Diversity of Aquatic Pseudomonas Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogenic Oomycete Saprolegnia.
ABSTRACT: Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of several chemical control measures, new sustainable methods are needed to mitigate Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Here, PhyloChip-based community analyses showed that the Pseudomonadales, particularly Pseudomonas species, represent one of the largest bacterial orders associated with salmon eggs from a commercial hatchery. Among the Pseudomonas species isolated from salmon eggs, significantly more biosurfactant producers were retrieved from healthy salmon eggs than from Saprolegnia-infected eggs. Subsequent in vivo activity bioassays showed that Pseudomonas isolate H6 significantly reduced salmon egg mortality caused by Saprolegnia diclina. Live colony mass spectrometry showed that strain H6 produces a viscosin-like lipopeptide surfactant. This biosurfactant inhibited growth of Saprolegnia in vitro, but no significant protection of salmon eggs against Saprolegniosis was observed. These results indicate that live inocula of aquatic Pseudomonas strains, instead of their bioactive compound, can provide new (micro)biological and sustainable means to mitigate oomycete diseases in aquaculture.
Project description:Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security. Due to the prohibition of several chemical control agents, novel sustainable measures are required to control Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Previously, fungal community analysis by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) revealed that the Ascomycota, specifically the genus Microdochium, was an abundant fungal phylum associated with salmon eggs from a commercial fish farm. Here, phylogenetic analyses showed that most fungal isolates obtained from salmon eggs were closely related to Microdochium lycopodinum/Microdochium phragmitis and Trichoderma viride species. Phylogenetic and quantitative PCR analyses showed both a quantitative and qualitative difference in Trichoderma population between diseased and healthy salmon eggs, which was not the case for the Microdochium population. In vitro antagonistic activity of the fungi against Saprolegnia diclina was isolate-dependent; for most Trichoderma isolates, the typical mycoparasitic coiling around and/or formation of papilla-like structures on S. diclina hyphae were observed. These results suggest that among the fungal community associated with salmon eggs, Trichoderma species may play a role in Saprolegnia suppression in aquaculture.
Project description:Here, we address the morphological changes of eyed eggs of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. infected with Saprolegnia from a commercial hatchery and after experimental infection. Eyed eggs infected with Saprolegnia spp. from 10 Atlantic salmon females were obtained. Egg pathology was investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Eggs from six of ten females were infected with S. parasitica, and two females had infections with S. diclina clade IIIA; two Saprolegnia isolates remained unidentified. Light microscopy showed S. diclina infection resulted in the chorion in some areas being completely destroyed, whereas eggs infected with S. parasitica had an apparently intact chorion with hyphae growing within or beneath the chorion. The same contrasting pathology was found in experimentally infected eggs. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that S. parasitica grew on the egg surface and hyphae were found penetrating the chorion of the egg, and re-emerging on the surface away from the infection site. The two Saprolegnia species employ different infection strategies when colonizing salmon eggs. Saprolegnia diclina infection results in chorion destruction, while S. parasitica penetrates intact chorion. We discuss the possibility these infection mechanisms representing a necrotrophic (S. diclina) vs. a facultative biotrophic strategy (S. parasitica).
Project description:Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases.
Project description:Saprolegnia parasitica is a freshwater oomycete that is capable of infecting several species of fin fish. Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by this microbe, has a substantial impact on Atlantic salmon aquaculture. No sustainable treatment against saprolegniosis is available, and little is known regarding the host response. In this study, we examined the immune response of Atlantic salmon to S. parasitica infection and to its cell wall carbohydrates. Saprolegnia triggers a strong inflammatory response in its host (i.e., induction of interleukin-1?1 [IL-1?1], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), while severely suppressing the expression of genes associated with adaptive immunity in fish, through downregulation of T-helper cell cytokines, antigen presentation machinery, and immunoglobulins. Oomycete cell wall carbohydrates were recognized by fish leukocytes, triggering upregulation of genes involved in the inflammatory response, similar to what is observed during infection. Our data suggest that S. parasitica is capable of producing prostaglandin [corrected] E2 (PGE2) in vitro, a metabolite not previously shown to be produced by oomycetes, and two proteins with homology to vertebrate enzymes known to play a role in prostaglandin biosynthesis have been identified in the oomycete genome. Exogenous PGE2 was shown to increase the inflammatory response in fish leukocytes incubated with cell wall carbohydrates while suppressing genes involved in cellular immunity (gamma interferon [IFN-?] and the IFN-?-inducible protein [?-IP]). Inhibition of S. parasitica zoospore germination and mycelial growth by two cyclooxygenase inhibitors (aspirin and indomethacin) also suggests that prostaglandins may be involved in oomycete development.
