Pelitinib (EKB-569) targets the up-regulation of ABCB1 and ABCG2 induced by hyperthermia to eradicate lung cancer.
ABSTRACT: Pelitinib is a potent irreversible EGFR TK inhibitor currently in clinical trials for the treatment of lung cancer. Hyperthermia has been applied concomitantly with chemotherapy and radiotherapy to enhance treatment outcome. In this study, we investigated the ability of the combination of pelitinib with other conventional anticancer drugs to specifically target cancer cells with up-regulated efflux transporters ABCB1/ABCG2 after hyperthermia as a novel way to eradicate the cancer stem-like cells responsible for cancer recurrence.Alterations in intracellular topotecan accumulation, the efflux of fluorescent probe substrates, expression and ATPase activity of ABCB1/ABCG2 and tumoursphere formation capacity of side population (SP) cells sorted after hyperthermia were examined to elucidate the mechanism of pelitinib-induced chemosensitization.While pelitinib did not modulate ABCB1/ABCG2 expressions, the combination of pelitinib with transporter substrate anticancer drugs induced more marked apoptosis, specifically in cells exposed to hyperthermia. The flow cytometric assay showed that both ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated drug effluxes were significantly inhibited by pelitinib in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition kinetics suggested that pelitinib is a competitive inhibitor of ABCB1/ABCG2, which is consistent with its ability to stimulate their ATPase activity. SP cells sorted after hyperthermia were found to be more resistant to anticancer drugs, presumably due to the up-regulation of ABCB1 and ABCG2. Importantly, pelitinib specifically enhanced the chemosensitivity but reduced the tumoursphere formation capacity of these SP cells.This study demonstrated a novel approach, exploiting drug resistance, to selectively kill cancer stem-like cells after hyperthermia.
Project description:Although the judicious use of anticancer drugs that target one or more receptor tyrosine kinases constitutes an effective strategy to attenuate tumor growth, drug resistance is commonly encountered in cancer patients. The ATP-binding cassette transporters are one of the major contributors to the development of multidrug resistance as their overexpression significantly decreases the intracellular concentration and thus, the efficacy of certain anticancer drugs. Therefore, the development of treatment strategies that would not be susceptible to efflux or excretion by specific ABC transporters could overcome resistance to treatment. Here, we investigated the anticancer efficacy of saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein. Since saporin has poor permeability across the cell membrane, it was encapsulated in a lipid-based nanoparticle system (EC16-1) that effectively delivered the formulation (EC16-1/saporin) intracellularly and produced anti-cancer efficacy. EC16-1/saporin, at nanomolar concentrations, significantly inhibited the cellular proliferation of parental and ABCB1- and ABCG2-overexpressing cancer cells. EC16-1/saporin did not significantly alter the subcellular localization of ABCB1 and ABCG2. In addition, EC16-1/saporin induced apoptosis in parental and ABCB1- and ABCG2-overexpressing cancer cells. In a murine model system, EC16-1/saporin significantly inhibited the tumor growth in mice xenografted with parental and ABCB1- and ABCG2-overexpressing cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the EC16-1/saporin combination could potentially be a novel therapeutic treatment in patients with parental or ABCB1- and ABCG2-positive drug-resistant cancers.
Project description:ATP-Binding Cassette transporters are involved in the efflux of xenobiotic compounds and are responsible for decreasing drug accumulation in multidrug resistant (MDR) cells. Discovered by structure-based virtual screening algorithms, bafetinib, a Bcr-Abl/Lyn tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was found to have inhibitory effects on both ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR in this in-vitro investigation. Bafetinib significantly sensitized ABCB1 and ABCG2 overexpressing MDR cells to their anticancer substrates and increased the intracellular accumulation of anticancer drugs, particularly doxorubicin and [(3)H]-paclitaxel in ABCB1 overexpressing cells; mitoxantrone and [(3)H]-mitoxantrone in ABCG2 overexpressing cells, respectively. Bafetinib stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activities while inhibited ABCG2 ATPase activities. There were no significant changes in the expression level or the subcellular distribution of ABCB1 and ABCG2 in the cells exposed to 3??M of bafetinib. Overall, our study indicated that bafetinib reversed ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR by blocking the drug efflux function of these transporters. These findings might be useful in developing combination therapy for MDR cancer treatment.
Project description:Membrane transporters play an important role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. The cellular accumulation of many drugs is the result of the net function of efflux and influx transporters. Efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 have been shown to confer multidrug resistance in cancer. Although expression of uptake transporters has been confirmed in cancer cells, their role in chemotherapy response has not been systematically investigated. In the present study we have adapted a fluorescence-based cytotoxic assay to characterize the influence of key drug-transporters on the toxicity of approved anticancer drugs. Co-cultures of fluorescently labeled parental and transporter-expressing cells (expressing ABCB1, ABCG2 or OATP2B1) were screened against 101 FDA-approved anticancer drugs, using a novel, automated, triple fluorescence-based cytotoxicity assay. By measuring the survival of parental and transporter-expressing cells in co-cultures, we identify those FDA-approved anticancer drugs, whose toxicity is influenced by ABCB1, ABCG2 or OATP2B1. In addition to confirming known substrates of ABCB1 and ABCG2, the fluorescence-based cytotoxicity assays identified anticancer agents whose toxicity was increased in OATP2B1 expressing cells. Interaction of these compounds with OATP2B1 was verified in dedicated transport assays using cell-impermeant fluorescent substrates. Understanding drug-transporter interactions is needed to increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Our results highlight the potential of the fluorescence-based HT screening system for identifying transporter substrates, opening the way for the design of therapeutic approaches based on the inhibition or even the exploitation of transporters in cancer cells.
