Quantum Nonlocality of Arbitrary Dimensional Bipartite States.
ABSTRACT: We study the nonlocality of arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum states. By computing the maximal violation of a set of multi-setting Bell inequalities, an analytical and computable lower bound has been derived for general two-qubit states. This bound gives the necessary condition that a two-qubit state admits no local hidden variable models. The lower bound is shown to be better than that from the CHSH inequality in judging the nonlocality of some quantum states. The results are generalized to the case of high dimensional quantum states, and a sufficient condition for detecting the non-locality has been presented.
Project description:The key feature in correlations established by multi-party quantum entangled states is nonlocality. A quantity to measure the average nonlocality, distinguishing it from shared randomness and in a direct relation with no-signaling stochastic processes (which provide an operational interpretation of quantum correlations, without involving information transmission between the parties as to sustain causality), is proposed and resolved exhaustively for the quantum correlations established by a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt setup (or CHSH box). The amount of nonlocality that is available in a CHSH box is measured by its proximity to the nearest Popescu-Rohrlich set of causal stochastic processes (aka a PR box) in the no-signaling polytope, related by polyhedral duality to Bell's correlation function. The proposed amount of average nonlocality is an entanglement monotone with a simple relation to concurrence. We provide the optimal setup vectors of a maximally nonlocal CHSH box for any entangled pair. The strongest nonlocality is the fraction [Formula: see text] of a PR box, attained by maximally entangled qubit pairs. The most economical causal stochastic process reproducing any maximally nonlocal CHSH box is developed. Data produced by a computer implementation of the simulator agrees with the quantum mechanical formulas.
Project description:Recently quantum nonlocality has been classified into three distinct types: quantum entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, and Bell's nonlocality. Among which, Bell's nonlocality is the strongest type. Bell's nonlocality for quantum states is usually detected by violation of some Bell's inequalities, such as Clause-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qubits. Steering is a manifestation of nonlocality intermediate between entanglement and Bell's nonlocality. This peculiar feature has led to a curious quantum phenomenon, the one-way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. The one-way steering was an important open question presented in 2007, and positively answered in 2014 by Bowles et al., who presented a simple class of one-way steerable states in a two-qubit system with at least thirteen projective measurements. The inspiring result for the first time theoretically confirms quantum nonlocality can be fundamentally asymmetric. Here, we propose another curious quantum phenomenon: Bell nonlocal states can be constructed from some steerable states. This novel finding not only offers a distinctive way to study Bell's nonlocality without Bell's inequality but with steering inequality, but also may avoid locality loophole in Bell's tests and make Bell's nonlocality easier for demonstration. Furthermore, a nine-setting steering inequality has also been presented for developing more efficient one-way steering and detecting some Bell nonlocal states.
Project description:A physical explanation for quantum bounds to nonlocality (Tsirelson's bound) is a fundamental problem in quantum theory, for it is known that no-signaling alone fails to reproduce this limit. Here, information indistinguishability is presented as the indistinguishability of qubits or more general bits, and it suggests an answer to the nonlocality conundrum, ultimately placing it as the origin to quantum limits. Indistinguishability is also connected to exclusivity principle, and it is shown that indistinguishability leads to quantum correlation bounds. This suggests indistinguishability be as fundamental as non-locality and relativistic causality for nonlocal realism.
Project description:Understanding the characteristics of a quantum systems when affected by noise is one of the biggest challenges for quantum technologies. The general Pauli error channel is an important lossless channel for quantum communication. In this work we consider the effects of a Pauli channel on a pure four-qubit state and simulate the Pauli channel experimentally by studying the action on polarization encoded entangled photons. When the noise channel acting on the photons is correlated, a set spanned by four orthogonal bound entangled states can be generated. We study this interesting case experimentally and demonstrate that products of Bell states can be brought into a bound entangled regime. We find states in the set of bound entangled states which experimentally violate the CHSH inequality while still possessing a positive partial transpose.
Project description:Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young's double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing.
Project description:We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality.
Project description:Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a form of quantum nonlocality intermediate between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. Although Schrödinger already mooted the idea in 1935, steering still defies a complete understanding. In analogy to "all-versus-nothing" proofs of Bell nonlocality, here we present a proof of steering without inequalities rendering the detection of correlations leading to a violation of steering inequalities unnecessary. We show that, given any two-qubit entangled state, the existence of certain projective measurement by Alice so that Bob's normalized conditional states can be regarded as two different pure states provides a criterion for Alice-to-Bob steerability. A steering inequality equivalent to the all-versus-nothing proof is also obtained. Our result clearly demonstrates that there exist many quantum states which do not violate any previously known steering inequality but are indeed steerable. Our method offers advantages over the existing methods for experimentally testing steerability, and sheds new light on the asymmetric steering problem.
Project description:This paper is devoted to the foundational problems of <i>dendrogramic holographic theory</i> (DH theory). We used the ontic-epistemic (implicate-explicate order) methodology. The epistemic counterpart is based on the representation of data by dendrograms constructed with hierarchic clustering algorithms. The ontic universe is described as a p-adic tree; it is zero-dimensional, totally disconnected, disordered, and bounded (in p-adic ultrametric spaces). Classical-quantum interrelations lose their sharpness; generally, simple dendrograms are "more quantum" than complex ones. We used the CHSH inequality as a measure of quantum-likeness. We demonstrate that it can be violated by classical experimental data represented by dendrograms. The seed of this violation is neither nonlocality nor a rejection of realism, but the nonergodicity of dendrogramic time series. Generally, the violation of ergodicity is one of the basic features of DH theory. The dendrogramic representation leads to the local realistic model that violates the CHSH inequality. We also considered DH theory for Minkowski geometry and monitored the dependence of CHSH violation and nonergodicity on geometry, as well as a Lorentz transformation of data.
Project description:Genuine multipartite nonlocality (GMN) has been recognized as the strongest form of multipartite quantum correlation. However, there exist states that cannot violate the Svetlichny inequality derived from the standard definition of GMN, even though they possess GMN properties. The reason is that the standard definition of GMN allows correlations that permit signalling among parties, which is inconsistent with an operational definition. Here, for the first time, we present an experimental test of GMN in the no-signalling scenario, with a three-photon pure state |?<sub>s</sub>? and a noisy W state. The experimental results show that these states cannot violate the Svetlichny inequality. However, our results also demonstrate that they do violate a new inequality derived from the definition of GMN based on the no-signalling principle, i.e., these states can exhibit GMN under the requirement of no-signalling. Our results will be useful for the study and applications of GMN in quantum communications and quantum computation.
Project description:Quantum mechanics admits correlations that cannot be explained by local realistic models. The most studied models are the standard local hidden variable models, which satisfy the well-known Bell inequalities. To date, most works have focused on bipartite entangled systems. We consider correlations between three parties connected via two independent entangled states. We investigate the new type of so-called "bilocal" models, which correspondingly involve two independent hidden variables. These models describe scenarios that naturally arise in quantum networks, where several independent entanglement sources are used. Using photonic qubits, we build such a linear three-node quantum network and demonstrate nonbilocal correlations by violating a Bell-like inequality tailored for bilocal models. Furthermore, we show that the demonstration of nonbilocality is more noise-tolerant than that of standard Bell nonlocality in our three-party quantum network.