Ortho-surgical management of a Conradi-Hunermann syndrome patient: rare case report.
ABSTRACT: The Conradi-Hünermann Disease is a rare syndrome, which affects the cranial development and the anatomy of dental occlusion. After interdisciplinary treatment completion, the patient reached satisfactory facial anatomy, as well as regular occlusal relationship, attested 2 years of accompaniment.
Project description:Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome (CDPX2, OMIM 302960) is an inherited X-linked dominant variant of chondrodysplasia punctata which primarily affects the skin, bones, and eyes. CDPX2 patients display skin defects, including ichthyotic lesions, follicular atrophoderma, cicatricial alopecia, and less frequently ichthyosiform erythroderma, cataracts, and skeletal abnormalities consisting of short stature, asymmetric shortening of the limbs, epiphyseal stippling, and craniofacial defects. CDPX2 results from mutations in emopamil binding protein (EBP) gene. The aim of our study is to identify EBP mutation in a unique case of Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome with rare psoriasiform lesions.
Project description:Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant syndrome affecting the skin, skeletal system, and eyes. Here, we report on a female patient with a de novo heterozygous missense mutation c.301C>T (p.Trp101Arg) of the EMP (emopamil binding protein) gene.
Project description:Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, or X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata type 2 (CDPX2), is a genodermatosis caused by mutations in EBP. While typically lethal in males, females with CDPX2 generally manifest by infancy or childhood with variable features including congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, chondrodysplasia punctata, asymmetric shortening of the long bones, and cataracts. We present a 36-year-old female with short stature, rhizomelic and asymmetric limb shortening, severe scoliosis, a sectorial cataract, and no family history of CDPX2. Whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed a p.Arg63del mutation in EBP, and biochemical studies confirmed a diagnosis of CDPX2. Short stature in combination with ichthyosis or alopecia, cataracts, and limb shortening in an adult should prompt consideration of a diagnosis of CDPX2. As in many genetic syndromes, the hallmark features of CDPX2 in pediatric patients are not readily identifiable in adults. This demonstrates the utility of WES as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of adults with genetic disorders.
Project description:X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2 or Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, MIM #302960) is caused by mutations in the EBP gene. Affected female patients present with Blaschkolinear ichthyosis, coarse hair or alopecia, short stature, and normal psychomotor development. The disease is usually lethal in boys. Nevertheless, few male patients have been reported; they carry a somatic mosaicism in EBP or present with Klinefelter syndrome. Here, we report CDPX2 patients belonging to a three-generation family, carrying the splice variant c.301?+?5?G?>?C in intron 2 of EBP. The grandfather carries the variant as mosaic state and presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis. The mother also presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis and the female fetus with severe limb and vertebrae abnormalities and no skin lesions, with random X inactivation in both. This further characterizes the phenotypical spectrum of CDPX2, as well as intrafamilial variability, and raises the question of differential EBP mRNA splicing between the different target tissues.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Greenberg dysplasia is a rare, autosomal recessive, prenatal lethal bone dysplasia caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in the lamin B receptor (LBR) gene. Pathogenic variants in LBR are also associated with Pelger-Huët anomaly, an autosomal dominant benign abnormality of the nuclear shape and chromatin organization of blood granulocytes, and Pelger-Huët anomaly with variable skeletal anomalies, a mild, regressing to moderate-severe autosomal recessive condition. Conditions with abnormal sterol metabolism and different genetic basis have clinical and radiographic features similar to Greenberg dysplasia, for example X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, Conradi-Hünermann type, and CHILD syndrome, and other conditions with unknown genetic etiology display very similar features, for example, dappled diaphyseal dysplasia and Astley-Kendall dysplasia. METHODS:We present a fetus with typical clinical and radiographic features of Greenberg dysplasia, and review the literature. RESULTS:Genetic testing confirmed the diagnosis Greenberg dysplasia: homozygosity for a pathogenic variant in LBR. CONCLUSION:Comparing the clinical and radiographic phenotypes of Greenberg dysplasia, dappled diaphyseal dysplasia, and Astley-Kendall dysplasia, we suggest that these are allelic disorders.
Project description:Carriers of the Glu167Lys coding variant in the TM6SF2 gene have recently been identified as being more susceptible to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), yet exhibit lower levels of circulating lipids and hence are protected against cardiovascular disease. Despite the physiological importance of these observations, the molecular function of TM6SF2 remains unknown, and no sequence similarity with functionally characterized proteins has been identified. In order to trace its evolutionary history and to identify functional domains, we embarked on a computational protein sequence analysis of TM6SF2. We identified a new domain, the EXPERA domain, which is conserved among TM6SF, MAC30/TMEM97 and EBP (D8, D7 sterol isomerase) protein families. EBP mutations are the cause of chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked dominant (CDPX2), also known as Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, a defective cholesterol biosynthesis disorder. Our analysis of evolutionary conservation among EXPERA domain-containing families and the previously suggested catalytic mechanism for the EBP enzyme, indicate that TM6SF and MAC30/TMEM97 families are both highly likely to possess, as for the EBP family, catalytic activity as sterol isomerases. This unexpected prediction of enzymatic functions for TM6SF and MAC30/TMEM97 is important because it now permits detailed experiments to investigate the function of these key proteins in various human pathologies, from cardiovascular disease to cancer.
