Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases and/or Carbapenemases-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Retail Chicken Meat in Zagazig, Egypt.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and to characterize extended-spectrum β-lactamases- and/or carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retail chicken meat in Zagazig, Egypt.One hundred and six Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from retail chicken meat samples purchased in Zagazig, Egypt in 2013. Species identification was done by MALDI-TOF MS. Screening for ESBL-E was performed by inoculation of isolates recovered from meat samples onto the EbSA (Cepheid Benelux, Apeldoorn, the Netherlands) selective screening agar. ESBL production was confirmed by combination disc diffusion test with clavulanic acid (Rosco, Taastrup, Denmark). Carbapenemases production was confirmed with double disk synergy tests. Resistance genes were characterized by PCR with specific primers for TEM, SHV, and CTX-M and carbapenemases (KPC, NDM, OXA-48, IMP and VIM). PCR products of CTX-M genes were purified and sequenced. Phylogenetic grouping of E. coli was performed by a PCR-based method.Of these 106 isolates 69 (65.09%) were ESBL producers. Twelve (11.32%) of these isolates were also phenotypically class B carbapenemases producer. TEM genes were detected in 61 (57.55%) isolates. 49 (46.23%) isolates harbored CTX-M genes, and 25 (23.58%) carried genes of the SHV family. All CPE belonged to the NDM group. The predominant CTX-M sequence type was CTX-M-15 (89.80%). The majority (80%) of the ESBL-EC belonged to low virulence phylogroups A and B1.This is the first study from Egypt reporting high rates of ESBLs and carbapenemases (65.09% and 11.32%, respectively) in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retail chicken meat. These results raise serious concerns about public health and food safety as retail meat could serve as a reservoir for these resistant bacteria which could be transferred to humans through the food chain.
Project description:In this study, we characterized the ?-lactamase genes and phenotypic resistance of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from retail foods in China. Of 1,024 Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from raw meat products, aquatic products, raw vegetables, retail-level ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, frozen foods, and mushrooms from 2011 to 2014, 164 (16.0%) showed cefotaxime (CTX) and/or ceftazidime (CAZ) cephalosporin resistance, and 96 (9.4%) showed the extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype. More than 30% isolates were resistant to all antimicrobial agents except carbapenems (MEM 3.1% and IPM 5.2%), cefoxitin (FOX 6.3%), and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC 26%), and 94.8% of the strains were resistant to up to seven antibiotics. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that blaTEM (81.9%) was the most common gene, followed by blaCTX-M (68.1%) and blaSHV (38.9%). Moreover, 16.8% (72/429) of food samples contained ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae, with the following patterns: 32.9% (23/70) in frozen foods, 27.2% (5/29) in mushrooms, 17.6% (24/131) in raw meats, 13.3% (4/30) in fresh vegetables, 11.1% (8/72) in RTE foods, and 9.3% (9/97) in aquatic products. In addition, 24 of 217 foods collected in South China (11.1%), 25 of 131 foods collected in North of the Yangtze River region (19.1%), and 23 of 81 foods collected in South of the Yangtze River region (28.4%) were positive for ESBL- Enterobacteriaceae. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the 22 of 72 isolates were transconjugants that had received the ?-lactamase gene and were resistant to ?-lactam antibiotics as well as some non-?-lactam antibiotics. These findings demonstrated that retail foods may be reservoirs for the dissemination of ?-lactam antibiotics and that resistance genes could be transmitted to humans through the food chain; and the predominant ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in China was isolated from in frozen chicken-meat, followed by frozen pork, cold noodles in sauce, cucumber, raw chicken meat, frozen pasta, brine-soaked chicken and tomato.
Project description:Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, a major class of clinical antimicrobial drugs. We used genomic analysis to investigate whether domestic food animals, retail meat, and pets were reservoirs of ESBL-producing Salmonella for human infection in Canada. Of 30,303 Salmonella isolates tested during 2012-2016, we detected 95 ESBL producers. ESBL serotypes and alleles were mostly different between humans (n = 54) and animals/meat (n = 41). Two exceptions were bla<sub>SHV-2</sub> and bla<sub>CTX-M-1</sub> IncI1 plasmids<sub>,</sub> which were found in both sources. A subclade of S. enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates carrying the same IncI1-bla<sub>SHV-2</sub> plasmid differed by only 1-7 single nucleotide variants. The most common ESBL producer in humans was Salmonella Infantis carrying bla<sub>CTX-M-65</sub>, which has since emerged in poultry in other countries. There were few instances of similar isolates and plasmids, suggesting that domestic animals and retail meat might have been minor reservoirs of ESBL-producing Salmonella for human infection.
