IPP51, a chalcone acting as a microtubule inhibitor with in vivo antitumor activity against bladder carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: We previously identified 1-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(1-methylindolyl) propenone (IPP51), a new chalcone derivative that is capable of inducing prometaphase arrest and subsequent apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that IPP51 selectively inhibits proliferation of tumor-derived cells versus normal non-tumor cells. IPP51 interfered with spindle formation and mitotic chromosome alignment. Accumulation of cyclin B1 and mitotic checkpoint proteins Bub1 and BubR1 on chromosomes in IPP51 treated cells indicated the activation of spindle-assembly checkpoint, which is consistent with the mitotic arrest. The antimitotic actions of other chalcones are often associated with microtubule disruption. Indeed, IPP51 inhibited tubulin polymerization in an in vitro assay with purified tubulin. In cells, IPP51 induced an increase in soluble tubulin. Furthermore, IPP51 inhibited in vitro capillary-like tube formation by endothelial cells, indicating that it has anti-angiogenic activity. Molecular docking showed that the indol group of IPP51 can be accommodated in the colchicine binding site of tubulin. This characteristic was confirmed by an in vitro competition assay demonstrating that IPP51 can compete for colchicine binding to soluble tubulin. Finally, in a human bladder xenograft mouse model, IPP51 inhibited tumor growth without signs of toxicity. Altogether, these findings suggest that IPP51 is an attractive new microtubule-targeting agent with potential chemotherapeutic value.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Protein assemblies named kinetochores bind sister chromatids to the mitotic spindle and orchestrate sister chromatid segregation. Interference with kinetochore activity triggers a spindle checkpoint mediated arrest in mitosis, which frequently ends in cell death. We set out to identify small compounds that inhibit kinetochore-microtubule binding for use in kinetochore-spindle interaction studies and to develop them into novel anticancer drugs.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>A fluorescence microscopy-based in vitro assay was developed to screen compound libraries for molecules that prevented the binding of a recombinant human Ndc80 kinetochore complex to taxol-stabilized microtubules. An active compound was identified that acted at the microtubule level. More specifically, by localizing to the colchicine-binding site in alphabeta-tubulin the hit compound prevented the Ndc80 complex from binding to the microtubule surface. Next, structure-activity analyses distinguished active regions in the compound and led to the identification of highly potent analogs that killed cancer cells with an efficacy equaling that of established spindle drugs.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>The compound identified in our screen and its subsequently identified analogs represent new antitubulin chemotypes that can be synthetically developed into a novel class of antimitotic spindle drugs. In addition, they are stereochemically unique as their R- and S-isomers mimic binding of colchicine and podophyllotoxin, respectively, two antitubulin drugs that interact differently with the tubulin interface. Model-driven manipulation of our compounds promises to advance insight into how antitubulin drugs act upon tubulin. These advances in turn may lead to tailor-made colchicine site agents which would be valuable new assets to fight a variety of tumors, including those that have become resistant to the (antispindle) drugs used today.
Project description:Agents that interfere with mitotic progression by perturbing microtubule dynamics are commonly used for cancer chemotherapy. Here, we identify nakiterpiosin as a novel antimitotic drug that targets microtubules. Nakiterpiosin induces mitotic arrest and triggers mitotic catastrophe in human cancer cells by impairing bipolar spindle assembly. At higher concentration, it alters the interphase microtubule network and suppresses microtubule dynamics. In the presence of nakiterpiosin, microtubules are no longer arranged in a centrosomal array and centrosome-mediated microtubule regrowth after cold depolymerization is inhibited. However, centrosome organization, the ultrastructure of Golgi stacks, and protein secretion are not affected, suggesting that the drug has minimal toxicity toward other cellular functions. Nakiterpiosin interacts directly with tubulin, inhibits microtubule polymerization in vitro, and decreases polymer mass in cells. Furthermore, it enhances tubulin acetylation and reduces viability of paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells. In conclusion, nakiterpiosin exerts antiproliferative activity by perturbing microtubule dynamics during mitosis that activates the spindle assembly checkpoint and triggers cell death. These findings suggest the potential use of nakiterpiosin as a chemotherapeutic agent.
