Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Phosphorylation at Ser571 Regulates Late Current, Arrhythmia, and Cardiac Function In Vivo.
ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) are essential for myocyte membrane excitability and cardiac function. Nav current (INa) is a large-amplitude, short-duration spike generated by rapid channel activation followed immediately by inactivation. However, even under normal conditions, a small late component of INa (INa,L) persists because of incomplete/failed inactivation of a subpopulation of channels. Notably, INa,L is directly linked with both congenital and acquired disease states. The multifunctional Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has been identified as an important activator of INa,L in disease. Several potential CaMKII phosphorylation sites have been discovered, including Ser571 in the Nav1.5 DI-DII linker, but the molecular mechanism underlying CaMKII-dependent regulation of INa,L in vivo remains unknown.To determine the in vivo role of Ser571, 2 Scn5a knock-in mouse models were generated expressing either: (1) Nav1.5 with a phosphomimetic mutation at Ser571 (S571E), or (2) Nav1.5 with the phosphorylation site ablated (S571A). Electrophysiology studies revealed that Ser571 regulates INa,L but not other channel properties previously linked to CaMKII. Ser571-mediated increases in INa,L promote abnormal repolarization and intracellular Ca(2+) handling and increase susceptibility to arrhythmia at the cellular and animal level. Importantly, Ser571 is required for maladaptive remodeling and arrhythmias in response to pressure overload.Our data provide the first in vivo evidence for the molecular mechanism underlying CaMKII activation of the pathogenic INa,L. Relevant for improved rational design of potential therapies, our findings demonstrate that Ser571-dependent regulation of Nav1.5 specifically tunes INa,L without altering critical physiological components of the current.
Project description:RATIONALE:Voltage-gated Na+ channel ( INa) function is critical for normal cardiac excitability. However, the Na+ channel late component ( INa,L) is directly associated with potentially fatal forms of congenital and acquired human arrhythmia. CaMKII (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) enhances INa,L in response to increased adrenergic tone. However, the pathways that negatively regulate the CaMKII/Nav1.5 axis are unknown and essential for the design of new therapies to regulate the pathogenic INa,L. OBJECTIVE:To define phosphatase pathways that regulate INa,L in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS:A mouse model lacking a key regulatory subunit (B56?) of the PP (protein phosphatase) 2A holoenzyme displayed aberrant action potentials after adrenergic stimulation. Unbiased computational modeling of B56? KO (knockout) mouse myocyte action potentials revealed an unexpected role of PP2A in INa,L regulation that was confirmed by direct INa,L recordings from B56? KO myocytes. Further, B56? KO myocytes display decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol-induced induction of arrhythmogenic INa,L, and reduced CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of Nav1.5. At the molecular level, PP2A/B56? complex was found to localize and coimmunoprecipitate with the primary cardiac Nav channel, Nav1.5. CONCLUSIONS:PP2A regulates Nav1.5 activity in mouse cardiomyocytes. This regulation is critical for pathogenic Nav1.5 late current and requires PP2A-B56?. Our study supports B56? as a novel target for the treatment of arrhythmia.
Project description:Voltage-gated Na+ (NaV) channels are key regulators of myocardial excitability, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent alterations in NaV1.5 channel inactivation are emerging as a critical determinant of arrhythmias in heart failure. However, the global native phosphorylation pattern of NaV1.5 subunits associated with these arrhythmogenic disorders and the associated channel regulatory defects remain unknown. Here, we undertook phosphoproteomic analyses to identify and quantify in situ the phosphorylation sites in the NaV1.5 proteins purified from adult WT and failing CaMKII?c-overexpressing (CaMKII?c-Tg) mouse ventricles. Of 19 native NaV1.5 phosphorylation sites identified, two C-terminal phosphoserines at positions 1938 and 1989 showed increased phosphorylation in the CaMKII?c-Tg compared with the WT ventricles. We then tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation at these two sites impairs fibroblast growth factor 13 (FGF13)-dependent regulation of NaV1.5 channel inactivation. Whole-cell voltage-clamp analyses in HEK293 cells demonstrated that FGF13 increases NaV1.5 channel availability and decreases late Na+ current, two effects that were abrogated with NaV1.5 mutants mimicking phosphorylation at both sites. Additional co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that FGF13 potentiates the binding of calmodulin to NaV1.5 and that phosphomimetic mutations at both sites decrease the interaction of FGF13 and, consequently, of calmodulin with NaV1.5. Together, we have identified two novel native phosphorylation sites in the C terminus of NaV1.5 that impair FGF13-dependent regulation of channel inactivation and may contribute to CaMKII?c-dependent arrhythmogenic disorders in failing hearts.