Project description:The Nep1 (Emg1) SPOUT-class methyltransferase is an essential ribosome assembly factor and the human Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS) is caused by a specific Nep1(D86G) mutation. We recently showed in vitro that Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Nep1 is a sequence-specific pseudouridine-N1-methyltransferase. Here, we show that in yeast the in vivo target site for Nep1-catalyzed methylation is located within loop 35 of the 18S rRNA that contains the unique hypermodification of U1191 to 1-methyl-3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-pseudouri-dine (m1acp3?). Specific (14)C-methionine labelling of 18S rRNA in yeast mutants showed that Nep1 is not required for acp-modification but suggested a function in ?1191 methylation. ESI MS analysis of acp-modified ?-nucleosides in a ?nep1-mutant showed that Nep1 catalyzes the ?1191 methylation in vivo. Remarkably, the restored growth of a nep1-1(ts) mutant upon addition of S-adenosylmethionine was even observed after preventing U1191 methylation in a ?snr35 mutant. This strongly suggests a dual Nep1 function, as ?1191-methyltransferase and ribosome assembly factor. Interestingly, the Nep1 methyltransferase activity is not affected upon introduction of the BCS mutation. Instead, the mutated protein shows enhanced dimerization propensity and increased affinity for its RNA-target in vitro. Furthermore, the BCS mutation prevents nucleolar accumulation of Nep1, which could be the reason for reduced growth in yeast and the Bowen-Conradi syndrome.
Project description:Bowen-Conradi syndrome (BCS) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired prenatal and postnatal growth, profound psychomotor retardation, and death in early childhood. Nearly all reported BCS cases have been among Hutterites, with an estimated birth prevalence of 1/355. We previously localized the BCS gene to a 1.9 Mbp interval on human chromosome 12p13.3. The 59 genes in this interval were ranked as candidates for BCS, and 35 of these, including all of the best candidates, were sequenced. We identified variant NM_006331.6:c.400A-->G, p.D86G in the 18S ribosome assembly protein EMG1 as the probable cause of BCS. This mutation segregated with disease, was not found in 414 non-Hutterite alleles, and altered a highly conserved aspartic acid (D) residue. A structural model of human EMG1 suggested that the D86 residue formed a salt bridge with arginine 84 that would be disrupted by the glycine (G) substitution. EMG1 mRNA was detected in all human adult and fetal tissues tested. In BCS patient fibroblasts, EMG1 mRNA levels did not differ from those of normal cells, but EMG1 protein was dramatically reduced in comparison to that of normal controls. In mammalian cells, overexpression of EMG1 harboring the D86G mutation decreased the level of soluble EMG1 protein, and in yeast two-hybrid analysis, the D86G substitution increased interaction between EMG1 subunits. These findings suggested that the D-to-G mutation caused aggregation of EMG1, thereby reducing the level of the protein and causing BCS.
Project description:These libraries represent Cancer Genome Anatomy Project libraries, which are either produced through CGAP funding, or donated to CGAP. The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP: http://cgap.nci.nih.gov) is an interdisciplinary program established and administered by the National Cancer Institute (NCI: http://www.nci.nih.gov) to generate the information and technological tools needed to decipher the molecular anatomy of the cancer cell. Overall design: This GEO Series was created by the GEO staff as part of a cleanup effort to ensure that all GEO Samples are included within a Series entry.
Project description:Nep1 (Emg1) is a highly conserved nucleolar protein with an essential function in ribosome biogenesis. A mutation in the human Nep1 homolog causes Bowen-Conradi syndrome-a severe developmental disorder. Structures of Nep1 revealed a dimer with a fold similar to the SPOUT-class of RNA-methyltransferases suggesting that Nep1 acts as a methyltransferase in ribosome biogenesis. The target for this putative methyltransferase activity has not been identified yet. We characterized the RNA-binding specificity of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Nep1 by fluorescence- and NMR-spectroscopy as well as by yeast three-hybrid screening. Nep1 binds with high affinity to short RNA oligonucleotides corresponding to nt 910-921 of M. jannaschii 16S rRNA through a highly conserved basic surface cleft along the dimer interface. Nep1 only methylates RNAs containing a pseudouridine at a position corresponding to a previously identified hypermodified N1-methyl-N3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl) pseudouridine (m1acp3-Psi) in eukaryotic 18S rRNAs. Analysis of the methylated nucleoside by MALDI-mass spectrometry, HPLC and NMR shows that the methyl group is transferred to the N1 of the pseudouridine. Thus, Nep1 is the first identified example of an N1-specific pseudouridine methyltransferase. This enzymatic activity is also conserved in human Nep1 suggesting that Nep1 is the methyltransferase in the biosynthesis of m1acp3-Psi in eukaryotic 18S rRNAs.