Project description:AIM: To evaluate the anti-cancer effects of a new sulfonamide derivative, 2-(N-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-methoxyphenylsulfonamido)-N-hydroxypropanamide (MPSP-001). METHODS: Human cancer cell lines (HepG2, THP-1, K562, HGC-27, SKOV3, PANC-1, SW480, Kba, HeLa, A549, MDA-MB-453, and MCF-7) were examined. The cytotoxicity of MPSP-001 was evaluated using the WST-8 assay. Cell cycle distribution was examined with flow cytometry. Mitotic spindle formation was detected using immunofluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis-related proteins were examined with Western blot using specific phosphorylated protein antibodies. Competitive tubulin-binding assay was performed to test whether the compound competitively bound to the colchicine site. Molecular docking was performed to explore the possible binding conformation. RESULTS: MPSP-001 potently inhibited the growth of the 12 different types of human cancer cells with the IC(50) values ranging from 1.9 to 15.7 μmol/L. The compound exerted potent inhibition on the drug-resistant Kb/VCR and MCF-7/ADR cells, as on Kba and MCF-7 cells. In HeLa, HGC-27, A549, and other cells, the compound (5 μmol/L) caused cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase, and subsequently induced cell apoptosis. In Hela cells, it prevented the mitotic spindle formation. Furthermore, the compound dose-dependently inhibited polymerization of tubulin in vitro, and directly bound to the colchicine-site of β-tubulin. Molecular docking predicted that the compound may form two hydrogen bonds to the binding pocket. The compound showed synergistic effects with colchicine and taxol in blocking mitosis of HeLa cells. CONCLUSION: MPSP-001 shows a broad-spectrum of anti-tumor efficacy in vitro and represents a novel structure with anti-microtubule activity.
Project description:Based on classical colchicine site ligands and a computational model of the colchicine binding site on beta tubulin, two classes of chalcone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin assembly and toxicity in human cancer cell lines. Docking studies suggested that the chalcone scaffold could fit the colchicine site on tubulin in an orientation similar to that of the natural product. In particular, a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring adjacent to the carbonyl group appeared to benefit the ligand-tubulin interaction, occupying the same subcavity as the corresponding moiety in colchicine. Consistent with modeling predictions, several 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones showed improved cytotoxicity to murine acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells compared with a previously described parent compound, and inhibited tubulin assembly in vitro as potently as colchicine. The most potent chalcones inhibited the growth of human leukemia cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, caused microtubule destabilization and mitotic arrest in human cervical cancer cells, and inhibited human breast cancer cell migration in scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays.
Project description:Previously synthesized 2-(benzo[b]thiophene-3'-yl)-6,8,8-triethyldesmosdumotin B (1, TEDB-TB) and 2-(naphth-1'-yl)-6,8,8-triethyldesmosdumotin B (2) showed potent activity against multiple human tumor cell lines, including a multidrug-resistant (MDR) subline, by targeting spindle formation and/or the microtubule network. Consequently, ester analogues of hydroxylated naphthyl substituted TEBDs (3-5) were prepared and evaluated for their effects on tumor cell proliferation and on tubulin assembly. Among all new compounds, compound 6, a 4'-acetoxynaphthalen-1'-yl derivative, displayed the most potent antiproliferative activity (IC50 0.2-5.7?M). Selected analogues were confirmed to be tubulin assembly inhibitors in cell-free and cell-based assays using MDR tumor cells. The new analogues partially inhibited colchicine binding to tubulin, suggesting their binding mode would be different from that of colchicine. This observation was supported by computational docking model analyses. Thus, the newly synthesized triethylated chromones with esterified naphthalene groups have good potential for development as a new class of mitotic inhibitors that target tubulin.
