Phytobeneficial Properties of Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Maize in Southwestern Nigerian Soils.
ABSTRACT: Biocontrol agents isolated outside Africa have performed inconsistently under field conditions in Africa. The development of indigenous phytobeneficial microbial strains that suit local environments may help enhance competitiveness with in situ microorganisms and effectiveness at suppressing local pathogen strains. We isolated bacteria from the rhizosphere of maize growing in southwestern Nigeria and assessed them for growth-promoting characteristics. The best isolates were characterized using 16S rRNA genes and were further evaluated in the greenhouse on maize seedlings. Four isolates (EBS8, IGBR11, EPR2, and ADS14) were outstanding in in vitro assays of antagonistic activity against a local strain of Fusarium verticillioides, phosphate solubilization efficiency, chitinase enzyme activity, and indole-3-acetic acid production. Inoculation of maize seeds with these isolates resulted in ?95% maize seed germination and significantly enhanced radicle and plumule length. In the greenhouse, maize seedling height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, shoot mass (dry matter), and nutrient contents were significantly enhanced. The bioprotectant and phytobeneficial effects were strongest and most consistent for isolate EBS8, which was identified as a Bacillus strain by 16S rRNA gene analysis. As a bacterial strain that exhibits multiple growth-promoting characteristics and is adapted to local conditions, EBS8 should be considered for the development of indigenous biological fertilizer treatments.
Project description:Soybean inoculation with effective rhizobial strains makes unnecessary the use of N-fertilizers in the tropics. A frequently reported problem is the failure of the inoculant strains to overcome the competition imposed by indigenous rhizobial populations. The screening of indigenous rhizobia, already adapted to local conditions, searching for highly effective strains for use as inoculants represents a promising strategy in overcoming inoculation failure. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize indigenous rhizobia and to identify strains that hold potential to be included in inoculant formulations for soybean production, with both promiscuous and non-promiscuous soybean cultivars, in Mozambican agro-climatic conditions. A total of 105 isolates obtained from nodules of promiscuous soybean grown at 15 sites were screened for N2-fixation effectiveness in the greenhouse along with five commercial strains. Eighty-seven isolates confirmed the ability to form effective nodules on soybean and were used for genetic characterization by rep-PCR (BOX) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and also for symbiotic effectiveness. BOX-PCR fingerprinting revealed remarkable genetic diversity, with 41 clusters formed, considering a similarity level of 65%. The 16S rRNA analysis assigned the isolates to the genera Bradyrhizobium (75%) and Agrobacterium/Rhizobium (25%). Great variability in symbiotic effectiveness was detected among the indigenous rhizobia from Mozambique, with ten isolates performing better than the commercial strain B. diazoefficiens USDA 110, the best reference strain, and 51 isolates with lower performance than all reference strains. Thirteen of the best isolates from the first greenhouse trial were evaluated, along with the five commercial strains, in two promiscuous (TGx 1963-3F and TGx 1835-10E) and one non-promiscuous (BRS 284) soybean cultivars in a second greenhouse trial. In general the promiscous soybeans responded better to inoculation. The 13 isolates were also characterized for tolerance to acidity and alkalinity (pH 3.5 and 9.0, respectively), salinity (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mol L-1 of NaCl) and high temperatures (35, 40 and 45 °C) in vitro. Five isolates, three (Moz 4, Moz 19 and Moz 22) belonging to the superclade B. elkanii and two (Moz 27 and Moz 61) assigned to the superclade B. japonicum, consistently showed high symbiotic effectiveness, suggesting that the inoculation with indigenous rhizobia adapted to local conditions represents a possible strategy for increasing soybean yields in Mozambique. Phylogenetic position of the five elite isolates was confirmed by the MLSA with four protein-coding housekeeping genes, dnaK, glnII, gyrB and recA.
