Risk Factors for HIV Infection among Young Thai Men during 2005-2009.
ABSTRACT: Thailand is one of several countries with a continuing generalized HIV epidemic. We evaluated the risk factors for HIV prevalence among 17-29 year old men conscripted by a random process into the Royal Thai Army (RTA) in 8 cohorts from 2005-2009.A series of case-cohort studies were conducted among the male RTA conscripts who had been tested for HIV seroprevalence after they were inducted. Men who were HIV positive were compared with a systematic random sample (1 in 30-40) of men from the total population of new conscripts. Each subject completed a detailed risk factor questionnaire.A total of 240,039 young Thai men were conscripted into the RTA and were screened for HIV seroprevalence between November 2005 and May 2009. Of 1,208 (0.5%) HIV positive cases, 584 (48.3%) men were enrolled into the study. There were 7,396 men who were enrolled as a comparison group. Among conscripts who had an education lower than a college-level, the independent risk factors for HIV infection were age in years (AOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.28-1.48), a history of sex with another man (AOR 3.73, 95% CI 2.70-5.13), HCV infection (AOR 3.89, 95% CI 2.56-5.90), and a history of sex with a female sex worker (FSW) (AOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.10-1.66). Among conscripts who had a college degree, the independent risk factor for HIV infection was a history of sex with another man (AOR 23.04, 95% CI 10.23-51.90). Numbers of sexual partners increased and the age at first sex, as well as the use of condoms for sex with a FSW decreased in successive cohorts.The HIV seroprevalence among cohorts of 17-29 years old men has remained at about 0.5% overall during 2005-2009. The most significant behavior associated with HIV prevalence was a history of sex with another man. Our data indicate continuing acquisition of HIV among young men in Thailand in recent years, especially among men with a history of same sex behavior.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There is little evidence on the need for differentiated HIV prevention services for men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW) and people who inject drugs (PWID in Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the HIV sexual risk profiles of FSW, MSM and PWID resident in Nigeria; and identify factors associated with condom use among the groups. This will help identify if differentiated HIV prevention services are needed for MSM, FSW and PWID in Nigeria.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a cross-sectional study. Data on sexual practices (anal, vaginal and oral sex), history of alcohol and psychoactive substance use, and high risk sexual behaviors for HIV infection (inconsistent use of condom) was collected from study FSW, MSM and PWID resident in Enugu, Nassarawa, Benue, and Akwa-Ibom States of Nigeria between April and June, 2015. Association between sexual practices, alcohol and psychoactive substance use, and HIV sexual risk behaviors; and differences in sexual risk behaviors of MSM, FSW and PWID were determined using Pearson chi-square for categorical variables, and t-test for continuous variables. Determinants of condom use in the last 30?days were identified using logistic regression analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The study population consisted of 188 (38.5%) FSW, 145 (29.7%) MSM and 155 (31.8%) PWID. MSM (AOR: 0.17; 95%CI: 0.05-0.67; p?=?0.01) and PWID (AOR: 0.07; 95%CI: 0.02-0.21; p?<?0.001) were significantly less likely than FSW to have used condom in the last 30?days. A lower proportion of FSW and PWID used condom during anal sex in the last 12?months when compared with MSM (p?<?0.001 respectively). The proportion of MSM (23.5%) and FSW (23.4%) who had ever used psychoactive drugs was high. Of those who had ever used psychoactive drugs, 25.0% of FSW and 29.4% of MSM had injected drugs in the last 30?days of the survey. Also, 39.3% of PWID shared needles and syringes. The use of psychoactive substances (AOR: 5.01; 95%CI: 2.59-9.68; p <?0.001) and the ability to negotiate condom use (AOR: 2.04; 95%CI: 1.06-3.93; p?=?0.03) were factors associated with condom use in the last 30?days of the survey.<h4>Conclusion</h4>HIV prevention programs designed for MSM, FSW and PWID need to address inconsistent condom use during sex by addressing condom negotation skills. This sexual risk behavior is common to the three groups.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Understanding the current epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Thailand will facilitate more effective national HIV prevention programs. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection among young Thai men. METHODS:A total survey was conducted of Royal Thai Army new conscripts, participating in the national HIV surveillance in November 2010 and May 2011. Behavioral risk factors for HIV infection were determined using a standardized survey questionnaire in the total study population and men who have sex with men (MSM) subgroup. RESULTS:A total of 301 (0.5%) HIV infected young Thai men were identified from the total study population (63,667). Independent risk factors associated with HIV infection among the total study population included being single (adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 1.6, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.1-2.2), having no formal education (AOR 6.5, 95% CI 2.3-18.4) or a bachelor's degree (AOR 1. 8, 95% CI 1.0-3.0), engaging in bisexual (AOR 3.7, 95% CI 2.4-5. 6) or exclusively homosexual activity (AOR 14.4, 95% CI 10.4-19.8), having a history of Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.3) and having sex in exchange for gifts/money (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1. 