Impact of Hybrid and Complex N-Glycans on Cell Surface Targeting of the Endogenous Chloride Cotransporter Slc12a2.
ABSTRACT: The Na(+)K(+)2Cl(-) cotransporter-1 (Slc12a2, NKCC1) is widely distributed and involved in cell volume/ion regulation. Functional NKCC1 locates in the plasma membrane of all cells studied, particularly in the basolateral membrane of most polarized cells. Although the mechanisms involved in plasma membrane sorting of NKCC1 are poorly understood, it is assumed that N-glycosylation is necessary. Here, we characterize expression, N-glycosylation, and distribution of NKCC1 in COS7 cells. We show that ~25% of NKCC1 is complex N-glycosylated whereas the rest of it corresponds to core/high-mannose and hybrid-type N-glycosylated forms. Further, ~10% of NKCC1 reaches the plasma membrane, mostly as core/high-mannose type, whereas ~90% of NKCC1 is distributed in defined intracellular compartments. In addition, inhibition of the first step of N-glycan biosynthesis with tunicamycin decreases total and plasma membrane located NKCC1 resulting in almost undetectable cotransport function. Moreover, inhibition of N-glycan maturation with swainsonine or kifunensine increased core/hybrid-type NKCC1 expression but eliminated plasma membrane complex N-glycosylated NKCC1 and transport function. Together, these results suggest that (i) NKCC1 is delivered to the plasma membrane of COS7 cells independently of its N-glycan nature, (ii) most of NKCC1 in the plasma membrane is core/hybrid-type N-glycosylated, and (iii) the minimal proportion of complex N-glycosylated NKCC1 is functionally active.
Project description:Na+K+2Cl- co-transporters (NKCCs) effect the electroneutral movement of Na+-K+ and 2Cl- ions across the plasma membrane of vertebrate cells. There are two known NKCC isoforms, NKCC1 (Slc12a2) and NKCC2 (Slc12a1). NKCC1 is a ubiquitously expressed transporter involved in cell volume regulation, Cl- homeostasis and epithelial salt secretion, whereas NKCC2 is abundantly expressed in kidney epithelial cells of the thick ascending loop of Henle, where it plays key roles in NaCl reabsorption and electrolyte homeostasis. Although NKCC1 and NKCC2 co-transport the same ions with identical stoichiometry, NKCC1 actively co-transports water whereas NKCC2 does not. There is growing evidence showing that NKCC2 is expressed outside the kidney, but its function in extra-renal tissues remains unknown. The present study shows molecular and functional evidence of endogenous NKCC2 expression in COS7 cells, a widely used mammalian cell model. Endogenous NKCC2 is primarily found in recycling endosomes, Golgi cisternae, Golgi-derived vesicles, and to a lesser extent in the endoplasmic reticulum. Unlike NKCC1, NKCC2 is minimally hybrid/complex N-glycosylated under basal conditions and yet it is trafficked to the plasma membrane region of hyper-osmotically challenged cells through mechanisms that require minimal complex N-glycosylation or functional Golgi cisternae. Control COS7 cells exposed to slightly hyperosmotic (~6.7%) solutions for 16 h were not shrunken, suggesting that either one or both NKCC1 and NKCC2 may participate in cell volume recovery. However, NKCC2 targeted to the plasma membrane region or transient over-expression of NKCC2 failed to rescue NKCC1 in COS7 cells where NKCC1 had been silenced. Further, COS7 cells in which NKCC1, but not NKCC2, was silenced exhibited reduced cell size compared to control cells. Altogether, these results suggest that NKCC2 does not participate in cell volume recovery and therefore, NKCC1 and NKCC2 are functionally different Na+K+2Cl- co-transporters.
Project description:This study describes a 13-yr-old girl with orthostatic intolerance, respiratory weakness, multiple endocrine abnormalities, pancreatic insufficiency, and multiorgan failure involving the gut and bladder. Exome sequencing revealed a de novo, loss-of-function allele in SLC12A2, the gene encoding the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter-1. The 11-bp deletion in exon 22 results in frameshift (p.Val1026Phefs*2) and truncation of the carboxy-terminal tail of the cotransporter. Preliminary studies in heterologous expression systems demonstrate that the mutation leads to a nonfunctional transporter, which is expressed and trafficked to the plasma membrane alongside wild-type NKCC1. The truncated protein, visible at higher molecular sizes, indicates either enhanced dimerization or misfolded aggregate. No significant dominant-negative effect was observed. K+ transport experiments performed in fibroblasts from the patient showed reduced total and NKCC1-mediated K+ influx. The absence of a bumetanide effect on K+ influx in patient fibroblasts only under hypertonic conditions suggests a deficit in NKCC1 regulation. We propose that disruption in NKCC1 function might affect sensory afferents and/or smooth muscle cells, as their functions depend on NKCC1 creating a Cl- gradient across the plasma membrane. This Cl- gradient allows the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor or other Cl- channels to depolarize the membrane affecting processes such as neurotransmission or cell contraction. Under this hypothesis, disrupted sensory and smooth muscle function in a diverse set of tissues could explain the patient's phenotype.
