MicroRNA-33a-mediated downregulation of Pim-3 kinase expression renders human pancreatic cancer cells sensitivity to gemcitabine.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers, with less than 5% of patients surviving 5 years beyond diagnosis. Systemic therapies, particularly gemcitabine, have a modest clinical benefit, but chemoresistance limits their efficacy. Here, we demonstrate that plasma miR-33a levels positively correlated with miR-33a levels in tumor tissues of patients with PDAC and are a good prognostic indicator of overall survival. Overexpression of miR-33a inhibited tumor cell proliferation and increased the chemosensitivity to gemcitabine both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, miR-33a targets Pim-3 directly in PDAC. Pim-3 expression was a prognostic indicator related to poor survival in pancreatic cancer patients. Plasma miR-33a levels were significantly lower in pancreatic cancer patients with high Pim-3 protein expression than in healthy controls. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-33a in pancreatic cancer cell lines suppressed Pim-3 expression, leading to downregulation of the AKT/Gsk-3?/?-catenin pathway. Overall, these results indicate that miR-33a functions as a tumor suppressor that downregulates Pim-3 kinase expression to inhibit both pancreatic tumor growth and gemcitabine resistance via the AKT/?-catenin pathway. Hence, detection of plasma miR-33a may be a simple and convenient method of predicting therapeutic responses.
Project description:Gemcitabine-based chemotherapy is the most common treatment option for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, it offers little therapeutic value in many cases due to the rapid development of chemoresistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play pivotal roles in the chemotherapeutic resistance of PDAC. We found that miR-410-3p was significantly down-regulated in human pancreatic cancer xenograft (HPCx) tumor tissues from gemcitabine-treated mice. Low miR-410-3p expression correlated with gemcitabine resistance in HPCx tumors and PDAC cells as well as poor prognosis in PDAC patients. We also found that miR-410-3p attenuated the gemcitabine resistance of PDAC by targeting the 3'-UTR of HMGB1. Moreover, our study clearly demonstrated that miR-410-3p enhanced chemosensitivity to gemcitabine via inhibiting HMGB1-induced autophagy during chemotherapy in PDAC cells. Our study suggests that miR-410-3p expression may be a useful indicator of the potential for chemoresistance to gemcitabine and provide a potential new therapeutic target for chemoresistance in PDAC.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) presents the lowest survival rate of all cancers because only 6% of patients reach five-year survival. Alterations in the expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs) occur in the tumor of PDAC and in preneoplastic lesions as the called intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Here, we aimed at identifying which miRNAs are significantly altered in liquid biopsies from patients with PDAC and IPMN to find new noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of PDAC. METHODS:We analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) the expression of 17 circulating miRNAs, previously found to be significantly overexpressed in tissue pancreatic neoplasms, in a set of 182 plasma samples (94 PDAC, 19 IPMN, 18 chronic pancreatitis, and 51 disease-free controls). Then, we analyzed CA19.9 levels in the same plasma set, and we assessed the diagnostic values of differentially expressed miRNAs, CA19.9, and all possible combinations. RESULTS:Of note, 16, 14, and 9 miRNAs were significantly increased in PDAC, IPMN, and chronic pancreatitis, respectively, compared with control plasmas. miR-21-5p, miR-33a-3p, miR-320a, and miR-93-5p showed the highest discriminating capacity for pancreatic neoplasia (PDAC or IPMN) with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.86, 0.85, 0.85, and 0.80, respectively. 2-miRNA combinations improved these performances reaching AUC = 0.90 for "miR-33a-3p+miR-320a." Addition of CA19.9 increased the diagnostic potential of miRNA signatures even further achieving an AUC of 0.95 (93% sensitivity and 85% specificity) for the combination of "miR-33a-3p+miR-320a+CA19.9." CONCLUSIONS:Novel signatures combining miRNAs and CA19.9 could be used as noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of PDAC.
Project description:MicroRNA-30a-5p (miR-30a-5p) plays an important role in many biological and pathological processes, and therefore has been studied extensively. However, its expression and function in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unclear. Furthermore, whether miR-30a-5p affects sensitivity of PDAC cells to gemcitabine (GEM) is worthy of further exploration. The results showed that miR-30a-5p expression in pancreatic cancer was decreased and the down-regulated expression correlated with poor prognosis, while up-regulating miR-30a-5p suppressed tumor cell proliferation, cell cycle and increased apoptosis. MiRNA expression profiles between gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells and parental pancreatic cancer cells showed significant change of miR-30a-5p expression. Besides, up-regulating miR-30a-5p in PDAC significantly increased the chemosensitivity of gemcitabine. Furthermore, FOXD1 is a direct target of miR-30a-5p and the miR-30a-5p/FOXD1/ERK axis may play an important role in the development of gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer. In summary, our study showed that miR-30a-5p increases the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer to gemcitabine, and it may be a potential therapeutic target to overcome gemcitabine resistance.