Project description:AIMS:The anticancer drug paclitaxel (TXL) that polymerizes microtubules is associated with arrhythmias and sinus node dysfunction. TXL can alter membrane expression of Na channels (NaV1.5) and Na current (INa), but the mechanisms are unknown. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) can be activated by β-adrenergic stimulation and regulates INa gating. We tested whether TXL interferes with isoproterenol (ISO)-induced activation of CaMKII and consequent INa regulation. METHODS AND RESULTS:In wild-type mouse myocytes, the addition of ISO (1 µmol/L) resulted in increased CaMKII auto-phosphorylation (western blotting). This increase was completely abolished after pre-treatment with TXL (100 µmol/L, 1.5 h). The mechanism was further investigated in human embryonic kidney cells. TXL inhibited the ISO-induced β-arrestin translocation. Interestingly, both knockdown of β-arrestin2 expression using small interfering RNA and inhibition of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) blocked the ISO-induced CaMKII auto-phosphorylation similar to TXL. The generation of cAMP, however, was unaltered (Epac1-camps). CaMKII-dependent Na channel function was measured using patch-clamp technique in isolated cardiomyoctes. ISO stimulation failed to induce CaMKII-dependent enhancement of late INa and Na channel inactivation (negative voltage shift in steady-state activation and enhanced intermediate inactivation) after pre-incubation with TXL. Consistent with this, TXL also inhibited ISO-induced CaMKII-specific Na channel phosphorylation (at serine 571 of NaV1.5). CONCLUSION:Pre-incubation with TXL disrupts the ISO-dependent CaMKII activation and consequent Na channel regulation. This may be important for patients receiving TXL treatments, but also relevant for conditions of increased CaMKII expression and enhanced β-adrenergic stimulation like in heart failure.
Project description:Cardiac Kir2.1 and Nav1.5 channels generate the inward rectifier K+ (IK1) and the Na+ (INa) currents, respectively. There is a mutual interplay between the ventricular INa and IK1 densities, because Nav1.5 and Kir2.1 channels exhibit positive reciprocal modulation. Here we compared some of the biological properties of Nav1.5 and Kir2.1 channels when they are expressed together or separately to get further insights regarding their putative interaction. First we demonstrated by proximity ligation assays (PLAs) that in the membrane of ventricular myocytes Nav1.5 and Kir2.1 proteins are in close proximity to each other (<40 nm apart). Furthermore, intracellular dialysis with anti-Nav1.5 and anti-Kir2.1 antibodies suggested that these channels form complexes. Patch-clamp experiments in heterologous transfection systems demonstrated that the inhibition of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) decreased the INa and the IK1 generated by Nav1.5 and Kir2.1 channels when they were coexpressed, but not the IK1 generated by Kir2.1 channels alone, suggesting that complexes, but not Kir2.1 channels, are a substrate of CaMKII. Furthermore, inhibition of CaMKII precluded the interaction between Nav1.5 and Kir2.1 channels. Inhibition of 14-3-3 proteins did not modify the INa and IK1 densities generated by each channel separately, whereas it decreased the INa and IK1 generated when they were coexpressed. However, inhibition of 14-3-3 proteins did not abolish the Nav1.5-Kir2.1 interaction. Inhibition of dynamin-dependent endocytosis reduced the internalization of Kir2.1 but not of Nav1.5 or Kir2.1-Nav1.5 complexes. Inhibition of cytoskeleton-dependent vesicular trafficking via the dynein/dynactin motor increased the IK1, but reduced the INa, thus suggesting that the dynein/dynactin motor is preferentially involved in the backward and forward traffic of Kir2.1 and Nav1.5, respectively. Conversely, the dynein/dynactin motor participated in the forward movement of Kir2.1-Nav1.5 complexes. Ubiquitination by Nedd4-2 ubiquitin-protein ligase promoted the Nav1.5 degradation by the proteasome, but not that of Kir2.1 channels. Importantly, the Kir2.1-Nav1.5 complexes were degraded following this route as demonstrated by the overexpression of Nedd4-2 and the inhibition of the proteasome with MG132. These results suggested that Kir2.1 and Nav1.5 channels closely interact with each other leading to the formation of a pool of complexed channels whose biology is similar to that of the Nav1.5 channels.