Project description:AE1 (anion exchanger 1) is a glycoprotein found in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes, where it mediates the electroneutral exchange of chloride and bicarbonate, a process important in CO2 removal from tissues. It had been previously shown that human AE1 purified from erythrocytes is covalently modified at Cys-843 in the membrane domain with palmitic acid. In this study, the role of Cys-843 in human AE1 trafficking was investigated by expressing various AE1 and Cys-843Ala (C843A) mutant constructs in transiently transfected HEK-293 cells. The AE1 C843A mutant was expressed to a similar level to AE1. The rate of N-glycan conversion from high-mannose into complex form in a glycosylation mutant (N555) of AE1 C843A, and thus the rate of trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, were comparable with that of AE1 (N555). Like AE1, AE1 C843A could be biotinylated at the cell surface, indicating that a cysteine residue at position 843 is not required for cell-surface expression of the protein. The turnover rate of AE1 C843A was not significantly different from AE1. While other proteins could be palmitoylated, labelling of transiently transfected HEK-293 cells or COS7 cells with [3H]palmitic acid failed to produce any detectable AE1 palmitoylation. These results suggest that AE1 is not palmitoylated in HEK-293 or COS7 cells and can traffic to the plasma membrane.
Project description:The organic solute transporter (OSTalpha-OSTbeta) is a heteromeric transporter that is expressed on the basolateral membrane of epithelium in intestine, kidney, liver, testis and adrenal gland and facilitates efflux of bile acids and other steroid solutes. Both subunits are required for plasma membrane localization of the functional transporter but it is unclear how and where the subunits interact and whether glycosylation is required for functional activity. We sought to examine these questions for the human OSTalpha-OSTbeta transporter using the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, and COS7 cells transfected with constructs of human OSTalpha-FLAG and OSTbeta-Myc.Tunicamycin treatment demonstrated that human OSTalpha is glycosylated. In COS7 cells Western blotting identified the unglycosylated form (approximately 31 kD), the core precursor form (approximately 35 kD), and the mature, complex glycoprotein (approximately 40 kD). Immunofluorescence of both cells indicated that, in the presence of OSTbeta, the alpha subunit could still be expressed on the plasma membrane after tunicamycin treatment. Furthermore, the functional uptake of 3H-estrone sulfate was unchanged in the absence of N-glycosylation. Co-immunoprecipitation indicates that the immature form of OSTalpha interact with OSTbeta. However, immunoprecipitation of OSTbeta using an anti-Myc antibody did not co-precipitate the mature, complex glycosylated form of OSTalpha, suggesting that the primary interaction occurs early in the biosynthetic pathway and may be transient.In conclusion, human OSTalpha is a glycoprotein that requires interaction with OSTbeta to reach the plasma membrane. However, glycosylation of OSTalpha is not necessary for interaction with the beta subunit or for membrane localization or function of the heteromeric transporter.
Project description:The surfaces of cells and pathogens are covered with short polymers of sugars known as glycans. Complex <i>N</i>-glycans have a core of three mannose sugars with distal repeats of <i>N</i>-acetylglucosamine and galactose sugars terminating with sialic acid (SA). Long-range tough and short-range brittle self-adhesions were observed between SA and mannose residues, respectively, in ill-defined artificial monolayers. We investigated if and how these adhesions translate when the residues are presented in <i>N</i>-glycan architecture with SA at the surface and mannose at the core and with other glycan sugars. Two pseudotyped viruses with complex <i>N</i>-glycan shields were brought together in force spectroscopy (FS). At higher ramp rates, slime-like adhesions were observed between the shields, whereas Velcro-like adhesions were observed at lower rates. The higher approach rates compress the virus as a whole, and the self-adhesion between the surface SA is sampled. At the lower ramp rates, however, the complex glycan shield is penetrated and adhesion from the mannose core is accessed. The slime-like and Velcro-like adhesions were lost when SA and mannose were cleaved, respectively. While virus self-adhesion in forced contact was modulated by glycan penetrability, the self-aggregation of the freely diffusing virus was only determined by the surface sugar. Mannose-terminal viruses self-aggregated in solution, and SA-terminal ones required Ca<sup>2+</sup> ions to self-aggregate. Viruses with galactose or <i>N</i>-acetylglucosamine surfaces did not self-aggregate, irrespective of whether or not a mannose core was present below the <i>N</i>-acetylglucosamine surface. Well-defined rules appear to govern the self-adhesion and -aggregation of N-glycosylated surfaces, regardless of whether the sugars are presented in an ill-defined monolayer, or <i>N</i>-glycan, or even polymer architecture.