Project description:The results of this study indicate that the maize rhizosphere remains a reservoir for microbial strains with unique beneficial properties. The study sought to provide an indigenous Bacillus strain with a bioprotective potential to alleviate maize fusariosis in South Africa. We selected seven Bacillus isolates (MORWBS1.1, MARBS2.7, VERBS5.5, MOREBS6.3, MOLBS8.5, MOLBS8.6, and NWUMFkBS10.5) with biosuppressive effects against two maize fungal pathogens (Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum) based on 16S rDNA gene characterization and lipopeptide gene analysis. The PCR analysis revealed that lipopeptide genes encoding the synthesis of iturin, surfactin, and fengycin might be responsible for their antifungal activities. Few of the isolates also showed possible biosurfactant capability, and their susceptibility to known antibiotics is indicative of their eco-friendly attributes. In addition, in silico genomic analysis of our best isolate (Bacillus velezensis NWUMFkBS10.5) and characterization of its active metabolite with FTIR, NMR, and ESI-Micro-Tof MS confirmed the presence of valuable genes clusters and metabolic pathways. The versatile genomic potential of our Bacillus isolate emphasizes the continued relevance of Bacillus spp. in biological management of plant diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Indigenous typhoid fever was continuing to be identified in Taiwan which has not been endemic for the enteric fever for more than 20?years. The source and transmission by which the local patients acquired typhoid and the population structure of the indigenous typhoid strains remain not well characterized. METHODS:During 2001 and 2014, non-duplicated clinical Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates in a hospital were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and determined for pulsotypes. Maximum likelihood phylogeny was constructed by nucleotide alterations in core genomes and compared to the framework of global typhoid strains. Potential source and transmission were traced by correlating the phylogeny and the temporal relationship between isolates. RESULTS:A total of 43?S. Typhi isolates from indigenous cases were analyzed and a majority (39, 90.7%) of them were belonged to six WGS-defined genotypes prevailing mainly in Southeast Asia. Genotype 3.4.0 and a multidrug-resistant type 4.3.1 (also known as pandemic H58 haplotype) were associated respectively with two solitary small-scale outbreaks, implying a transmission mode of importation followed by outbreak. Twelve isolates with nearly identical core genomes were belonged to genotype 3.2.1 but were categorized into three different pulsotypes. The 3.2.1 isolates were identified across 13?years and involved in three clusters and a sporadic case, indicating sustained local transmission of the same strain. The remaining indigenous isolates belonging to three genotypes (2.1, 3.1.2, and 3.0.0) were of substantial genetic diversity and isolated at different time points, indicating independent event of each case. CONCLUSIONS:Indigenous typhoid in Taiwan occurred mainly with the forms of small-scale outbreaks or sporadic events likely by contracting imported strains which prevailed in Southeast Asia. Sustained local transmission of certain strain was also evident by WGS analysis, but not by conventional pulsotyping, highlighting the importance of continuing molecular surveillance of typhoid fever with adequate tools in the non-endemic region.
Project description:The rhizobial community indigenous to the Okavango region has not yet been characterized. The isolation of indigenous rhizobia can provide a basis for the formulation of a rhizobial inoculant. Moreover, their identification and characterization contribute to the general understanding of species distribution and ecology. Isolates were obtained from nodules of local varieties of the pulses cowpea, Bambara groundnut, peanut, hyacinth bean, and common bean. Ninety-one of them were identified by BOX repetitive element PCR (BOX-PCR) and sequence analyses of the 16S-23S rRNA internally transcribed spacer (ITS) and the recA, glnII, rpoB, and nifH genes. A striking geographical distribution was observed. Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi dominated at sampling sites in Angola which were characterized by acid soils and a semihumid climate. Isolates from the semiarid sampling sites in Namibia were more diverse, with most of them being related to Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and Bradyrhizobium daqingense. Host plant specificity was observed only for hyacinth bean, which was nodulated by rhizobia presumably representing yet-undescribed species. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized with respect to their adaptation to high temperatures, drought, and local host plants. The adaptation experiments revealed that the Namibian isolates shared an exceptionally high temperature tolerance, but none of the isolates showed considerable adaptation to drought. Moreover, the isolates' performance on different local hosts showed variable results, with most Namibian isolates inducing better nodulation on peanut and hyacinth bean than the Angolan strains. The local predominance of distinct genotypes implies that indigenous strains may exhibit a better performance in inoculant formulations.
Project description:Fusarium stalk rot (FSR) caused by Fusarium graminearum (FG) significantly affects the productivity of maize grain crops. Application of agrochemicals to control the disease is harmful to environment. In this regard, use of biocontrol agent (BCA) is an alternative to agrochemicals. Although Trichoderma species are known as BCA, the selection of host-pathogen specific Trichoderma is essential for the successful field application. Hence, we screened a total of 100 Trichoderma isolates against FG, selected Trichoderma harzianum (CCTCC-RW0024) for greenhouse experiments and studied its effect on changes of maize rhizosphere microbiome and biocontrol of FSR. The strain CCTCC-RW0024 displayed high antagonistic activity (96.30%), disease reduction (86.66%), biocontrol-related enzyme and gene expression. The root colonization of the strain was confirmed by eGFP tagging and qRT-PCR analysis. Pyrosequencing revealed that exogenous inoculation of the strain in maize rhizosphere increased the plant growth promoting acidobacteria (18.4%), decreased 66% of FG, and also increased the plant growth. In addition, metabolites of this strain could interact with pathogenicity related transcriptional cofactor FgSWi6, thereby contributing to its inhibition. It is concluded that T. harzianum strain CCTCC-RW0024 is a potential BCA against FSR.
Project description:In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P < 0.05) in growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the potential of these indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolates to use as microbial inoculation or biofertilizer for growth promotion of tea crops.