Project description:In order to control saprolegniosis in Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) eggs, it is important to screen herb extracts as potential anti-Saprolegnia drugs in Prussian carp hatcheries. For this purpose, an oomycete water mould (strain SC) isolated from Prussian carp [Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782)] eggs suffering from saprolegniosis was characterised morphologically as well as from ITS rDNA sequence data. Initially identified as a Saprolegnia sp. based on its morphological features, the constructed phylogenetic tree using the neighbour joining method further indicated that the SC strain was closely related to Saprolegnia australis R. F. Elliott 1968 strain VI05733 (GenBank accession no. HE798564), and which could form biofilm communities as virulence factors. In addition, aqueous extracts from forty Chinese herbs were screened as possible anti-Saprolegnia agents. Among them, a 1 g ml-1 extract from Radix sanguisorbae was the most efficacious anti-Saprolegnia agent, indicated by the minimum inhibitory concentration that was as low as 256 mg L-1. Relative survival of 73 and 88% was obtained against the SC strain in fish eggs at concentrations of 256 and 1280 mg L-1, respectively. This is the first known report of Saprolegnia australis R. F. Elliott 1968 infection in C. gibelio (Bloch, 1782) eggs involving the screening of R. sanguisorbae extracts as potential anti-Saprolegnia agents.
Project description:Saprolegniosis is one of the most catastrophic oomycete diseases of freshwater fish caused by the members of the genus <i>Saprolegnia</i>. The disease is responsible for huge economic losses in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Until 2002, <i>Saprolegnia</i> infections were effectively controlled by using malachite green. However, the drug has been banned for use in aquaculture due to its harmful effect. Therefore, it has become important to find an alternate and safe anti-oomycete agent that is effective against <i>Saprolegnia</i>. In this study, we investigated the anti-oomycete activity of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) against <i>Saprolegnia</i>. Before <i>in vitro</i> evaluation, molecular docking was carried out to explore the binding of CHG with vital proteins of <i>Saprolegnia</i>, such as <i>S. parasitica</i> host-targeting protein 1 (SpHtp1), plasma membrane ATPase, and TKL protein kinase. <i>In silico</i> studies revealed that CHG binds with these proteins <i>via</i> hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. In an <i>in vitro</i> study, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of CHG against <i>S. parasitica</i> were found to be 50 mg/L. Further, it was tested against <i>S. australis</i>, another species of <i>Saprolegnia</i>, and the MIC and MFC were found to be 100 and 200 mg/L, respectively. At 500 mg/L of CHG, there was complete inhibition of the radial growth of <i>Saprolegnia</i> hyphae. In propidium iodide (PI) uptake assay, CHG treated hyphae had bright red fluorescence of PI indicating the disruption of the cell membrane. The results of the present study indicated that CHG could effectively inhibit <i>Saprolegnia</i> and hence can be used for controlling Saprolegniasis in cultured fish.
Project description:A candidate CYP51 gene encoding sterol 14?-demethylase from the fish oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica (SpCYP51) was identified based on conserved CYP51 residues among CYPs in the genome. It was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. Lanosterol, eburicol, and obtusifoliol bound to purified SpCYP51 with similar binding affinities (Ks, 3 to 5 ?M). Eight pharmaceutical and six agricultural azole antifungal agents bound tightly to SpCYP51, with posaconazole displaying the highest apparent affinity (Kd, ?3 nM) and prothioconazole-desthio the lowest (Kd, ?51 nM). The efficaciousness of azole antifungals as SpCYP51 inhibitors was confirmed by 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 0.17 to 2.27 ?M using CYP51 reconstitution assays. However, most azole antifungal agents were less effective at inhibiting S. parasitica, Saprolegnia diclina, and Saprolegnia ferax growth. Epoxiconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole failed to inhibit Saprolegnia growth (MIC100, >256 ?g ml(-1)). The remaining azoles inhibited Saprolegnia growth only at elevated concentrations (MIC100 [the lowest antifungal concentration at which growth remained completely inhibited after 72 h at 20°C], 16 to 64 ?g ml(-1)) with the exception of clotrimazole, which was as potent as malachite green (MIC100, ?1 ?g ml(-1)). Sterol profiles of azole-treated Saprolegnia species confirmed that endogenous CYP51 enzymes were being inhibited with the accumulation of lanosterol in the sterol fraction. The effectiveness of clotrimazole against SpCYP51 activity (IC50, ?1 ?M) and the concentration inhibiting the growth of Saprolegnia species in vitro (MIC100, ?1 to 2 ?g ml(-1)) suggest that clotrimazole could be used against Saprolegnia infections, including as a preventative measure by pretreatment of fish eggs, and for freshwater-farmed fish as well as in leisure activities.
