Mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 is not involved in palmitate-induced impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1E insulinoma cells and is not needed for the amplification of insulin release.
ABSTRACT: We have recently shown that overnight exposure of INS-1E insulinoma cells to palmitate in the presence of high glucose causes defects in both mitochondrial energy metabolism and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Here we report experiments designed to test the involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) in these glucolipotoxic effects. Measuring real-time oxygen consumption in siRNA-transfected INS-1E cells, we show that deleterious effects of palmitate on the glucose sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration and on the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation are independent of UCP2. Consistently, palmitate impairs GSIS to the same extent in cells with and without UCP2. Furthermore, we knocked down UCP2 in spheroid INS-1E cell clusters (pseudoislets) to test whether or not UCP2 regulates insulin secretion during prolonged glucose exposure. We demonstrate that there are no differences in temporal GSIS kinetics between perifused pseudoislets with and without UCP2. We conclude that UCP2 is not involved in palmitate-induced impairment of GSIS in INS-1E insulinoma cells and is not needed for the amplification of insulin release. These conclusions inform ongoing debate on the disputed biochemical and physiological functions of the beta cell UCP2.
Project description:Pro-inflammatory cytokines cause pancreatic beta cell failure during the development of type 2 diabetes. This beta cell failure associates with mitochondrial dysfunction, but the precise effects of cytokines on mitochondrial respiration remain unclear. To test the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory cytokines impair glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by inhibiting oxidative ATP synthesis, we probed insulin release and real-time mitochondrial respiration in rat INS-1E insulinoma cells that were exposed to a combination of 2 ng/mL interleukin-1-beta and 50 ng/mL interferon-gamma. We show that 24-h exposure to these cytokines dampens both glucose- and pyruvate-stimulated insulin secretion (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively), but does not affect KCl-induced insulin release. Mirroring secretory defects, glucose- and pyruvate-stimulated mitochondrial respiration are lowered after cytokine exposure (P < 0.01). Further analysis confirms that cytokine-induced mitochondrial respiratory defects occur irrespective of whether fuel oxidation is coupled to, or uncoupled from, ATP synthesis. These observations demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokines attenuate GSIS by restricting mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation capacity. Interleukin-1-beta and interferon-gamma also increase mitochondrial superoxide levels (P < 0.05), which may reinforce the inhibition of pyruvate oxidation, and cause a modest (20%) but significant (P < 0.01) loss of INS-1E cells. Cytokine-induced INS-1E cell failure is insensitive to palmitoleate and linoleate, which is at odds with the cytoprotection offered by unsaturated fatty acids against harm caused by nutrient excess. Our data disclose a mitochondrial mechanism for cytokine-impaired GSIS in INS-1E cells, and suggest that inflammatory and nutrient-related beta cell failure emerge, at least partly, through distinct paths.
Project description:The expression of short chain fatty acid receptors FFA2 and FFA3 in pancreatic islets raised interest in using them as drug targets for treating hyperglycemia in humans. This study aims to examine the efficacy of synthetic FFA2- and FFA3-ligands to modulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in human pseudoislets which display intact glucose responsiveness. The FFA2-agonists 4-CMTB and TUG-1375 inhibited GSIS, an effect reversed by the FFA2-antagonist CATPB. GSIS itself was not augmented by CATPB. The FFA3-agonists FHQC and 1-MCPC did not affect GSIS in human pseudoislets. For further drug evaluation we used mouse islets. The CATPB-sensitive inhibitory effect of 100 µM 4-CMTB on GSIS was recapitulated. The inhibition was partially sensitive to the Gi/o-protein inhibitor pertussis toxin. A previously described FFA2-dependent increase of GSIS was observed with lower concentrations of 4-CMTB (10 and 30 µM). The stimulatory effect of 4-CMTB on secretion was prevented by the Gq-protein inhibitor FR900359. As in human pseudoislets, in mouse islets relative mRNA levels were FFAR2?>?FFAR3 and FFA3-agonists did not affect GSIS. The FFA3-agonists, however, inhibited GSIS in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in INS-1E cells and this correlated with relative mRNA levels of Ffar3?>?>?Ffar2. Thus, in humans, when FFA2-activation impedes GSIS, FFA2-antagonism may reduce glycemia.
