Adult Bone Marrow Cell Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease: Evidence and Insights From Randomized Controlled Trials.
ABSTRACT: Notwithstanding the uncertainties about the outcomes of bone marrow cell (BMC) therapy for heart repair, further insights are critically needed to improve this promising approach.To delineate the true effect of BMC therapy for cardiac repair and gain insights for future trials through systematic review and meta-analysis of data from eligible randomized controlled trials.Database searches through August 2014 identified 48 eligible randomized controlled trials (enrolling 2602 patients). Weighted mean differences for changes in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, infarct size, LV end-systolic volume, and LV end-diastolic volume were analyzed with random-effects meta-analysis. Compared with standard therapy, BMC transplantation improved LV ejection fraction (2.92%; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-3.92; P<0.00001), reduced infarct size (-2.25%; 95% confidence interval, -3.55 to -0.95; P=0.0007) and LV end-systolic volume (-6.37 mL; 95% confidence interval, -8.95 to -3.80; P<0.00001), and tended to reduce LV end-diastolic volume (-2.26 mL; 95% confidence interval, -4.59 to 0.07; P=0.06). Similar effects were noted when data were analyzed after excluding studies with discrepancies in reporting of outcomes. The benefits also persisted when cardiac catheterization was performed in control patients as well. Although imaging modalities partly influenced the outcomes, LV ejection fraction improved in BMC-treated patients when assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Early (<48 hours) BMC injection after myocardial Infarction was more effective in reducing infarct size, whereas BMC injection between 3 and 10 days proved superior toward improving systolic function. A minimum of 50 million BMCs seemed to be necessary, with limited additional benefits seen with increasing cell numbers. BMC therapy was safe and improved clinical outcomes, including all-cause mortality, recurrent myocardial Infarction, ventricular arrhythmia, and cerebrovascular accident during follow-up, albeit with differences between acute myocardial Infarction and chronic ischemic heart disease subgroups.Transplantation of adult BMCs improves LV ejection fraction, reduces infarct size, and ameliorates remodeling in patients with ischemic heart disease. These effects are upheld in the analyses of studies using magnetic resonance imaging and also after excluding studies with discrepant reporting of outcomes. BMC transplantation may also reduce the incidence of death, recurrent myocardial Infarction, ventricular arrhythmia, and cerebrovascular accident during follow-up.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although several preclinical studies have shown that bone marrow cell (BMC) transplantation promotes cardiac recovery after myocardial infarction, clinical trials with unfractionated bone marrow have shown variable improvements in cardiac function. METHODS:To determine whether in a population of post-myocardial infarction patients, functional recovery after BM transplant is associated with specific BMC subpopulation, we examined the association between BMCs with left ventricular (LV) function in the LateTIME-CCTRN trial. RESULTS:In this population, we found that older individuals had higher numbers of BM CD133(+) and CD3(+) cells. Bone marrow from individuals with high body mass index had lower CD45(dim)/CD11b(dim) levels, whereas those with hypertension and higher C-reactive protein levels had higher numbers of CD133(+) cells. Smoking was associated with higher levels of CD133(+)/CD34(+)/VEGFR2(+) cells and lower levels of CD3(+) cells. Adjusted multivariate analysis indicated that CD11b(dim) cells were negatively associated with changes in LV ejection fraction and wall motion in both the infarct and border zones. Change in LV ejection fraction was positively associated with CD133(+), CD34(+), and CD45(+)/CXCR4(dim) cells as well as faster BMC growth rates in endothelial colony forming assays. CONCLUSIONS:In the LateTIME population, BM composition varied with patient characteristics and treatment. Irrespective of cell therapy, recovery of LV function was greater in patients with greater BM abundance of CD133(+) and CD34(+) cells and worse in those with higher levels of CD11b(dim) cells. Bone marrow phenotype might predict clinical response before BMC therapy and administration of selected BM constituents could potentially improve outcomes of other future clinical trials.
Project description:RATIONALE:Despite significant interest in bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMC) therapy for ischemic heart disease, current techniques have resulted in only modest benefits. However, selected patients have shown improvements after autologous BMC therapy, but the contributing factors are unclear. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to identify BMC characteristics associated with a reduction in infarct size after ST-segment-elevation-myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS:This prospective study comprised patients consecutively enrolled in the CCTRN TIME (Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network Timing in Myocardial Infarction Evaluation) trial who agreed to have their BMCs stored and analyzed at the CCTRN Biorepository. Change in infarct size between baseline (3 days after percutaneous coronary intervention) and 6-month follow-up was measured by cardiac MRI. Infarct-size measurements and BMC phenotype and function data were obtained for 101 patients (mean age, 56.5 years; mean screening ejection fraction, 37%; mean baseline cardiac MRI ejection fraction, 45%). At 6 months, 75 patients (74.3%) showed a reduction in infarct size (mean change, -21.0±17.6%). Multiple regression analysis indicated that infarct size reduction was greater in patients who had a larger percentage of CD31(+) BMCs (P=0.046) and in those with faster BMC growth rates in colony-forming unit Hill and endothelial-colony forming cell functional assays (P=0.033 and P=0.032, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:This study identified BMC characteristics associated with a better clinical outcome in patients with segment-elevation-myocardial infarction and highlighted the importance of endothelial precursor activity in regenerating infarcted myocardium. Furthermore, it suggests that for these patients with segment-elevation-myocardial infarction, myocardial repair was more dependent on baseline BMC characteristics than on whether the patient underwent intracoronary BMC transplantation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION URL:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00684021.