Project description:Recent studies have shown that the non-enzymatic function of CD73 plays a key role in tumor progression, but this function of CD73 in pancreatic cancer cells has not been studied. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanism involved in CD73 regulation in tumors. Here, we found that CD73 expression was upregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and that its expression correlated with poor prognosis. CD73 knockdown inhibited cell growth and induced G1 phase arrest via the AKT/ERK/cyclin D signaling pathway. We also found that tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 2 was involved in CD73-induced AKT and ERK signaling pathway activation in PDAC. Further, miR-30a-5p overexpression significantly increased the cytotoxic effect of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer by directly targeting CD73 messenger RNA (mRNA), suggesting that regulation of the miR-30a-5p/CD73 axis may play an important role in the development of gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer. In summary, this regulatory network of CD73 appears to represent a new molecular mechanism underlying PDAC progression, and the mechanistic interaction between miR-30a-5p, CD73, and TNFR2 may provide new insights into therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer. KEY MESSAGES: CD73 was upregulated in PDAC and correlated with poor prognosis. CD73 knockdown inhibited cell growth and induced G1 phase arrest. TNFR2 was involved in CD73-induced AKT and ERK signaling pathway. miR-30a-5p targeted CD73 and increased the sensitivity to gemcitabine.
Project description:The management of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is extremely poor due to lack of an efficient therapy and development of chemoresistance to the current standard therapy, gemcitabine. Recent studies implicate the intimate reciprocal interactions between epithelia and underlying stroma due to paracrine Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in producing desmoplasia and chemoresistance in PDAC. Herein, we report for the first time that a nonsteroidal drug, ormeloxifene, has potent anticancer properties and depletes tumor-associated stromal tissue by inhibiting the SHH signaling pathway in PDAC. We found that ormeloxifene inhibited cell proliferation and induced death in PDAC cells, which provoked us to investigate the combinatorial effects of ormeloxifene with gemcitabine at the molecular level. Ormeloxifene caused potent inhibition of the SHH signaling pathway via downregulation of SHH and its related important downstream targets such as Gli-1, SMO, PTCH1/2, NF-?B, p-AKT, and cyclin D1. Ormeloxifene potentiated the antitumorigenic effect of gemcitabine by 75% in PDAC xenograft mice. Furthermore, ormeloxifene depleted tumor-associated stroma in xenograft tumor tissues by inhibiting the SHH cellular signaling pathway and mouse/human collagen I expression. Xenograft tumors treated with ormeloxifene in combination with gemcitabine restored the tumor-suppressor miR-132 and inhibited stromal cell infiltration into the tumor tissues. In addition, invasiveness of tumor cells cocultivated with TGF?-stimulated human pancreatic stromal cells was effectively inhibited by ormeloxifene treatment alone or in combination with gemcitabine. We propose that ormeloxifene has high therapeutic index and in a combination therapy with gemcitabine, it possesses great promise as a treatment of choice for PDAC/pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a clinical challenge. There is an urgent need to develop novel strategies to enhance survival and improve patient prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in the regulation of cancer development and progression. In this study, we demonstrate that low expression of miR-15a is associated with poor prognosis of PDAC patients. miR-15a expression is reduced in PDAC while closely related miR-16 expression remains relatively unchanged. miR-15a suppresses several important targets such as Wee1, Chk1, Yap-1, and BMI-1, causing cell cycle arrest and inhibiting cell proliferation. Ectopic expression of miR-15a sensitizes PDAC cells to gemcitabine reducing the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) more than 6.5-fold. To investigate the therapeutic potential of miR-15a, we used a modified miR-15a (5-FU-miR-15a) with uracil (U) residues in the guide strand replaced with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We demonstrated enhanced inhibition of PDAC cell proliferation by 5-FU-miR-15a compared to native miR-15a. In vivo we showed the therapeutic power of 5-FU-miR-15a alone or in combination with gemcitabine with near complete elimination of PDAC lung metastatic tumor growth. These results support the future development of 5-FU-miR-15a as a novel therapeutic agent as well as a prognostic biomarker in the clinical management of PDAC.