Project description:Isolated human islets do not always meet the quality standards required for transplant survival and reliable functional in vitro studies. The formation of pseudoislets, i.e. the reaggregation of a defined number of islet cells after dissociation, improves insulin secretion. We present a simple method of pseudoislet formation from human islet cells and assess the transcriptome and function of isolated human islets and pseudoislets from the same organ donors. Following pseudoislet formation, insulin content/DNA and mRNA/RPS13 resembled that of islets. In pseudoislets, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was significantly higher (8-13-fold) than in islets (2-4-fold). GSIS of pseudoislets was partly inhibited by the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) antagonist exendin-9. The stimulatory effects of palmitate and forskolin at 12?mM glucose were also significantly higher in pseudoislets than in islets. Further analysis of pseudoislets revealed that regulation of secretion and insulin and glucagon content was maintained over a longer culture period (6-14 d). While adrenaline inhibited GSIS, adrenaline together with palmitate stimulated glucagon secretion 2-fold at low glucose, an effect suppressed by high glucose. Transcriptome analysis revealed that, unlike islets, pseudoislets were deprived of exocrine and endothelial cells. In conclusion, pseudoislet formation restores functional integrity of human islet cells and allows long-term in vitro testing.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) may regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The current study investigated the effects of berberine, an alkaloid found in many medicinal plants, on oxidative stress and insulin secretion through restoration of UCP2 expression in high glucose (HG)-treated INS-1E cells and rat islets or in db/db mouse islets.<h4>Experimental approach</h4>Mouse and rat pancreatic islets were isolated. Nitrotyrosine, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and UCP2 expression and AMPK phosphorylation were examined by Western blotting. Insulin secretion was measured by ELISA. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected by confocal microscopy.<h4>Key results</h4>Incubation of INS-1E cells and rat islets with HG (30 mmol·L(-1); 8 h) elevated nitrotyrosine level, reduced SOD-1 and UCP2 expression and AMPK phosphorylation, and inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. HG also increased mitochondrial ROS in INS-1E cells. Co-treatment with berberine inhibited such effects. The AMPK inhibitor compound C, the UCP2 inhibitor genipin and adenovirus ucp2 shRNA inhibited these protective effects of berberine. Furthermore, compound C normalized berberine-stimulated UCP2 expression but genipin did not affect AMPK phosphorylation. Islets from db/db mice exhibited elevated nitrotyrosine levels, reduced expression of SOD-1 and UCP2 and AMPK phosphorylation, and decreased insulin secretion compared with those from db/m(+) mice. Berberine also improved these defects in diabetic islets and genipin blocked the effects of berberine.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>Berberine inhibited oxidative stress and restored insulin secretion in HG-treated INS-IE cells and diabetic mouse islets by activating AMPK and UCP2. UCP2 is an important signalling molecule in mediating anti-diabetic effects of berberine.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein with Ca(2+)-dependent transamidating and G protein activity. Previously we reported that the role of TG2 in insulin secretion may involve cytoplasmic actin remodeling and a regulative action on other proteins during granule movement. The aim of this study was to gain a better insight into the role of TG2 transamidating activity in mitochondria and in the nucleus of INS-1E rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1E) during insulin secretion. To this end we labeled INS-1E with an artificial donor (biotinylated peptide), in basal condition and after stimulus with glucose for 2, 5, and 8min. Biotinylated proteins of the nuclear/mitochondrial-enriched fraction were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Many mitochondrial proteins involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis (e.g. voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein, prohibitin and different ATP synthase subunits) and many nuclear proteins involved in gene regulation (e.g. histone H3, barrier to autointegration factor and various heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein) were identified among a number of transamidating substrates of TG2 in INS-1E. The combined results provide evidence that a temporal link exists between glucose-stimulation, first phase insulin secretion and the action of TG on histone H3 both in INS-1E and human pancreatic islets.<h4>Biological significance</h4>Research into the role of transglutaminase 2 during insulin secretion in INS-1E rat insulinoma cellular model is depicting a complex role for this enzyme. Transglutaminase 2 acts in the different INS-1E compartments in the same way: catalyzing a post-translational modification event of its substrates. In this work we identify some mitochondrial and nuclear substrates of INS-1E during first phase insulin secretion. The finding that TG2 interacts with nuclear proteins that include BAF and histone H3 immediately after (2-5min) glucose stimulus of INS-1E suggests that TG2 may be involved not only in insulin secretion, as suggested by our previous studies in cytoplasmic INS-1E fraction, but also in the regulation of glucose-induced gene transcription.
