IL-21-mediated non-canonical pathway for IL-1? production in conventional dendritic cells.
ABSTRACT: The canonical pathway for IL-1? production requires TLR-mediated NF-?B-dependent Il1b gene induction, followed by caspase-containing inflammasome-mediated processing of pro-IL-1?. Here we show that IL-21 unexpectedly induces IL-1? production in conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) via a STAT3-dependent but NF-?B-independent pathway. IL-21 does not induce Il1b expression in CD4(+) T cells, with differential histone marks present in these cells versus cDCs. IL-21-induced IL-1? processing in cDCs does not require caspase-1 or caspase-8 but depends on IL-21-mediated death and activation of serine protease(s). Moreover, STAT3-dependent IL-1? expression in cDCs at least partially explains the IL-21-mediated pathologic response occurring during infection with pneumonia virus of mice. These results demonstrate lineage-restricted IL-21-induced IL-1? via a non-canonical pathway and provide evidence for its importance in vivo.
Project description:The canonical pathway for IL-1β production requires TLR-mediated NF-κB-dependent Il1b gene induction, followed by caspase-containing inflammasome-mediated processing of pro-IL-1β. Here we show that IL-21 unexpectedly induces IL-1β production in conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) via a STAT3-dependent but NF-κB-independent pathway. IL-21 does not induce Il1b expression in CD4+ T cells, with differential histone marks present in these cells versus cDCs. IL-21-induced IL-1β processing in cDCs does not require caspase-1 or caspase-8 but depends on IL-21-mediated death and activation of serine protease(s). Moreover, STAT3-dependent IL-1β expression in cDCs at least partially explains the IL-21-mediated pathologic response occurring during infection with Pneumonia Virus of Mice. These results demonstrate lineage-restricted IL-21-induced IL-1β via a non-canonical pathway and provide evidence for its importance in vivo. Genome-wide transcription factors mapping and binding of STAT3, H3K4me3, H3K27me, H3K4me1, H3K27ac in mouse CD4+ T cells and dendritic cells in WT and Stat3-/- mice. RNA-Seq is performed in mouse CD4+ T cells and dendritic cells in WT mice, with or without indicated cytokines.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the role of GTS-21 in cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway-mediated protection of LPS-induced septic renal injury in mice. C57BL/6 mice were used to construct septic injury models. The optimal duration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment was determined using HE staining and TUNEL assay. Mice injected with saline were used as blank control and with LPS (10 mg/kg) as model, which were further treated with ?-bungarotoxin (BT-LPS), GTS-21 (GTS-21-LPS) and BT and GTS-21 (BT-GTS-21-LPS). The pathological examinations were performed on HE stained renal tissues, apoptosis was determined using TUNEL assay, mRNA expression of NF-kB p65, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Bcl-2, Bax, p53 and a7nACh was quantified using qRT-PCR, protein levels of IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-? and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) were analyzed using Western blots. HE staining and TUNEL assays showed that the optimal LPS treatment time for renal injury induction was 16 h. Compared with the blank control, mice in LPS group had significantly higher levels of NF-Kb p65, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Bax, p53, IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-? and p-STAT3, while ?7nAChR and Bcl-2 levels were decreased significantly (P < 0.01); GTS-21 and BT significantly increased the expression of NF-Kb p65, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Bax, p53, IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-? and p-STAT3, while ?7nAChR and Bcl-2 levels were decreased significantly (P < 0.01). It is concluded that GTS-21 can effective alleviate the renal injury, while ?7nAChR-specific blocker BT is antagonistic against the anti-inflammatory effect of GTS-21 on sepsis in mice.
Project description:Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has broad actions on T and B cells, but its actions in innate immunity are poorly understood. Here we show that IL-21 induced apoptosis of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) via STAT3 and Bim, and this was inhibited by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed genome-wide binding competition between GM-CSF-induced STAT5 and IL-21-induced STAT3. Expression of IL-21 in vivo decreased cDC numbers, and this was prevented by GM-CSF. Moreover, repetitive ?-galactosylceramide injection of mice induced IL-21 but decreased GM-CSF production by natural killer T (NKT) cells, correlating with decreased cDC numbers. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of wild-type CD4+ T cells caused more severe colitis with increased DCs and interferon-? (IFN-?)-producing CD4+ T cells in Il21r(-/-)Rag2(-/-) mice (which lack T cells and have IL-21-unresponsive DCs) than in Rag2(-/-) mice. Thus, IL-21 and GM-CSF exhibit cross-regulatory actions on gene regulation and apoptosis, regulating cDC numbers and thereby the magnitude of the immune response.