5-2.8). A total of 4,594 (7.9%) MSM were identified, of which 121 (2.6%) were HIV infected. The prevalence of HIV infection among MSM in urban (2.8%) and rural (2.4%) areas were relatively comparable (p-value = 0.44). Of the identified MSM, 82.5% reported having sexual desire with females only. Risk factors associated with HIV infection in the MSM subgroup included living in the western region (AOR 3.5, 95% CI 1.2-10.4), having a bachelor's degree (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-5.7), having a history of exclusive receptive (AOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-7.7) or versatile anal sex (AOR 4.7, 95% CI 3.0-7.5) and history of having sex in exchange for gifts/money (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5). CONCLUSION:The prevalence of HIV infection among young Thai men has continued to be below 0.5% in 2010 and 2011. High risk sexual activity, including MSM, played a major role in the HIV epidemic among this population. Effective HIV prevention programs should cover MSM who have heterosexual desire as well as having sex in exchange for gifts/money and be implemented in both urban and rural areas.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The availability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing provides an approach that may have the potential to expand HIV testing in China, especially among most-a-risk populations. There are few investigations about the acceptability of oral fluid HIV testing among most-at-risk populations in China.<h4>Method</h4>A cross-sectional study with men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW) and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients was conducted in three cities of Shandong province, China from 2011 to 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face questionnaire.<h4>Results</h4>About 71% of participants were willing to accept the oral fluid HIV rapid testing, and home HIV testing was independently associated with acceptability of the new testing method among MSM, FSW and VCT clients (AOR of 4.46, 3.19 and 5.74, respectively). Independent predictors of oral fluid HIV rapid testing acceptability among MSM were having ever taken an oral fluid HIV rapid test (AOR= 15.25), having ever taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.07), and education level (AOR= 1.74). Engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors (AOR= 1.68) was an independent predictor of acceptability for FSW. Having taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.85) was an independent predictor of acceptability for VCT clients. The primary concern about the oral fluid HIV testing was accuracy. The median price they would pay for the testing ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 U.S. dollars.<h4>Conclusion</h4>High acceptability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing was shown among most-at-risk populations. Findings provide support for oral rapid HIV testing as another HIV prevention tool, and provide a backdrop for the implementation of HIV home testing in the near future. Appropriate pricing and increased public education through awareness campaigns that address concerns about the accuracy and safety of the oral fluid HIV rapid testing may help increase acceptability and use among most-at-risk populations in China.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to estimate alcohol and tobacco use prevalence and their correlates among female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM) and drug users (DU) in Togo. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:A cross-sectional bio-behavioural study was conducted among 2115 MSM, FSW and DU in 2017 using a respondent-driven sampling method, in the eight biggest towns of Togo. Selection criteria for the MSM were being male and having had oral or anal intercourse with a man in the previous 12 months; for FSW, being a female and having exchanged sex for money in the previous 12 months; and for DU, consuming heroin, cocaine or hashish for MSM, FSW and DU, respectively. All participants had to be at least 18 years old and residing in the territory for the past 3?months. RESULTS:The prevalence of alcohol consumption, hazardous/harmful consumption and binge drinking was 64.8%, 38.4% and 45.5%, respectively. Current tobacco use was reported by 30.6% of participants and HIV prevalence was estimated at 12.5%. DU were more likely to engage in binge drinking compared with other key populations (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.0; 95%?CI 1.4 to 2.8; p=0.001). Participants who were identified as having hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption had almost three times the odds of tobacco consumption than those with no risky consumption (aOR=2.6; 95% CI 2.0 to 3.4; p=0.001). Hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption was three times more likely among participants with severe psychological distress compared with those with no psychological distress (aOR=3.3, 95% CI 2.2 to 5.1; p=0.001). CONCLUSION:Findings from this study demonstrate the need for the integration of mental health and substance abuse reduction interventions into HIV prevention programme, particularly those geared towards key populations.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>As HIV is very effectively acquired during condomless receptive anal intercourse (AI) with serodiscordant and viremic partners, the practice could contribute to the high prevalence among female sex workers (FSW) in eSwatini (formerly known as Swaziland). We aim to estimate the proportion reporting AI (AI prevalence) among Swazi FSW and to identify the correlates of AI practice in order to better inform HIV prevention interventions among this population.