Project description:Retail beef and pork, including processed products, can serve as vehicles for the zoonotic foodborne transmission of pathogens and antimicrobial resistant bacteria. However, processed and seasoned products like sausages, are not often included in research and surveillance programs. The objective of this study was to investigate retail ground beef and pork, including processed products, for the presence of common foodborne pathogens and antimicrobial resistant bacteria. We purchased 763 packages of fresh and fully cooked retail meat products during 29 visits to 17 grocery stores representing seven major grocery chains located in west and central Ohio. Each package of meat was evaluated for contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella spp., Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance, and carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO). Only 3 of the 144 (2.1%) packages of fully cooked meat products contained any of these organisms, 1 with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae and 2 with CPO. Among the 619 fresh meat products, we found that 85 (13.7%) packages were contaminated with MRSA, 19 (3.1%) with Salmonella, 136 (22.0%) with Enterobacteriaceae expressing an AmpC (bla<sub>CMY</sub>) resistance genotype, 25 (4.0%) with Enterobacteriaceae expressing an ESBL (bla<sub>CTX-M</sub>) resistance genotype, and 31 (5.0%) with CPO, primarily environmental organisms expressing intrinsic carbapenem resistance. However, one CPO, a Raoultella ornithinolytica, isolated from pork sausage co-harbored both bla<sub>KPC-2</sub> and bla<sub>NDM-5</sub> on IncN and IncX3 plasmids, respectively. Our findings suggest that fresh retail meat, including processed products can be important vehicles for the transmission of foodborne pathogens and antimicrobial resistant bacteria, including those with epidemic carbapenemase-producing genotypes.
Project description:Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to clinically important third-generation cephalosporins, which are often used to treat invasive salmonellosis. In the United States, ESBLs are rarely found in Salmonella. However, in 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration found bla<sub>CTX-M-65</sub> ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in retail chicken meat. The isolate had a rare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. To clarify the sources and potential effects on human health, we examined isolates with this pattern obtained from human surveillance and associated metadata. Using broth microdilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing, we characterized the isolates. Of 34 isolates, 29 carried the bla<sub>CTX-M-65</sub> gene with <9 additional resistance genes on 1 plasmid. Of 19 patients with travel information available, 12 (63%) reported recent travel to South America. Genetically, isolates from travelers, nontravelers, and retail chicken meat were similar. Expanded surveillance is needed to determine domestic sources and potentially prevent spread of this ESBL-containing plasmid.
Project description:Retail chicken meat is a potential source of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). In the past decade, vast national efforts were undertaken to decrease the antibiotic use in the veterinary sector, resulting in a 58% decrease in antibiotic sales in the sector between 2009 and 2014. This decrease in antibiotic use was followed by a decrease in ESBL-E prevalence in broilers. The current study investigates the prevalence of contamination with ESBL-E in retail chicken meat purchased in the Netherlands between December 2013 and August 2015. It looks at associations between the prevalence of contamination with ESBL-E and sample characteristics such as method of farming (free-range or conventional), supermarket chain of purchase and year of purchase. In the current study, 352 chicken meat samples were investigated for the presence of ESBL-E using selective culture methods. Six samples were excluded due to missing isolates or problems obtaining a good quality sequence leaving 346 samples for further analyses. Of these 346 samples, 188 (54.3%) were positive for ESBL-E, yielding 216 ESBL-E isolates (Escherichia coli (n = 204), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 11) and Escherichia fergusonii (n = 1)). All ESBL-E isolates were analysed using whole-genome sequencing. The prevalence of contamination with ESBL-E in retail chicken meat decreased from 68.3% in 2014 to 44.6% in 2015, absolute risk difference 23.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 12.6% - 34.1%). The ESBL-E prevalence was lower in free-range chicken meat (36.4%) compared with conventional chicken meat (61.5%), absolute risk difference 25.2% (95% CI: 12.9% - 36.5%). The prevalence of contamination with ESBL-E varied between supermarket chains, the highest prevalence of contamination was found in supermarket chain 4 (76.5%) and the lowest in supermarket chain 1 (37.8%). Pairwise isolate comparisons using whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) showed that clustering of isolates occurs more frequently within supermarket chains than between supermarket chains. In conclusion, the prevalence of contamination with ESBL-E in retail chicken in the Netherlands decreased over time; nevertheless, it remains substantial and as such a potential source for ESBL-E in humans.