Project description:In this study a microRNA (miRNA) signature was identified in a gemcitabine resistant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell line model (BxPC3-GZR) and this signature was further examined in advanced PDAC tumor specimens from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. BxPC3-GZR showed a mesenchymal phenotype, expressed high levels of CD44 and showed a highly significant deregulation of 17 miRNAs. Based on relevance to cancer, a seven-miRNA signature (miR-100, miR-125b, miR-155, miR-21, miR-205, miR-27b and miR-455-3p) was selected for further studies. A strong correlation was observed for six of the seven miRNAs in 43 advanced tumor specimens compared to normal pancreas tissue. To assess the functional relevance we initially focused on miRNA-125b, which is over-expressed in both the BxPC3-GZR model and advanced PDAC tumor specimens. Knockdown of miRNA-125b in BxPC3-GZR and Panc-1 cells caused a partial reversal of the mesenchymal phenotype and enhanced response to gemcitabine. Moreover, RNA-seq data from each of 40 advanced PDAC tumor specimens from the TCGA data base indicate a negative correlation between expression of miRNA-125b and five of six potential target genes (BAP1, BBC3, NEU1, BCL2, STARD13). Thus far, two of these target genes, BBC3 and NEU1, that are tumor suppressor genes but not yet studied in PDAC, appear to be functional targets of miR-125b since knockdown of miR125b caused their up regulation. These miRNAs and their molecular targets may serve as targets to enhance sensitivity to chemotherapy and reduce metastatic spread.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although canonical Wnt signaling is known to promote tumorigenesis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a cancer driven principally by mutant K-Ras, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which the Wnt effector ?-catenin regulates such tumorigenesis are largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated that ?-catenin's differential usage of the Kat3 transcriptional coactivator cyclic AMP-response element binding protein-binding protein (CBP) over its highly homologous coactivator p300 increases self-renewal and suppresses differentiation in other types of cancer. AIM/METHODS:To investigate Wnt-mediated carcinogenesis in PDAC, we have used the specific small molecule CBP/?-catenin antagonist, ICG-001, which our lab identified and has extensively characterized, to examine its effects in human pancreatic cancer cells and in both an orthotopic mouse model and a human patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of PDAC. RESULTS/CONCLUSION:We report for the first time that K-Ras activation increases the CBP/?-catenin interaction in pancreatic cancer; and that ICG-001 specific antagonism of the CBP/?-catenin interaction sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells and tumors to gemcitabine treatment. These effects were associated with increases in the expression of let-7a microRNA; suppression of K-Ras and survivin; and the elimination of drug-resistant cancer stem/tumor-initiating cells.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and ineffective therapeutic multimodality. MUC13, a transmembrane mucin is highly involved in pancreatic cancer progression. Thus, understanding its regulatory molecular mechanisms may offer new avenue of therapy for prevention/treatment of pancreatic cancer. Herein, we report a novel microRNA (miR-145)-mediated mechanism regulating aberrant MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer. We report that miR-145 expression inversely correlates with MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer cells and human tumor tissues. miR-145 is predominantly present in normal pancreatic tissues and early Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) precursor lesions (PanIN I) and is progressively suppressed over the course of development from PanIN II/III to late stage poorly differentiated PDAC. We demonstrate that miR-145 targets 3' untranslated region of MUC13 and thus downregulates MUC13 protein expression in cells. Interestingly, transfection of miR-145 inhibits cell proliferation, invasion and enhances gemcitabine sensitivity. It causes reduction of HER2, P-AKT, PAK1 and an increase in p53. Similar results were found when MUC13 was specifically inhibited by shRNA directed at MUC13. Additionally, intratumoral injections of miR-145 in xenograft mice inhibited tumor growth via suppression of MUC13 and its downstream target, HER2. These results suggest miR-145 as a novel regulator of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer.
Project description:By regulating target genes, microRNAs play essential roles in carcinogenesis and drug resistance in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Previous studies have shown that microRNA-10a-5p (miR-10a-5p) is overexpressed in PDAC and acts as an oncogene to promote the metastatic behavior of PDAC cells. However, the role of miR-10a-5p in PDAC chemoresistance remains unclear.The effects of miR-10a-5p on biological behaviors were analyzed. MiR-10a-5p and TFAP2C levels in tissues were detected, and the clinical value was evaluated.We found that miR-10a-5p is up-regulated in gemcitabine-resistant PDAC cells and enhances PDAC cell gemcitabine resistance in vitro and vivo. Meanwhile, we also determined that miR-10a-5p promotes the migratory and invasive ability of PDAC cells. Next, we confirmed that transcription factor activating protein 2 gamma (TFAP2C) is a target of miR-10a-5p, and TFAP2C overexpression resensitizes PDAC cells to gemcitabine, which is initiated by miR-10a-5p. Further studies revealed that TFAP2C also decreased PDAC cell migration and invasion capability. Finally, survival analysis demonstrated that high miR-10a-5p expression levels and low TFAP2C expression levels were both independent adverse prognostic factors in patients with PDAC.Together, these results indicate that miR-10a-5p/TFAP2C may be new therapeutic target and prognostic marker in PDAC.