Project description:Mitochondria form filamentous networks that undergo continuous fission/fusion. In the pancreatic beta-cells, mitochondria are essential for the transduction of signals linking nutrient metabolism to insulin granule exocytosis. Here we have studied mitochondrial networks in the insulinoma cell line INS-1E, primary rat and human beta-cells. We have further investigated the impact of mitochondrial fission/fusion on metabolism-secretion coupling in INS-1E cells. Overexpression of hFis1 caused dramatic mitochondrial fragmentation, whereas Mfn1 evoked hyperfusion and the aggregation of mitochondria. Cells overexpressing hFis1 or Mfn1 showed reduced mitochondrial volume, lowered cellular ATP levels, and as a consequence, impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Decreased mitochondrial ATP generation was partially compensated for by enhanced glycolysis as indicated by increased lactate production in these cells. Dominant-negative Mfn1 elicited mitochondrial shortening and fragmentation of INS-1E cell mitochondria, similar to hFis1. However, the mitochondrial volume, cytosolic ATP levels, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were little affected. We conclude that mitochondrial fragmentation per se does not impair metabolism-secretion coupling. Through their impact on mitochondrial bioenergetics and distribution, hFis1 and Mfn1 activities influence mitochondrial signal generation thereby insulin exocytosis.
Project description:The circadian clock has been shown to regulate metabolic homeostasis. Mice with a deletion of Bmal1, a key component of the core molecular clock, develop hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, suggesting ?-cell dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully known. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ?-cell function by Bmal1. We studied ?-cell function in global Bmal1-/- mice, in vivo and in isolated islets ex vivo, as well as in rat insulinoma cell lines with shRNA-mediated Bmal1 knockdown. Global Bmal1-/- mice develop diabetes secondary to a significant impairment in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). There is a blunting of GSIS in both isolated Bmal1-/- islets and in Bmal1 knockdown cells, as compared to controls, suggesting that this is secondary to a loss of cell-autonomous effect of Bmal1. In contrast to previous studies, in these Bmal1-/- mice on a C57Bl/6 background, the loss of stimulated insulin secretion, interestingly, is with glucose but not to other depolarizing secretagogues, suggesting that events downstream of membrane depolarization are largely normal in Bmal1-/- islets. This defect in GSIS occurs as a result increased mitochondrial uncoupling with consequent impairment of glucose-induced mitochondrial potential generation and ATP synthesis, due to an upregulation of Ucp2. Inhibition of Ucp2, in isolated islets, leads to a rescue of the glucose-induced ATP production and insulin secretion in Bmal1-/- islets. Thus, Bmal1 regulates mitochondrial energy metabolism to maintain normal GSIS and its disruption leads to diabetes due to a loss of GSIS.