Project description:Besides sliding apart antiparallel microtubules during spindle elongation, the mitotic kinesin-5, Eg5, promotes microtubule polymerization, emphasizing its importance in mitotic spindle length control. Here, we characterize the Eg5 microtubule polymerase mechanism by assessing motor-induced changes in the longitudinal and lateral tubulin-tubulin bonds that form the microtubule lattice. Isolated Eg5 motor domains promote microtubule nucleation, growth, and stability; thus, crosslinking tubulin by pairs of motor heads is not necessary for polymerase activity. Eg5 binds preferentially to microtubules over free tubulin, which contrasts with microtubule-depolymerizing kinesins that preferentially bind free tubulin over microtubules. Colchicine-like inhibitors that stabilize the bent conformation of tubulin allosterically inhibit Eg5 binding, consistent with a model in which Eg5 induces a curved-to-straight transition in tubulin. Domain swap experiments establish that the family-specific loop11-helix 4 junction, which resides near the nucleotide-sensing switch-II domain, is necessary and sufficient for the polymerase activity of Eg5. Thus, we propose a microtubule polymerase mechanism in which Eg5 at the plus-end promotes a curved-to-straight transition in tubulin that enhances lateral bond formation and thereby promotes microtubule growth and stability. One implication is that regulation of Eg5 motile properties by regulatory proteins or small molecule inhibitors could also have effects on intracellular microtubule dynamics.
Project description:XMAP215, CLASP, and Crescerin use arrayed tubulin-binding tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) domains to modulate microtubule dynamics. We hypothesized that TOGs have distinct architectures and tubulin-binding properties that underlie each family's ability to promote microtubule polymerization or pause. As a model, we investigated the pentameric TOG array of a Drosophila melanogaster XMAP215 member, Msps. We found that Msps TOGs have distinct architectures that bind either free or polymerized tubulin, and that a polarized array drives microtubule polymerization. An engineered TOG1-2-5 array fully supported Msps-dependent microtubule polymerase activity. Requisite for this activity was a TOG5-specific N-terminal HEAT repeat that engaged microtubule lattice-incorporated tubulin. TOG5-microtubule binding maintained mitotic spindle formation as deleting or mutating TOG5 compromised spindle architecture and increased the mitotic index. Mad2 knockdown released the spindle assembly checkpoint triggered when TOG5-microtubule binding was compromised, indicating that TOG5 is essential for spindle function. Our results reveal a TOG5-specific role in mitotic fidelity and support our hypothesis that architecturally distinct TOGs arranged in a sequence-specific order underlie TOG array microtubule regulator activity.
Project description:In fission yeast, ?-tubulin ring complex (?TuRC)-specific components Gfh1(GCP4), Mod21(GCP5), and Alp16(GCP6) are nonessential for cell growth. Of these deletion mutants, only alp16? shows synthetic lethality with temperature-sensitive mutants of Mzt1(MOZART1), a component of the ?TuRC required for recruitment of the complex to microtubule-organizing centers. ?-Tubulin small complex levels at mitotic spindle pole bodies (SPBs, the centrosome equivalent in fungi) and microtubule levels for preanaphase spindles are significantly reduced in alp16? cells but not in gfh1? or mod21? cells. Furthermore, alp16? cells often form monopolar spindles and frequently lose a minichromosome when the spindle assembly checkpoint is inactivated. Alp16(GCP6) promotes Mzt1-dependent ?TuRC recruitment to mitotic SPBs and enhances spindle microtubule assembly in a manner dependent on its expression levels. Gfh1(GCP4) and Mod21(GCP5) are not required for Alp16(GCP6)-dependent ?TuRC recruitment. Mzt1 has an additional role in the activation of the ?TuRC for spindle microtubule assembly. The ratio of Mzt1 to ?TuRC levels for preanaphase spindles is higher than at other stages of the cell cycle. Mzt1 overproduction enhances spindle microtubule assembly without affecting ?TuRC levels at mitotic SPBs. We propose that Alp16(GCP6) and Mzt1 act synergistically for efficient bipolar spindle assembly to ensure faithful chromosome segregation.