Project description:Saprolegniosis is a worldwide fungal-like infection affecting freshwater fishes and their eggs. Reports show high mortalities and subsequent economic losses annually from Saprolegnia infections. Most therapeutants against Saprolegnia spp. infections are inefficient and some have negative impact on the environment. In this study, we have investigated the ability of boric acid (BA) to prevent Saprolegnia infection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). BA inhibited radial growth of Saprolegnia hyphae in vitro. Complete in vitro growth inhibition was found at a concentration of ?0.6?g/L. Inhibitory effects were also observed in vivo when Nile tilapia were experimentally challenged with Saprolegnia spores and followed over 10 days post challenge and under continuous exposure to different BA concentrations. No signs of saprolegniosis were observed in fish treated with BA at concentrations of 0.4?g/L and above. Comet assay revealed that BA has low toxicity in tilapia continuously exposed to concentrations of 0.2-0.6?g/L for 96?h. Additionally, no significant histomorphological changes were observed in BA-treated fish compared to non-treated controls. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) enzyme levels indicated reduction in systemic tissue damage associated with Saprolegnia infection. This study demonstrates the potential of BA as a prophylactic measure against Saprolegnia infection in tilapia, and we recommend additional studies on environmental impact.
Project description:<i>Saprolegnia parasitica</i>, the causative agent of saprolegniosis in fish, and <i>Aphanomyces astaci</i>, the causative agent of crayfish plague, are oomycete pathogens that cause economic losses in aquaculture. Since toxic chemicals are currently used to control them, we aimed to investigate their inhibition by essential oils of sage, rosemary, and bay laurel as environmentally acceptable alternatives. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that the essential oils tested were rich in bioactive volatiles, mainly monoterpenes. Mycelium and zoospores of <i>A. astaci</i> were more sensitive compared to those of <i>S. parasitica</i>, where only sage essential oil completely inhibited mycelial growth. EC<sub>50</sub> values (i.e., concentrations of samples at which the growth was inhibited by 50%) for mycelial growth determined by the radial growth inhibition assay were 0.031-0.098 µL/mL for <i>A. astaci</i> and 0.040 µL/mL for <i>S. parasitica</i>. EC<sub>50</sub> values determined by the zoospore germination inhibition assay were 0.007-0.049 µL/mL for <i>A. astaci</i> and 0.012-0.063 µL/mL for <i>S. parasitica</i>. The observed inhibition, most pronounced for sage essential oil, could be partly due to dominant constituents of the essential oils, such as camphor, but more likely resulted from a synergistic effect of multiple compounds. Our results may serve as a basis for in vivo experiments and the development of environmentally friendly methods to control oomycete pathogens in aquaculture.
Project description:Phylogenetic and structural analysis of P450 proteins fused to peroxidase/dioxygenase has not been reported yet. We present phylogenetic and in silico structural analysis of the novel P450 fusion family CYP5619 from the deadliest fish pathogenic oomycete, Saprolegnia diclina. Data-mining and annotation of CYP5619 members revealed their unique presence in oomycetes. CYP5619 members have the highest number of conserved amino acids among eukaryotic P450s. The highest number of conserved amino acids (78%) occurred in the peroxidase/dioxygenase domain compared to the P450 domain (22%). In silico structural analysis using a high-quality CYP5619A1 model revealed that CYP5619A1 has characteristic P450 structural motifs including EXXR and CXG. However, the heme-binding domain (CXG) in CYP5619 members was found to be highly degenerated. The in silico substrate binding pattern revealed that CYP5619A1 have a high affinity to medium chain fatty acids. Interestingly, the controlling agent of S. diclina malachite green was predicted to have the highest binding affinity, along with linoleic acid. However, unlike fatty acids, none of the active site amino acids formed hydrogen bonds with malachite green. The study's results will pave the way for assessing CYP5619A1's role in S. diclina physiology, including the nature of malachite green binding.