Project description:Sildenafil is a potent and selective inhibitor of the type 5 cGMP (cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate)-specific phosphodiesterase that is used clinically to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Here, we report that sildenafil has differential effects on cell surface ABC transporters such as ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 that modulate intracompartmental and intracellular concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs. In ABCB1-overexpressing cells, nontoxic doses of sildenafil inhibited resistance and increased the effective intracellular concentration of ABCB1 substrate drugs such as paclitaxel. Similarly, in ABCG2-overexpressing cells, sildenafil inhibited resistance to ABCG2 substrate anticancer drugs, for example, increasing the effective intracellular concentration of mitoxantrone or the fluorescent compound BODIPY-prazosin. Sildenafil also moderately inhibited the transport of E(2)17?G and methotrexate by the ABCG2 transporter. Mechanistic investigations revealed that sildenafil stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and inhibited photolabeling of ABCB1 with [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP), whereas it only slightly stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity and inhibited photolabeling of ABCG2 with [(125)I]-IAAP. In contrast, sildenafil did not alter the sensitivity of parental, ABCB1-, or ABCG2-overexpressing cells to non-ABCB1 and non-ABCG2 substrate drugs, nor did sildenafil affect the function of another ABC drug transporter, ABCC1. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of sildenafil within the large cavity of the transmembrane region of ABCB1. Overall, we found that sildenafil inhibits the transporter function of ABCB1 and ABCG2, with a stronger effect on ABCB1. Our findings suggest a possible strategy to enhance the distribution and potentially the activity of anticancer drugs by jointly using a clinically approved drug with known side effects and drug-drug interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) are two efflux transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier which effectively restrict the brain distribution of the majority of currently known anticancer drugs. High-grade brain tumors often possess a disrupted blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB) leading to enhanced accumulation of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and possibly anticancer drugs, as compared to normal brain. In contrast to high-grade brain tumors, considerably less information is available with respect to BBTB integrity in lower grade brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We performed positron emission tomography imaging with the radiolabeled ABCB1 inhibitor [11C]tariquidar, a prototypical ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate, in seven patients with non-contrast -enhancing brain tumors (WHO grades I-III). In addition, ABCB1 and ABCG2 levels were determined in surgically resected tumor tissue of four patients using quantitative targeted absolute proteomics. RESULTS:Brain distribution of [11C]tariquidar was found to be very low across the whole brain and not significantly different between tumor and tumor-free brain tissue. Only one patient showed a small area of enhanced [11C]tariquidar uptake within the brain tumor. ABCG2/ABCB1 ratios in surgically resected tumor tissue (1.4 ± 0.2) were comparable to previously reported ABCG2/ABCB1 ratios in isolated human micro-vessels (1.3), which suggested that no overexpression of ABCB1 or ABCG2 occurred in the investigated tumors. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that the investigated brain tumors had an intact BBTB, which is impermeable to anticancer drugs, which are dual ABCB1/ABCG2 substrates. Therefore, effective drugs for antitumor treatment should have high passive permeability and lack ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate affinity. TRIAL REGISTRATION:European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database (EUDRACT), 2011-004189-13. Registered on 23 February 2012, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query=2011-004189-13.