Project description:Nav1.5 (SCN5A) is the primary cardiac voltage-gated Nav channel. Nav1.5 is critical for cardiac excitability and conduction, and human SCN5A mutations cause sinus node dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, conductional abnormalities, and ventricular arrhythmias. Further, defects in Nav1.5 regulation are linked with malignant arrhythmias associated with human heart failure. Consequently, therapies to target select Nav1.5 properties have remained at the forefront of cardiovascular medicine. However, despite years of investigation, the fundamental pathways governing Nav1.5 membrane targeting, assembly, and regulation are still largely undefined.Define the in vivo mechanisms underlying Nav1.5 membrane regulation.Here, we define the molecular basis of an Nav channel regulatory platform in heart. Using new cardiac-selective ankyrin-G(-/-) mice (conditional knock-out mouse), we report that ankyrin-G targets Nav1.5 and its regulatory protein calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II to the intercalated disc. Mechanistically, ?IV-spectrin is requisite for ankyrin-dependent targeting of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II-?; however, ?IV-spectrin is not essential for ankyrin-G expression. Ankyrin-G conditional knock-out mouse myocytes display decreased Nav1.5 expression/membrane localization and reduced INa associated with pronounced bradycardia, conduction abnormalities, and ventricular arrhythmia in response to Nav channel antagonists. Moreover, we report that ankyrin-G links Nav channels with broader intercalated disc signaling/structural nodes, as ankyrin-G loss results in reorganization of plakophilin-2 and lethal arrhythmias in response to ?-adrenergic stimulation.Our findings provide the first in vivo data for the molecular pathway required for intercalated disc Nav1.5 targeting/regulation in heart. Further, these new data identify the basis of an in vivo cellular platform critical for membrane recruitment and regulation of Nav1.5.
Project description:Ranolazine is a recently developed drug used for the treatment of patients with chronic stable angina. It is a selective inhibitor of the persistent cardiac Na(+) current (INa), and is known to reduce the Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) overload that occurs in cardiomyocytes during ischemia. Vascular effects of ranolazine, such as vasorelaxation,have been reported and may involve multiple pathways. As voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) present in arteries play a role in contraction, we hypothesized that ranolazine could target these channels. We studied the effects of ranolazine in vitro on cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and ex vivo on rat aortas in conditions known to specifically activate or promote INa. We observed that in the presence of the Nav channel agonist veratridine, ranolazine inhibited INa and intracellular Ca(2+) calcium increase in SMC, and arterial vasoconstriction. In arterial SMC, ranolazine inhibited the activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Nav channels and thus antagonized contraction promoted by low KCl depolarization. Furthermore, the vasorelaxant effects of ranolazine, also observed in human arteries and independent of the endothelium, involved antagonization of the α1-adrenergic receptor. Combined α1-adrenergic antagonization and inhibition of SMCs Nav channels could be involved in the vascular effects of ranolazine.