Project description:Initial clinical trials from Europe have demonstrated that the administration of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMCs) may improve left ventricular (LV) function in patients following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, results from trials performed in the United States have not yet been presented.We developed a phase 1, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to investigate the effects of BMC administration in patients following STEMI on recovery of LV function using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI). Forty patients with moderate to large anterior STEMIs were randomized to 100 million intracoronary BMCs versus placebo 3 to 10 days following successful primary angioplasty and stenting (percutaneous coronary intervention) of the left anterior descending coronary artery.Administration of BMC was safely performed in a high-risk cohort with minimal major adverse clinical event rates, and all patients remain alive to date. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 49.0% +/- 9.5% at baseline to 55.2% +/- 9.8% at 6 months by cMRI in the BMC group (P < .05), which was not different from the increase in the placebo group (48.6% +/- 8.5% to 57.0% +/- 13.4%, P < .05). Left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased by 4 mL/m(2) in the BMC group at 6 months but increased significantly in the placebo group (17 mL/m(2), P < .01).This phase 1 study from the United States confirms the ongoing safety profile of BMC administration in patients following STEMI. The improvement in LV ejection fraction at 6 months by cMRI in the cell therapy group was not different than the placebo group. However, BMC administration had a favorable effect on LV remodeling at 6 months.
Project description:Clinical trials suggest that intracoronary delivery of autologous bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) 1-7 days post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may improve left ventricular (LV) function. Earlier time points have not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effect of intracoronary autologous BMC on LV function when delivered within 24 h of successful reperfusion therapy.A multi-centre phase II randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. One hundred patients with anterior AMI and significant regional wall motion abnormality were randomized to receive either intracoronary infusion of BMC or placebo (1:1) within 24 h of successful primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI). The primary endpoint was the change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between baseline and 1 year as determined by advanced cardiac imaging. At 1 year, although LVEF increased compared with baseline in both groups, the between-group difference favouring BMC was small (2.2%; 95% confidence interval, CI: -0.5 to 5.0; P = 0.10). However, there was a significantly greater myocardial salvage index in the BMC-treated group compared with placebo (0.1%; 95% CI: 0.0-0.20; P = 0.048). Major adverse events were rare in both treatment groups.The early infusion of intracoronary BMC following PPCI for patients with AMI and regional wall motion abnormality leads to a small non-significant improvement in LVEF when compared with placebo; however, it may play an important role in infarct remodelling and myocardial salvage.
Project description:The objective of the present analysis was to systematically examine the effect of intracoronary bone marrow cell (BMC) therapy on left ventricular (LV) function after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in various subgroups of patients by performing a collaborative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.We identified all randomized controlled trials comparing intracoronary BMC infusion as treatment for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. We contacted the principal investigator for each participating trial to provide summary data with regard to different pre-specified subgroups [age, diabetes mellitus, time from symptoms to percutaneous coronary intervention, infarct-related artery, LV end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), LV ejection fraction (EF), infarct size, presence of microvascular obstruction, timing of cell infusion, and injected cell number] and three different endpoints [change in LVEF, LVEDVI, and LV end-systolic volume index (ESVI)]. Data from 16 studies were combined including 1641 patients (984 cell therapy, 657 controls). The absolute improvement in LVEF was greater among BMC-treated patients compared with controls: [2.55% increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83-3.26, P < 0.001]. Cell therapy significantly reduced LVEDVI and LVESVI (-3.17 mL/m², 95% CI: -4.86 to -1.47, P < 0.001; -2.60 mL/m², 95% CI -3.84 to -1.35, P < 0.001, respectively). Treatment benefit in terms of LVEF improvement was more pronounced in younger patients (age <55, 3.38%, 95% CI: 2.36-4.39) compared with older patients (age ≥ 55 years, 1.77%, 95% CI: 0.80-2.74, P = 0.03). This heterogeneity in treatment effect was also observed with respect to the reduction in LVEDVI and LVESVI. Moreover, patients with baseline LVEF <40% derived more benefit from intracoronary BMC therapy. LVEF improvement was 5.30%, 95% CI: 4.27-6.33 in patients with LVEF <40% compared with 1.45%, 95% CI: 0.60 to 2.31 in LVEF ≥ 40%, P < 0.001. No clear interaction was observed between other subgroups and outcomes.Intracoronary BMC infusion is associated with improvement of LV function and remodelling in patients after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Younger patients and patients with a more severely depressed LVEF at baseline derived most benefit from this adjunctive therapy.