Project description:Transient exposure of beta-cells to oxidative stress interrupts the transduction of signals normally coupling glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. We investigated putative persistence of effects induced by one transient oxidative stress (200 microm H(2)O(2), 10 min) on insulin secreting cells following recovery periods of days and weeks. Three days after oxidative stress INS-1E cells and rat islets exhibited persistent dysfunction. In particular, the secretory response to 15 mm glucose was reduced by 40% in INS-1E cells stressed 3 days before compared with naïve cells. Compared with non-stressed INS-1E cells, we observed reduced oxygen consumption (-43%) and impaired glucose-induced ATP generation (-46%). These parameters correlated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation (+60%) accompanied with down-regulation of subunits of the respiratory chain and decreased expression of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM, -24%; PGC-1alpha, -67%). Three weeks after single oxidative stress, both mitochondrial respiration and secretory responses were recovered. Moreover, such recovered INS-1E cells exhibited partial resistance to a second transient oxidative stress and up-regulation of UCP2 (+78%) compared with naïve cells. In conclusion, one acute oxidative stress induces beta-cell dysfunction lasting over days, explained by persistent damages in mitochondrial components.
Project description:Fission and fusion of mitochondrial tubules are the major processes regulating mitochondrial morphology. However, the physiological significance of mitochondrial shape change is poorly understood. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells requires mitochondrial ATP production which evokes Ca(2+) influx through plasma membrane depolarization, triggering insulin vesicle exocytosis. Therefore, GSIS reflects mitochondrial function and can be used for evaluating functional changes associated with morphological alterations of mitochondria. Using the insulin-secreting cell line INS-1E, we found that glucose stimulation induced rapid mitochondrial shortening and recovery. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission through expression of the dominant-negative mutant DLP1-K38A eliminated this dynamic mitochondrial shape change and, importantly, blocked GSIS. We found that abolishing mitochondrial morphology change in glucose stimulation increased the mitochondrial inner membrane proton leak, and thus significantly diminished the mitochondrial ATP producing capacity in response to glucose stimulation. These results demonstrate that dynamic change of mitochondrial morphology is a previously unrecognized component for metabolism-secretion coupling of pancreatic β-cells by participating in efficient ATP production in response to elevated glucose levels.
Project description:Pancreatic ?-cells are vulnerable to oxidative stress due to their low content of redox buffers, such as glutathione, but possess a rich content of thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, and other proteins capable of redox relay, transferring redox signaling. Consequently, it may be predicted that cytosolic antioxidants could interfere with the cytosolic redox signaling and should not be recommended for any potential therapy. In contrast, mitochondrial matrix-targeted antioxidants could prevent the primary oxidative stress arising from the primary superoxide sources within the mitochondrial matrix, such as at the flavin (IF) and ubiquinone (IQ) sites of superoxide formation within respiratory chain complex I and the outer ubiquinone site (IIIQ) of complex III. Therefore, using time-resolved confocal fluorescence monitoring with MitoSOX Red, we investigated various effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in model pancreatic ?-cells (insulinoma INS-1E cells) and pancreatic islets. Both SkQ1 (a mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone) and a suppressor of complex III site Q electron leak (S3QEL) prevented superoxide production released to the mitochondrial matrix in INS-1E cells with stimulatory glucose, where SkQ1 also exhibited an antioxidant role for UCP2-silenced cells. SkQ1 acted similarly at nonstimulatory glucose but not in UCP2-silenced cells. Thus, UCP2 can facilitate the antioxidant mechanism based on SkQ1+ fatty acid anion- pairing. The elevated superoxide formation induced by antimycin A was largely prevented by S3QEL, and that induced by rotenone was decreased by SkQ1 and S3QEL and slightly by S1QEL, acting at complex I site Q. Similar results were obtained with the MitoB probe, for the LC-MS-based assessment of the 4 hr accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the mitochondrial matrix but for isolated pancreatic islets. For 2 hr INS-1E incubations, some samples were influenced by the cell death during the experiment. Due to the frequent dependency of antioxidant effects on metabolic modes, we suggest a potential use of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants for the treatment of prediabetic states after cautious nutrition-controlled tests. Their targeted delivery might eventually attenuate the vicious spiral leading to type 2 diabetes.