Project description:LYS228 is a novel monobactam with potent activity against Enterobacteriaceae LYS228 is stable to metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) and serine carbapenemases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs), resulting in potency against the majority of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains tested. Overall, LYS228 demonstrated potent activity against 271 Enterobacteriaceae strains, including multidrug-resistant isolates. Based on MIC90 values, LYS228 (MIC90, 1 ?g/ml) was ?32-fold more active against those strains than were aztreonam, ceftazidime, ceftazidime-avibactam, cefepime, and meropenem. The tigecycline MIC90 was 4 ?g/ml against the strains tested. Against Enterobacteriaceae isolates expressing ESBLs (n = 37) or displaying carbapenem resistance (n = 77), LYS228 had MIC90 values of 1 and 4 ?g/ml, respectively. LYS228 exhibited potent bactericidal activity, as indicated by low minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) to MIC ratios (MBC/MIC ratios of ?4) against 97.4% of the Enterobacteriaceae strains tested (264/271 strains). In time-kill studies, LYS228 consistently achieved reductions in CFU per milliliter of 3 log10 units (?99.9% killing) at concentrations ?4× MIC for Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae reference strains, as well as isolates encoding TEM-1, SHV-1, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-15, KPC-2, KPC-3, and NDM-1 ?-lactamases.
Project description:ESC-resistant <i>E. coli</i> isolates were collected from broiler chickens, a slaughterhouse, and retail meat to assess their dispersion and their involvement in cross-contamination. ESBL-/AmpC-producing <i>E. coli</i> were isolated during the slaughter process of all six investigated chicken flocks from scalding, feather removal, first conveyor, evisceration, second washing, third conveyor, and third washing areas, and from handling workers in the slaughterhouse. ESC-resistant <i>E. coli</i> isolates with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type were found in the same site (scalding) on different sampling days. ESBL/AmpC-producing <i>E. coli</i> isolates were absent in the lairage area in the slaughterhouse, but present in the retail markets in 36.8% (7/19) of the chicken flocks. The <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M</sub> genes and <i>bla</i><sub>CMY-2</sub> were conjugated to recipient <i>E. coli</i> J53 in 67.5% (27/40) and 56.1% (23/41) of ESBL-producing and AmpC-producing <i>E. coli</i> isolates, respectively. The presence of the same conjugative plasmids was found in genetic diversity ESC-resistant <i>E. coli</i> colonies collected on different sampling days. Our study emphasizes that cross-contamination of ESBL/AmpC-producing <i>E. coli</i> in slaughterhouse has a crucial impact on the occurrence of ESC resistance in retail chicken meat.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. In this study 334 fecal samples from pigs, cattle, chicken and sheep were investigated at slaughter. Additionally, 100 raw milk samples, representing bulk tank milk of 100 different dairy farms, 104 minced meat (pork and beef) samples and 67 E. coli isolates from cattle E. coli mastitis were analyzed. RESULTS: As many as 15.3% of the porcine, 13.7% of the bovine, 8.6% of the sheep and 63.4% of the chicken fecal samples yielded ESBL producers after an enrichment step. In contrast, none of the minced meat, none of the bulk tank milk samples and only one of the mastitis milk samples contained ESBL producing strains. Of the total of 91 isolates, 89 were E. coli, one was Citrobacter youngae and one was Enterobacter cloacae. PCR analysis revealed that 78 isolates (85.7%) produced CTX-M group 1 ESBLs while six isolates (6.6%) produced CTX-M group 9 enzymes. Five detected ESBLs (5.5%) belonged to the SHV group and 2 isolates (2.2%) contained a TEM-type enzyme. A total of 27 CTX-M producers were additionally PCR-positive for TEM-beta-lactamase. The ESBL-encoding genes of 53 isolates were sequenced of which 34 produced CTX-M-1, 6 produced CTX-M-14, 5 produced CTX-M-15 and also 5 produced SHV-12. Two isolates produced TEM-52 and one isolate expressed a novel CTX-M group 1 ESBL, CTX-M-117. One isolate--aside from a CTX-M ESBL-- contained an additional novel TEM-type broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-186. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively high rates of ESBL producers in food animals and the high genetic diversity among these isolates are worrisome and indicate an established reservoir in farm animals.