Project description:N-glycans play important roles in various pathophysiological processes and can be used as clinical diagnosis markers. However, plasma N-glycans change and their pathophysiological significance in the setting of hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, is unknown. Here, we collected plasma from both hypercholesterolemic patients and cholesterol-fed hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and determined the changes in the whole-plasma N-glycan profile by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We found that both the hypercholesterolemic patients and rabbits showed a dramatic change in their plasma glycan profile. Compared with healthy subjects, the hypercholesterolemic patients exhibited higher plasma levels of a cluster of high-mannose and complex/hybrid N-glycans (mainly including undecorated or sialylated glycans), whereas only a few fucosylated or fucosylated and sialylated N-glycans were increased. Additionally, cholesterol-fed hypercholesterolemic rabbits also displayed increased plasma levels of high-mannose in addition to high complex/hybrid N-glycan levels. The whole-plasma glycan profiles revealed that the plasma N-glycan levels were correlated with the plasma cholesterol levels, implying that N-glycans may be a target for treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Project description:?-Dystroglycan (?-DG) is a highly-glycosylated surface membrane protein. Defects in the O-mannosyl glycan of ?-DG cause dystroglycanopathy, a group of congenital muscular dystrophies. The core M3 O-mannosyl glycan contains tandem ribitol-phosphate (RboP), a characteristic feature first found in mammals. Fukutin and fukutin-related protein (FKRP), whose mutated genes underlie dystroglycanopathy, sequentially transfer RboP from cytidine diphosphate-ribitol (CDP-Rbo) to form a tandem RboP unit in the core M3 glycan. Here, we report a series of crystal structures of FKRP with and without donor (CDP-Rbo) and/or acceptor [RboP-(phospho-)core M3 peptide] substrates. FKRP has N-terminal stem and C-terminal catalytic domains, and forms a tetramer both in crystal and in solution. In the acceptor complex, the phosphate group of RboP is recognized by the catalytic domain of one subunit, and a phosphate group on O-mannose is recognized by the stem domain of another subunit. Structure-based functional studies confirmed that the dimeric structure is essential for FKRP enzymatic activity.
Project description:Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-?-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidases [PNGases (peptide N-glycosidases), N-glycanases, EC 126.96.36.199] are essential tools in the release of N-glycans from glycoproteins. We hereby report the discovery and characterization of a novel bacterial N-glycanase from Terriglobus roseus with an extremely low pH optimum of 2.6, and annotated it therefore as PNGase H+. The gene of PNGase H+ was cloned and the recombinant protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant PNGase H+ could liberate high mannose-, hybrid- and complex-type N-glycans including core ?1,3-fucosylated oligosaccharides from both glycoproteins and glycopeptides. In addition, PNGase H+ exhibited better release efficiency over N-glycans without core ?1,3-fucose compared with PNGase A. The facile expression, non-glycosylated nature, unusual pH optimum and broad substrate specificity of this novel type of N-glycanase makes recombinant PNGase H+ a versatile tool in N-glycan analysis.
Project description:The effects of various inhibitors were studied on the biogenesis of endopeptidase-24.11 (EC 188.8.131.52) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 184.108.40.206) in slices of renal cortex, from piglets of the Yucatan strain, maintained in organ culture. These microvillar peptidases were synthesized within membrane compartments and underwent glycosylation to yield high-mannose and complex forms [the preceding paper, Stewart & Kenny (1984) Biochem. J. 224, 549-558]. Monensin caused very gross ultrastructural changes in the proximal-tubular cells, resulting from distension of the Golgi sacs. It blocked the processing of the high-mannose to the complex glycosylated forms of the peptidases and prevented their assembly in the microvillar membrane. Swainsonine, an inhibitor of alpha-mannosidase II, generated new 'hybrid' forms of the proteins, intermediate in Mr between the high-mannose and the complex forms, but did not prevent assembly of the hybrid forms in microvilli. Vinblastine, an agent that affects microtubules, delayed, but did not abolish, either the processing or the transport to microvilli. Glucosamine interfered with the initial glycosylation reactions and generated heterogeneous sets of partially glycosylated polypeptides of lower Mr than the high-mannose forms. These results are discussed in relation to the site and mechanism of glycosylation and the involvement of the Golgi complex and microtubules in the biogenesis of these membrane peptidases.
Project description:The combination of solid phase peptide synthesis and endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) catalysed glycosylation is a powerful convergent synthetic method allowing access to glycopeptides bearing full-length N-glycan structures. Mannose-terminated N-glycan oligosaccharides, produced by either total or semi-synthesis, were converted into oxazoline donor substrates. A peptide from the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) tegument protein pp65 that incorporates a well-characterised T cell epitope, containing N-acetylglucosamine at specific Asn residues, was accessed by solid phase peptide synthesis, and used as an acceptor substrate. High-yielding enzymatic glycosylation afforded glycopeptides bearing defined homogeneous high-mannose N-glycan structures. These high-mannose containing glycopeptides were tested for enhanced targeting to human antigen presenting cells (APCs), putatively mediated via the mannose receptor, and for processing by the APCs for presentation to human CD8+ T cells specific for a 9-mer epitope within the peptide. Binding assays showed increased binding of glycopeptides to APCs compared to the non-glycosylated control. Glycopeptides bearing high-mannose N-glycan structures at a single site outside the T cell epitope were processed and presented by the APCs to allow activation of a T cell clone. However, the addition of a second glycan within the T cell epitope resulted in ablation of T cell activation. We conclude that chemo-enzymatic synthesis of mannosylated glycopeptides enhances uptake by human APCs while preserving the immunogenicity of peptide epitopes within the glycopeptides, provided those epitopes are not themselves glycosylated.