Project description:Voltage-gated Na+ (NaV) channels comprise a macromolecular complex whose components tailor channel function. Key components are the non-covalently bound ?1 and ?3 subunits that regulate channel gating, expression, and pharmacology. Here, we probe the molecular basis of this regulation by applying voltage clamp fluorometry to measure how the ? subunits affect the conformational dynamics of the cardiac NaV channel (NaV1.5) voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). The pore-forming NaV1.5 ? subunit contains four domains (DI-DIV), each with a VSD. Our results show that ?1 regulates NaV1.5 by modulating the DIV-VSD, whereas ?3 alters channel kinetics mainly through DIII-VSD interaction. Introduction of a quenching tryptophan into the extracellular region of the ?3 transmembrane segment inverted the DIII-VSD fluorescence. Additionally, a fluorophore tethered to ?3 at the same position produced voltage-dependent fluorescence dynamics strongly resembling those of the DIII-VSD. Together, these results provide compelling evidence that ?3 binds proximally to the DIII-VSD. Molecular-level differences in ?1 and ?3 interaction with the ? subunit lead to distinct activation and inactivation recovery kinetics, significantly affecting NaV channel regulation of cell excitability.
Project description:Increased "persistent" current, caused by delayed inactivation, through voltage-gated Na+ (NaV) channels leads to cardiac arrhythmias or epilepsy. The underlying molecular contributors to these inactivation defects are poorly understood. Here, we show that calmodulin (CaM) binding to multiple sites within NaV channel intracellular C-terminal domains (CTDs) limits persistent Na+ current and accelerates inactivation across the NaV family. Arrhythmia or epilepsy mutations located in NaV1.5 or NaV1.2 channel CTDs, respectively, reduce CaM binding either directly or by interfering with CTD-CTD interchannel interactions. Boosting the availability of CaM, thus shifting its binding equilibrium, restores wild-type (WT)-like inactivation in mutant NaV1.5 and NaV1.2 channels and likewise diminishes the comparatively large persistent Na+ current through WT NaV1.6, whose CTD displays relatively low CaM affinity. In cerebellar Purkinje neurons, in which NaV1.6 promotes a large physiological persistent Na+ current, increased CaM diminishes the persistent Na+ current, suggesting that the endogenous, comparatively weak affinity of NaV1.6 for apoCaM is important for physiological persistent current.
Project description:Skeletal muscle voltage-gated Na+ channel (NaV1.4) activity is subject to calmodulin (CaM) mediated Ca2+-dependent inactivation; no such inactivation is observed in the cardiac Na+ channel (NaV1.5). Taken together, the crystal structures of the NaV1.4 C-terminal domain relevant complexes and thermodynamic binding data presented here provide a rationale for this isoform difference. A Ca2+-dependent CaM N-lobe binding site previously identified in NaV1.5 is not present in NaV1.4 allowing the N-lobe to signal other regions of the NaV1.4 channel. Consistent with this mechanism, removing this binding site in NaV1.5 unveils robust Ca2+-dependent inactivation in the previously insensitive isoform. These findings suggest that Ca2+-dependent inactivation is effected by CaM's N-lobe binding outside the NaV C-terminal while CaM's C-lobe remains bound to the NaV C-terminal. As the N-lobe binding motif of NaV1.5 is a mutational hotspot for inherited arrhythmias, the contributions of mutation-induced changes in CDI to arrhythmia generation is an intriguing possibility.
Project description:The structures of the cytosolic portion of voltage activated sodium channels (CTNav) in complexes with calmodulin and other effectors in the presence and the absence of calcium provide information about the mechanisms by which these effectors regulate channel activity. The most studied of these complexes, those of Nav1.2 and Nav1.5, show details of the conformations and the specific contacts that are involved in channel regulation. Another voltage activated sodium channel, Nav1.4, shows significant calcium dependent inactivation, while its homolog Nav1.5 does not. The available structures shed light on the possible localization of the elements responsible for this effect. Mutations in the genes of these 3 Nav channels are associated with several disease conditions: Nav1.2, neurological conditions; Nav1.4, syndromes involving skeletal muscle; and Nav1.5, cardiac arrhythmias. Many of these disease-specific mutations are located at the interfaces involving CTNav and its effectors.