Project description:The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase production among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Egyptian patients with suspected blood stream infection.Ninety-four Enterobacteriaceae blood culture isolates from Egyptian patients with suspected blood stream infection were collected, one isolate per patient. Identification of bacterial isolates was performed with MALDI-TOF (MS-based Vitek MS system, bioMerieux). Screening for ESBLs and carbapenemases production was done with the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux). ESBL production was confirmed using the combined disk diffusion method for cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefepime, all with and without clavulanic acid (Rosco). Real-time PCR and sequencing were used to characterize the resistance genes. The phylogenetic groups of E. coli were identified by a PCR-based method.Of the 94 Enterobacteriaceae isolates 46 (48.93%) showed an ESBL phenotype. One Enterobacter spp isolate was ESBL-producer and meropenem-resistant. The genetic analysis showed that CTX-M was present in 89.13% (41/46) of the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, whereas TEM and SHV were detected in 56.52% (26/46) and 21.74% (10/46) respectively (47.83%) of the ESBL-producing isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). Eleven out of 30 ESBL-producing E-coli isolates were assigned to phylogroup B2, followed by groups B1 (8 isolates), A (6 isolates) and D (5 isolates).The high ESBL-E rates (48.93%) found in this study together with the identification of one carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp isolate is worrisome. Our results indicate that systems for monitoring and detection of ESBL-producing bacteria in Egyptian hospitals have to be established. Also strict hospital infection control policies with the restriction of the consumption of extended-spectrum cephalosporins are necessary.
Project description:The correlation of the clinical efficacies of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators (carbapenems) was evaluated against baseline Gram-negative isolates having characterized ?-lactam resistance mechanisms from complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) phase 2 trials. Enterobacteriaceae displaying ceftriaxone and/or ceftazidime MICs of ? 2 ?g/ml (69 isolates) and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB [three isolates]) with ceftazidime MICs of ? 16 ?g/ml were characterized for their narrow- and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) content. Enterobacteriaceae (one isolate) and NF-GNB (three isolates) with imipenem/meropenem MICs of ? 2 and ? 16 ?g/ml, respectively, were tested for carbapenemases. All cUTI E. coli had the lineage background investigated (ST131-like versus non-ST131-like). The primary efficacy endpoint was microbiological response (eradication) at test of cure (TOC) for cUTI and clinical response (inferred microbiological eradication) at TOC for cIAI. A total of 34.1% of baseline cUTI (36.4%) and cIAI (33.1%) pathogens met the MIC-based screening criteria (screen positive). All screen-positive cUTI pathogens were CTX-M-producing E. coli, except for one E. cloacae isolate with AmpC overexpression. The majority (66.7%) of screen-positive cIAI isolates produced CTX-M-type coupled with a diverse array of other ?-lactamases. Similar favorable responses were observed with ceftazidime-avibactam (93.3%) and carbapenems (90.9%), when a non-ESBL Enterobacteriaceae isolate was recovered at the baseline visit. When an ESBL Enterobacteriaceae isolate was present, the favorable responses were 85.7% and 80.0% with ceftazidime-avibactam and carbapenems, respectively. Higher favorable responses were observed with ceftazidime-avibactam (75.0%) than with carbapenems (66.7%) when an ST131-like E. coli isolate was recovered at baseline, as when a non-ST131-like isolate was present (93.8% versus 86.7%, respectively). The efficacy of ceftazidime-avibactam was similar to that of carbapenems for treatment of cUTI and cIAI caused by ESBL organisms.