<h4>Methods</h4>Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), 325 Swazi FSW were recruited in 2011. We estimated the prevalence of AI and AI with inconsistent condom use in the past month with any partner type, and inconsistent condom use during AI and vaginal intercourse (VI) by partner type. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify behavioural and structural correlates associated with AI and AI with inconsistent condom use.<h4>Results</h4>RDS-adjusted prevalence of AI and AI with inconsistent condom use was high, at 44%[95% confidence interval (95%CI):35-53%]) and 34%[95%CI:26-42%], respectively and did not vary by partner type. HIV prevalence was high in this sample of FSW (70%), but knowledge that AI increases HIV acquisition risk low, with only 10% identifying AI as the riskiest sex act. Those who reported AI were more likely to be better educated (adjusted odds ratio(aOR) = 1.92[95%CI:1.03-3.57]), to have grown up in rural areas (aOR = 1.90[95%CI:1.09-3.32]), have fewer new clients in the past month (aOR = 0.33[95%CI:0.16-0.68]), and for last sex with clients to be condomless (aOR = 2.09[95%CI:1.07-4.08]). Although FSW reporting AI in past month were more likely to have been raped (aOR = 1.95[95%CI:1.05-3.65]) and harassed because of being a sex worker (aOR = 2.09[95%CI:1.16-3.74]), they were also less likely to have ever been blackmailed (aOR = 0.50[95%CI:0.25-0.98]) or been afraid to walk in public places (aOR = 0.46[95%CI:0.25-0.87]). Correlates of AI with inconsistent condom use were similar to those of AI.<h4>Conclusions</h4>AI is commonly practised and condom use is inconsistent among Swazi FSW. Sex act data are needed to determine how frequently AI is practiced. Interventions to address barriers to condom use are needed, as are biomedical interventions that reduce acquisition risk during AI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long-acting injectable antiretroviral therapy (LA ART) was found to be non-inferior to daily oral ART in Phase 3 clinical trials. LA ART may offer an important alternative for people living with HIV with challenges adhering to daily oral ART or preferences for non-pill-based regimens. METHODS:Using a mixed methods approach integrating survey, in-depth interview and biological data from female sex workers (FSW) living with HIV in Tanzania (N = 208) and the Dominican Republic (DR) (N = 201), we assessed factors associated with the potential likelihood of LA ART use if it were available. We conducted multivariate logistic regression and thematic content analysis. RESULTS:Likelihood of LA ART use was high with 84.92% of FSW from the DR and 92.27% of FSW from Tanzania reporting they would be "likely" or "very likely" to use LA ART if available (p = 0.02). In Tanzania better HIV-related patient-provider communication (AOR 4.58; 95% CI 1.90-11.05) and quality of HIV clinical care (AOR 3.68; 95% CI 1.05-12.86) were positively associated with the high likelihood of LA ART use. In the DR, easier clinic access was associated with a higher likelihood of LA ART use (AOR 3.04; 95% CI 1.41-6.56), as was greater monthly income from sex work (AOR 2.37; 95% CI 1.27-4.41). In both settings, years on ART was significantly associated with a strong likelihood of LA ART use (TZ: AOR 1.16 per year; 95% CI 1.00-1.34/DR: AOR 1.07 per year; 95% CI 1.00-1.14). Qualitative findings underscored enthusiasm for LA ART and reinforced its potential to address sex work-specific barriers to daily oral ART adherence including work-related schedules and substance use. CONCLUSIONS:We found a high likelihood of LA ART use if available among FSW in two diverse settings and documented barriers to future uptake. Community-driven approaches which include tailored health education and improved patient-provider communication and quality of care, as well as strategies to facilitate appointment adherence are needed to optimize LA ART use among FSW.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Understanding the impact of past interventions and how it affected transmission dynamics is key to guiding prevention efforts. We estimated the population-level impact of condom, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and prevention of mother-to-child transmission activities on HIV transmission and the contribution of key risk factors on HIV acquisition and transmission. METHODS:An age-stratified dynamical model of sexual and vertical HIV transmission among the general population, female sex workers (FSW), and men who have sex with men was calibrated to detailed prevalence and intervention data. We estimated the fraction of HIV infections averted by the interventions, and the fraction of incident infections acquired and transmitted by different populations over successive 10-year periods (1976-2015). RESULTS:Overall, condom use averted 61% (95% credible intervals: 56%-66%) of all adult infections during 1987-2015 mainly because of increased use by FSW (46% of infections averted). In comparison, ART prevented 15% (10%-19%) of adult infections during 2010-2015. As a result, FSW initially (1976-1985) contributed 95% (91%-97%) of all new infections, declining to 19% (11%-27%) during 2005-2015. Older men and clients mixing with non-FSW are currently the highest contributors to transmission. Men who have sex with men contributed ?4% transmissions throughout. Young women (15-24 years; excluding FSW) do not transmit more infections than they acquired. CONCLUSIONS:Early increases in condom use, mainly by FSW, have substantially reduced HIV transmission. Clients of FSWs and older men have become the main source of transmission, whereas young women remain at increased risk. Strengthening prevention and scaling-up of ART, particularly to FSW and clients of female sex workers, is important.