Project description:We compared therapeutic benefits of intramyocardial injection of unfractionated bone marrow cells (BMCs) versus BMC extract as treatments for myocardial infarction (MI), using closed-chest ultrasound-guided injection at a clinically relevant time post-MI. MI was induced in mice and the animals treated at day 3 with either: (i) BMCs from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing mice (n = 14), (ii) BMC extract (n = 14), or (iii) saline control (n = 14). Six animals per group were used for histology at day 6 and the rest followed to day 28 for functional analysis. Ejection fraction was similarly improved in the BMC and extract groups versus control (40.6 +/- 3.4 and 39.1 +/- 2.9% versus 33.2 +/- 5.0%, P < 0.05) with smaller scar sizes. At day 6 but not day 28, both therapies led to significantly higher capillary area and number of arterioles versus control. At day 6, BMCs increased the number of cycling cardiomyocytes (CMs) versus control whereas extract therapy resulted in significant reduction in the number of apoptotic CMs at the border zone (BZ) versus control. Intracellular components within BMCs can enhance vascularity, reduce infarct size, improve cardiac function, and influence CM apoptosis and cycling early after therapy following MI. Intact cells are not necessary and death of implanted cells may be a major component of the benefit.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We hypothesised that, compared with culprit-only primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), additional preventive PCI in selected patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction with multivessel disease would not be associated with iatrogenic myocardial infarction, and would be associated with reductions in left ventricular (LV) volumes in the longer term. METHODS:In the preventive angioplasty in myocardial infarction trial (PRAMI; ISRCTN73028481), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was prespecified in two centres and performed (median, IQR) 3 (1, 5) and 209 (189, 957) days after primary PCI. RESULTS:From 219 enrolled patients in two sites, 84% underwent CMR. 42 (50%) were randomised to culprit-artery-only PCI and 42 (50%) were randomised to preventive PCI. Follow-up CMR scans were available in 72 (86%) patients. There were two (4.8%) cases of procedure-related myocardial infarction in the preventive PCI group. The culprit-artery-only group had a higher proportion of anterior myocardial infarctions (MIs) (55% vs 24%). Infarct sizes (% LV mass) at baseline and follow-up were similar. At follow-up, there was no difference in LV ejection fraction (%, median (IQR), (culprit-artery-only PCI vs preventive PCI) 51.7 (42.9, 60.2) vs 54.4 (49.3, 62.8), p=0.23), LV end-diastolic volume (mL/m2, 69.3 (59.4, 79.9) vs 66.1 (54.7, 73.7), p=0.48) and LV end-systolic volume (mL/m2, 31.8 (24.4, 43.0) vs 30.7 (23.0, 36.3), p=0.20). Non-culprit angiographic lesions had low-risk Syntax scores and 47% had non-complex characteristics. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with culprit-only PCI, non-infarct-artery MI in the preventive PCI strategy was uncommon and LV volumes and ejection fraction were similar.
Project description:Whether culture-expanded mesenchymal stem cells or whole bone marrow mononuclear cells are safe and effective in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy is controversial.To demonstrate the safety of transendocardial stem cell injection with autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.A phase 1 and 2 randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study involving 65 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction less than 50% (September 1, 2009-July 12, 2013). The study compared injection of MSCs (n=19) with placebo (n?=?11) and BMCs (n?=?19) with placebo (n?=?10), with 1 year of follow-up.Injections in 10 LV sites with an infusion catheter.Treatment-emergent 30-day serious adverse event rate defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for worsening heart failure, perforation, tamponade, or sustained ventricular arrhythmias.No patient had a treatment-emergent serious adverse events at day 30. The 1-year incidence of serious adverse events was 31.6% (95% CI, 12.6% to 56.6%) for MSCs, 31.6% (95% CI, 12.6%-56.6%) for BMCs, and 38.1% (95% CI, 18.1%-61.6%) for placebo. Over 1 year, the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure score improved with MSCs (-6.3; 95% CI, -15.0 to 2.4; repeated measures of variance, P=.02) and with BMCs (-8.2; 95% CI, -17.4 to 0.97; P=.005) but not with placebo (0.4; 95% CI, -9.45 to 10.25; P=.38). The 6-minute walk distance increased with MSCs only (repeated measures model, P?=?.03). Infarct size as a percentage of LV mass was reduced by MSCs (-18.9%; 95% CI, -30.4 to -7.4; within-group, P?=?.004) but not by BMCs (-7.0%; 95% CI, -15.7% to 1.7%; within-group, P?=?.11) or placebo (-5.2%; 95% CI, -16.8% to 6.5%; within-group, P?=?.36). Regional myocardial function as peak Eulerian circumferential strain at the site of injection improved with MSCs (-4.9; 95% CI, -13.3 to 3.5; within-group repeated measures, P?=?.03) but not BMCs (-2.1; 95% CI, -5.5 to 1.3; P?=?.21) or placebo (-0.03; 95% CI, -1.9 to 1.9; P?=?.14). Left ventricular chamber volume and ejection fraction did not change.Transendocardial stem cell injection with MSCs or BMCs appeared to be safe for patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy and LV dysfunction. Although the sample size and multiple comparisons preclude a definitive statement about safety and clinical effect, these results provide the basis for larger studies to provide definitive evidence about safety and to assess efficacy of this new therapeutic approach.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00768066.