Project description:Interfering with microtubule dynamics is a well-established strategy in cancer treatment; however, many microtubule-targeting agents are associated with drug resistance and adverse effects. Substantial evidence points to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as critical players in the development of resistance. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of DJ95 (2-(1H-indol-6-yl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine), a novel tubulin inhibitor, in a variety of cancer cell lines, including malignant melanomas, drug-selected resistant cell lines, specific ABC transporter-overexpressing cell lines, and the National Cancer Institute 60 cell line panel. DJ95 treatment inhibited cancer cell migration, caused morphologic changes to the microtubule network foundation, and severely disrupted mitotic spindle formation of mitotic cells. The high-resolution crystal structure of DJ95 in complex with tubulin protein and the detailed molecular interactions confirmed its direct binding to the colchicine site. In vitro pharmacological screening of DJ95 using SafetyScreen44 (Eurofins Cerep-Panlabs) revealed no significant off-target interactions, and pharmacokinetic analysis showed that DJ95 was maintained at therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations for up to 24 hours in mice. In an A375 xenograft model in nude mice, DJ95 inhibited tumor growth and disrupted tumor vasculature in xenograft tumors. These results demonstrate that DJ95 is potent against a variety of cell lines, demonstrated greater potency to ABC transporter-overexpressing cell lines than existing tubulin inhibitors, directly targets the colchicine binding domain, exhibits significant antitumor efficacy, and demonstrates vascular-disrupting properties. Collectively, these data suggest that DJ95 has great potential as a cancer therapeutic, particularly for multidrug resistance phenotypes, and warrants further development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Paclitaxel is a widely used tubulin inhibitor for cancer therapy, but its clinical efficacy is often limited by the development of multidrug resistance. In this study, we reported the preclinical characterization of a new tubulin inhibitor DJ95, and demonstrated its abilities to overcome paclitaxel resistance, disrupt tumor vasculature, and exhibit significant antitumor efficacy.
Project description:We reported previously that pironetin and its derivatives were potent inhibitors of cell cycle progression at the M-phase and showed antitumour activity against a murine tumour cell line, P388 leukaemia, transplanted in mice. In this paper, we investigated the mechanism of action of pironetins in antitumour activity and cell cycle arrest at the M-phase. As reported previously for murine leukaemia P388 cells, pironetin showed antitumour activity in a dose-dependent manner in the human leukaemia cell line HL-60. Since DNA fragmentation was observed in both P388 and HL-60 cells, the antitumour activity of pironetin is thought to be due to the induction of apoptosis. Pironetin also induced the rapid phosphorylation of Bcl-2 before formation of the DNA ladder in HL-60 cells, as seen with several tubulin binders. These results suggest that the antitumour activity of pironetin is due to apoptosis caused by the phosphorylation of Bcl-2, and that pironetin targets the microtubules. Pironetin and demethylpironetin exhibited reversible disruption of the cellular microtubule network in normal rat fibroblast 3Y1 cells. However, epoxypironetin, which contains epoxide instead of the double bond of pironetin, showed only weak activity. Since the concentrations that inhibit cell cycle progression at the M-phase were the same as those for disruption of the microtubule network, it was suggested that the mitotic arrest induced by pironetin was the result of the loss of the mitotic spindle. These compounds also inhibited the microtubule-associated protein-induced and glutamate-induced tubulin assembly in vitro. Pironetin inhibited the binding of [3H]vinblastine, but not that of [3H]colchicine, to tubulin, and the Kd values revealed that the affinity of pironetin for tubulin is stronger than that of vinblastine. These results suggest that pironetins are novel antitumour agents which inhibit microtubule assembly.