lunge pre and post each condition.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>The results of this study will be published at the conclusion and have been approved by Southern Health HREC:12102B.<h4>Clinical trial registry number</h4>ACTRN12612000975897.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Specific regions of the foot are responsible for the gait tasks of weight acceptance, single-limb support, and forward propulsion. With region foot pain, gait abnormalities may arise and affect the plantar pressure and force pattern utilized. Therefore, this study's purpose was to evaluate plantar pressure and force pattern differences between adults with and without region-specific foot pain.<h4>Methods</h4>Plantar pressure and force data were collected on Framingham Foot Study members while walking barefoot at a self-selected pace. Foot pain was evaluated by self-report and grouped by foot region (toe, forefoot, midfoot, or rearfoot) or regions (two or three or more regions) of pain. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to determine associations between feet with and without foot pain.<h4>Results</h4>Individuals with distal foot (forefoot or toes) pain had similar maximum vertical forces under the pain region, while those with proximal foot (rearfoot or midfoot) pain had different maximum vertical forces compared to those without regional foot pain (referent). During walking, there were significant differences in plantar loading and propulsion ranging from 2% to 4% between those with and without regional foot pain. Significant differences in normalized maximum vertical force and plantar pressure ranged from 5.3% to 12.4% and 3.4% to 24.1%, respectively, between those with and without regional foot pain.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Associations of regional foot pain with plantar pressure and force were different by regions of pain. Region-specific foot pain was not uniformly associated with an increase or decrease in loading and pressure patterns regions of pain.
Project description:The loaded mechanical function of transtibial prostheses that result from the clinical assembly, tuning, and alignment of modular prosthetic components can directly influence an end user's biomechanics and overall mobility. Footwear is known to affect prosthesis mechanical properties, and while the options of footwear are limited for most commercial feet due to their fixed geometry, there exists a selection of commercial prosthetic feet that can accommodate a moderate rise in heel height. These feet are particularly relevant to women prosthesis users who often desire to don footwear spanning a range of heel heights. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of adding women's footwear (flat, trainer, 5.08 cm heel) on the mechanical properties (deformation and energy efficiency) of four models of heel-height accommodating prosthetic feet. Properties were measured through loading-unloading at simulated initial contact, midstance and terminal stance orientations with a universal materials test system, and statistically compared to a barefoot condition. Results suggest that the addition of footwear can alter the level of foot deformation under load, which may be a function of the shoe and alignment. Moreover, while each foot displayed different amounts of energy storage and return, the addition of footwear yielded similar levels of energy efficiency across foot models. Overall, prosthesis users who don shoes of varying heel heights onto adjustable prosthetic feet and their treating clinicians should be aware of the potential changes in mechanical function that could affect the user experience.