Project description:Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is one of the most important mechanisms responsible for multi-drug resistance (MDR). VS-4718, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting focal adhesion kinase (FAK) with a potential anticancer effect, is currently evaluated in clinical trials. In this study, we investigated whether VS-4718 could reverse MDR mediated by ABC transporters, including ABCB1, ABCG2, and ABCC1. The results showed that VS-4718 significantly reversed ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR, but not MDR mediated by ABCC1. Treatment of VS-4718 did not alter the protein level and subcellular localization of ABCB1 or ABCG2. Mechanism studies indicated that the reversal effects of VS-4718 were related to attenuation of the efflux activity of ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters. ATPase analysis indicated that VS-4718 stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCB1 and ABCG2. Docking study showed that VS-4718 interacted with the substrate-binding sites of both ABCB1 and ABCG2, suggesting that VS-4718 may affect the activity of ABCB1 and ABCG2 competitively. This study provided a novel insight for MDR cancer treatment. It indicated that combination of VS-4718 with antineoplastic drugs could attenuate MDR mediated by ABCB1 or ABCG2 in ABCB1- or ABCG2-overexpressing cancer cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as ABCB1 and ABCG2, has been proved to be a major trigger for multidrug resistance (MDR) in certain types of cancer. A promising approach to reverse MDR is the combined use of nontoxic and potent ABC transporters inhibitor with conventional anticancer drugs. We previously reported that FW-04-806 (conglobatin) as a novel Hsp90 inhibitor with low toxicity, capable of attenuating Hsp90/Cdc37 /clients interactions and producing antitumor action in vitro and in vivo. Our early activity screening found that FW-04-806 at non-cytotoxic concentration was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents on the ABCB1 overexpressing cells. Therefore, we speculated that FW-04-806 might be a promising MDR reversal agent. In the present study we further investigated its reversal effect of MDR induced by ABC transporters in vitro and in vivo. METHODS:MTT assay in vitro and xenograftes in vivo were used to investigate reversal effect of FW-04-806 on MDR in ABCB1 or ABCG2 overexpressing cancer cells. To understand the mechanisms for the MDR reversal, we examined the effects of FW-04-806 on intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin (DOX, adriamycin, adr)/Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123), efflux of doxorubicin, expression levels of gene and protein of ABCB1 or ABCG2 and ATPase activity of ABCB1, and carried out molecular docking between FW-04-806 and human ABCB1. RESULTS:The results indicated that FW-04-806 significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of substrate chemotherapeutic agents on the ABCB1 or ABCG2 overexpressing cells in vitro and in vivo suggesting its reversal MDR effects. FW-04-806 increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX or Rho123 by inhibiting the efflux function of ABC transporters in MDR cells rather than in their parental sensitive cells. However, unlike other ABC transporter inhibitors, FW-04-806 had no effect on the ATPase activity nor on the expression of ABCB1 or ABCG2 on either mRNA or protein level. Molecular docking suggested that FW-04-806 may have lower affinity to the ATPase site, which was consistent with its no significant effect on the ATPase activity of ABCB1; However FW-04-806 may bind to substrate binding site in TMDs more stably than substrate anticancer drugs therefore obstruct the anticancer drugs pumped out of the cell. CONCLUSIONS:FW-04-806 is a compound that has both anti-tumor and reversal MDR effects, and its antitumor clinical application is worth further study.
Project description:Stemlike cells have been isolated by their ability to efflux Hoechst 33342 dye and are called the side population (SP). We evaluated the effect of axitinib on targeting cancer stemlike cells and enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutical agents. We found that axitinib enhanced the cytotoxicity of topotecan and mitoxantrone in SP cells sorted from human lung cancer A549 cells and increased cell apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutical agents. Moreover, axitinib particularly inhibited the function of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) and reversed ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in vitro. However, no significant reversal effect was observed in ABCB1-, ABCC1- or lung resistance-related protein (LRP)-mediated MDR. Furthermore, in both sensitive and MDR cancer cells axitinib neither altered the expression of ABCG2 at the mRNA or protein levels nor blocked the phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. In nude mice bearing ABCG2-overexpressing S1-M1-80 xenografts, axitinib significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of topotecan without causing additional toxicity. Taken together, these data suggest that axitinib particularly targets cancer stemlike cells and reverses ABCG2-mediated drug resistance by inhibiting the transporter activity of ABCG2.
Project description:Multidrug resistance caused by the overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in cancer cells remains one of the most difficult challenges faced by drug developers and clinical scientists. The emergence of multidrug-resistant cancers has driven efforts from researchers to develop innovative strategies to improve therapeutic outcomes. Based on the drug repurposing approach, we discovered an additional action of TMP195, a potent and selective inhibitor of class IIa histone deacetylase. We reveal that in vitro TMP195 treatment significantly enhances drug-induced apoptosis and sensitizes multidrug-resistant cancer cells overexpressing ABCB1 or ABCG2 to anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that TMP195 inhibits the drug transport function, but not the protein expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2. The interaction between TMP195 with these transporters was supported by the TMP195-stimulated ATPase activity of ABCB1 and ABCG2, and by in silico docking analysis of TMP195 binding to the substrate-binding pocket of these transporters. Furthermore, we did not find clear evidence of TMP195 resistance conferred by ABCB1 or ABCG2, suggesting that these transporters are unlikely to play a significant role in the development of resistance to TMP195 in cancer patients.
Project description:The overexpression of one or multiple ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as ABCB1, ABCC1 or ABCG2 in cancer cells often leads to the development of multidrug resistance phenotype and consequent treatment failure. Therefore, these transporters constitute an important target to improve the therapeutic outcome in cancer patients. In this study, we employed a drug repurposing approach to identify MY-5445, a known phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, as a selective modulator of ABCG2. We discovered that by inhibiting the drug transport function of ABCG2, MY-5445 potentiates drug-induced apoptosis in ABCG2-overexpressing multidrug-resistant cancer cells and resensitizes these cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. Our data of MY-5445 stimulating the ATPase activity of ABCG2 and molecular docking analysis of its binding to the substrate-binding pocket of ABCG2 provide additional insight into the manner in which MY-5445 interacts with ABCG2. Furthermore, we found that ABCG2 does not confer resistance to MY-5445 in human cancer cells. Overall, our study revealed an additional action of MY-5445 to resensitize ABCG2-overexpressing multidrug-resistant cancer cells to conventional anticancer drugs, and this should be evaluated in future drug combination trials.