Project description:The aim of this study was to characterize culturable rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial isolates isolated from rhizosphere soil and roots of maize plant irrigated with industrial and municipal wastewater in terms of resistance to heavy metals and salinity and plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. Results illustrated that both rhizosphere isolates and endophytic ones had various PGP characteristics in terms of both the number and the production amount of these characteristics. A substantial number of the bacterial isolates (both endophytic isolates and rhizosphere isolates) were tolerant to heavy metals (multi-metal resistant bacteria). Compared to endophytic isolates, rhizosphere isolates had greater resistance to heavy metals. Both endophytic isolates and rhizosphere ones showed remarkable resistance to salinity (7% NaCl). Based on comparison of 16S rRNA sequences and biochemical tests, the effective isolates, based on having multiple PGP characteristics and higher resistance to heavy metals and salinity, were identified. Isolates N5 and R7 were closely related to Bacillus cereus and Enterobacter cloacae, respectively. In addition, the ability of rhizosphere strain R7, as a multi-metal resistant bacterium, in the removal of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by its biomass and colonization of maize roots in the presence of these metals was evaluated. This strain could remove these metals from the solution (46.5-88.95%) and colonize both root surface and inside root of maize (4-7 Log10 CFU (colony-forming unit) g-1 fresh root weight) under heavy metal stress. Therefore, it can be concluded that maize plant irrigated with industrial and municipal wastewater harbors salinity and heavy metals-resistant bacteria and may be potential reservoirs for isolating bacteria effective at alleviating heavy metal stress in the plant, reducing accumulation of heavy metals in crops such as maize, and removing heavy metals in aqueous media (bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastewater system).
Project description:Forty strains of H. fennelliae collected from paediatric blood and stool samples over an 18 year period at a children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, were amplified by PCR of the 16S rRNA. Two distinct genotypes of H. fennelliae were identified based on the phylogenetic analysis. This was confirmed by sequencing a portion of the beta subunit of the RNA polymerase (rpoB) gene. All isolates from South Africa clustered with a proposed novel Helicobacter strain (accession number AF237612) isolated in Australia, while three H. fennelliae type strains from the northern hemisphere, NCTC 11612, LMG 7546 and CCUG 18820, formed a separate branch. A large (355bp) highly conserved intervening sequence (IVS) in the 16S rRNA was found in all isolates. Predicted secondary structures of the IVS from the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA were characterised by a primary stem structure formed by base pairing of the 3' and 5' ends and internal loops and stems. This phylogenetic analysis is the largest undertaken of H. fennelliae. The South African H. fennelliae isolates are closely related to an Australian isolate previously reported to be a possible novel species of Helicobacter. This study suggests that the latter is strain of H. fennelliae.
Project description:Maize streak virus strain A (MSV-A), the causal agent of maize streak disease, is today one of the most serious biotic threats to African food security. Determining where MSV-A originated and how it spread transcontinentally could yield valuable insights into its historical emergence as a crop pathogen. Similarly, determining where the major extant MSV-A lineages arose could identify geographical hot spots of MSV evolution. Here, we use model-based phylogeographic analyses of 353 fully sequenced MSV-A isolates to reconstruct a plausible history of MSV-A movements over the past 150 years. We show that since the probable emergence of MSV-A in southern Africa around 1863, the virus spread transcontinentally at an average rate of 32.5 km/year (95% highest probability density interval, 15.6 to 51.6 km/year). Using distinctive patterns of nucleotide variation caused by 20 unique intra-MSV-A recombination events, we tentatively classified the MSV-A isolates into 24 easily discernible lineages. Despite many of these lineages displaying distinct geographical distributions, it is apparent that almost all have emerged within the past 4 decades from either southern or east-central Africa. Collectively, our results suggest that regular analysis of MSV-A genomes within these diversification hot spots could be used to monitor the emergence of future MSV-A lineages that could affect maize cultivation in Africa.
Project description:Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a crucial role in enhancing the acquisition of immobile nutrients, particularly phosphorus. However, because nitrogen (N) is more mobile in the soil solution and easier to access by plants roots, the role of AMF in enhancing N acquisition is regarded as less important for host plants. Because AMF have a substantial N demand, competition for N between AMF and plants particularly under low N condition is possible. Thus, it is necessary to know whether or not AMF affect N uptake of plants and thereby affect plant growth under field conditions. We conducted a 2-year field trial and pot experiments in a greenhouse by using benomyl to suppress colonization of maize roots by indigenous AMF at both low and high N application rates. Benomyl reduced mycorrhizal colonization of maize plants in all experiments. Benomyl-treated maize had a higher shoot N concentration and content and produced more grain under field conditions. Greenhouse pot experiments showed that benomyl also enhanced maize growth and N concentration and N content when the soil was not sterilized, but had no effect on maize biomass and N content when the soil was sterilized but a microbial wash added, providing evidence that increased plant performance is at least partly caused by direct effects of benomyl on AMF. We conclude that AMF can reduce N acquisition and thereby reduce grain yield of maize in N-limiting soils.