Project description:RATIONALE:The TIME trial (Timing in Myocardial Infarction Evaluation) was the first cell therapy trial sufficiently powered to determine if timing of cell delivery after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction affects recovery of left ventricular (LV) function. OBJECTIVE:To report the 2-year clinical and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging results and their modification by microvascular obstruction. METHODS AND RESULTS:TIME was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing 150 million bone marrow mononuclear cells versus placebo in 120 patients with anterior ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarctions resulting in LV dysfunction. Primary end points included changes in global (LV ejection fraction) and regional (infarct and border zone) function. Secondary end points included changes in LV volumes, infarct size, and major adverse cardiac events. Here, we analyzed the continued trajectory of these measures out to 2 years and the influence of microvascular obstruction present at baseline on these long-term outcomes. At 2 years (n=85), LV ejection fraction was similar in the bone marrow mononuclear cells (48.7%) and placebo groups (51.6%) with no difference in regional LV function. Infarct size and LV mass decreased ?30% in each group at 6 months and declined gradually to 2 years. LV volumes increased ?10% at 6 months and remained stable to 2 years. Microvascular obstruction was present in 48 patients at baseline and was associated with significantly larger infarct size (56.5 versus 36.2 g), greater adverse LV remodeling, and marked reduction in LV ejection fraction recovery (0.2% versus 6.2%). CONCLUSIONS:In one of the longest serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging analyses of patients with large anterior ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarctions, bone marrow mononuclear cells administration did not improve recovery of LV function over 2 years. Microvascular obstruction was associated with reduced recovery of LV function, greater adverse LV remodeling, and more device implantations. The use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging leads to greater dropout of patients over time because of device implantation in patients with more severe LV dysfunction resulting in overestimation of clinical stability of the cohort. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00684021.
Project description:RATIONALE:Postconditioning at the time of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction may reduce infarct size and improve myocardial salvage. However, clinical trials have shown inconsistent benefit. OBJECTIVE:We performed the first National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored trial of postconditioning in the United States using strict enrollment criteria to optimize the early benefits of postconditioning and assess its long-term effects on left ventricular (LV) function. METHODS AND RESULTS:We randomized 122 ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients to postconditioning (4, 30 seconds PTCA [percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty] inflations/deflations)+PCI (n=65) versus routine PCI (n=57). All subjects had an occluded major epicardial artery (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction=0) with ischemic times between 1 and 6 hours with no evidence of preinfarction angina or collateral blood flow. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging measured at 2 days post-PCI showed no difference between the postconditioning group and control in regards to infarct size (22.5±14.5 versus 24.0±18.5 g), myocardial salvage index (30.3±15.6% versus 31.5±23.6%), or mean LV ejection fraction. Magnetic resonance imaging at 12 months showed a significant recovery of LV ejection fraction in both groups (61.0±11.4% and 61.4±9.1%; P<0.01). Subjects randomized to postconditioning experienced more favorable remodeling over 1 year (LV end-diastolic volume =157±34 to 150±38 mL) compared with the control group (157±40 to 165±45 mL; P<0.03) and reduced microvascular obstruction ( P=0.05) on baseline magnetic resonance imaging and significantly less adverse LV remodeling compared with control subjects with microvascular obstruction ( P<0.05). No significant adverse events were associated with the postconditioning protocol and all patients but one (hemorrhagic stroke) survived through 1 year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:We found no early benefit of postconditioning on infarct size, myocardial salvage index, and LV function compared with routine PCI. However, postconditioning was associated with improved LV remodeling at 1 year of follow-up, especially in subjects with microvascular obstruction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01324453.