Project description:Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70-7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11-30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09-7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15-0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention interventions for FSW should aim to improve condom negotiation self-efficacy since women who report less difficulty negotiating condom use are more likely to use condoms with clients. Interventions should also be aimed at structural issues such as increasing access to free condoms and HIV testing since these were positively associated with condom use among FSW.
Project description:Access to reproductive healthcare, including contraceptive services, is an essential component of comprehensive healthcare for female sex workers (FSW). Here, we evaluated the prevalence of and factors associated with contraceptive use, unplanned pregnancy, and pregnancy termination among FSW in three transit towns in Zambia.Data arose from the baseline quantitative survey from a randomized controlled trial of HIV self-testing among FSW. Eligible participants were 18 years of age or older, exchanged sex for money or goods at least once in the past month, and were HIV-uninfected or status unknown without recent HIV testing (<3 months). Logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with contraceptive use and unplanned pregnancy.Of 946 women eligible for this analysis, 84.1% had been pregnant at least once, and among those 61.6% had an unplanned pregnancy, and 47.7% had a terminated pregnancy. Incarceration was associated with decreased odds of dual contraception use (aOR=0.46, 95% CI 0.32-0.67) and increased odds of unplanned pregnancy (aOR=1.75, 95% CI 1.56-1.97). Condom availability at work was associated with increased odds of using condoms only for contraception (aOR=1.74, 95% CI 1.21-2.51) and decreased odds of unplanned pregnancy (aOR=0.63, 95% CI 0.61-0.64).FSW in this setting have large unmet reproductive health needs. Structural interventions, such as increasing condom availability in workplaces, may be useful for reducing the burden of unplanned pregnancy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Female sex workers (FSW) are highly susceptible to chlamydia and gonorrhea infection. However, there is limited literature examining their testing uptake to date. This study aimed to assess the uptake and determinants of chlamydia and gonorrhea testing among FSW in Southern China.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was performed in five cities in Southern China. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, chlamydia and gonorrhea testing, and the utilization of health care services from participants were collected through face-to-face interviews. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine factors associated with chlamydia and gonorrhea testing, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 1207 FSWs were recruited, with the mean age of 30.7 ± 6.8 years and an average number of clients of 7.0 (4.0-10.0) per week. 65.4% participants constantly used condoms with clients during the past month. Only 7.5 and 10.4% had been tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea in the last year, respectively. Multivariable analysis indicated that FSW who worked at low tiers (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 2.36, 95%CI:1.23-10.14), had more clients in the last month (aOR = 1.03, 95%CI:1.01-1.05), used condoms consistently (aOR = 1.79, 95%CI:1.12-2.86), had STD symptoms (aOR = 4.09,95%CI:2.62-6.40), had been tested for HIV (aOR = 5.16, 95%CI:3.21-8.30) or syphilis (aOR = 6.90, 95%CI:4.21-11.22) in the last year were more likely to have chlamydia testing. In addition, FSW who had more clients in the past month (aOR = 1.02,95%CI:1.00-1.04), had STD symptoms (aOR = 3.33, 95%CI:2.03-5.46), had been tested for HIV (aOR = 3.94, 95%CI:2.34-6.65) and syphilis (aOR = 3.27, 95%CI:1.96-5.46) in the last year were more likely to have gonorrhea testing.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The testing rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea are low among Chinese FSW. Integrating chlamydia and gonorrhea testing into HIV testing promotion programs may help bridge the gap among FSW.