Project description:Colorectal cancers (CRCs) often show a dense infiltrate of cytokine-producing immune/inflammatory cells. The exact contribution of each immune cell subset and cytokine in the activation of the intracellular pathways sustaining CRC cell growth is not understood. Herein, we isolate tumor-infiltrating leukocytes (TILs) and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) from the tumor area and the macroscopically unaffected, adjacent, colonic mucosa of patients who underwent resection for sporadic CRC and show that the culture supernatants of TILs, but not of LPMCs, potently enhance the growth of human CRC cell lines through the activation of the oncogenic transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB). Characterization of immune cell complexity of TILs and LPMCs reveals no differences in the percentages of T cells, natural killer T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and B cells. However, T cells from TILs show a functional switch compared with those from LPMCs to produce large amounts of T helper type 17 (Th17)-related cytokines (that is, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and IL-6. Individual neutralization of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, TNF-? or IL-6 does not change TIL-derived supernatant-driven STAT3 and NF-kB activation, as well as their proproliferative effect in CRC cells. In contrast, simultaneous neutralization of both IL-17A and TNF-?, which abrogates NF-kB signaling, and IL-22 and IL-6, which abrogates STAT3 signaling, reduces the mitogenic effect of supernatants in CRC cells. IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, TNF-? and IL-6 are also produced in excess in the early colonic lesions in a mouse model of sporadic CRC, associated with enhanced STAT3/NF-kB activation. Mice therapeutically given BP-1-102, an orally bioavailable compound targeting STAT3/NF-kB activation and cross-talk, exhibit reduced colon tumorigenesis and diminished expression of STAT3/NF-kB-activating cytokines in the neoplastic areas. These data suggest that strategies aimed at the cotargeting of STAT3/NF-kB activation and interaction between them might represent an attractive and novel approach to combat CRC.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of IL-21 on LPS-induced mouse peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that IL-21 significantly inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 in macrophages, but not of IFN-?, IL-10, CCL5, or CXCL2. ELISA analysis showed that IL-21 also suppressed LPS-induced production of TNF-? and IL-6 in culture supernatants. Western blot analysis showed that IL-21 clearly inhibited ERK and I?B? phosphorylation and NF-?B translocation in LPS-stimulated macrophages, but it increased STAT3 phosphorylation. Flow cytometric and Western blot analysis showed that IL-21 decreased M1 macrophages surface markers expression of CD86, iNOS, and TLR4 in LPS-stimulated cells. All results suggested that IL-21 decreases IL-6 and TNF-? production via inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK and translocation of NF-?B and promotes a shift from the M1 to M2 macrophage phenotype by decreasing the expression of CD86, iNOS, and TLR4 and by increasing STAT3 phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated cells.
Project description:This study demonstrates that 24?h following viral vector-based vaccination IL-13R?2 functions as a master sensor on conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), abetted by high protein stability coupled with minimal mRNA expression, to rapidly regulate DC mediated IL-13 responses at the lung mucosae, unlike IL-13R?1. Under low IL-13, IL-13R?2 performs as a primary signalling receptor, whilst under high IL-13, acts to sequester IL-13 to maintain homeostasis, both in a STAT3-dependent manner. Likewise, we show that viral vector-derived IL-13 levels at the vaccination site can induce differential STAT3/STAT6 paradigms in lung cDC, that can get regulated collaboratively or independently by TGF-?1 and IFN-?. Specifically, low IL-13 responses associated with recombinant Fowlpox virus (rFPV) is regulated by early IL-13R?2, correlated with STAT3/TGF-?1 expression. Whilst, high IL-13 responses, associated with recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (rMVA) is regulated in an IL-13R?1/STAT6 dependent manner associated with IFN-?R expression bias. Different viral vaccine vectors have previously been shown to induce unique adaptive immune outcomes. Taken together current observations suggest that IL-13R?2-driven STAT3/STAT6 equilibrium at the cDC level may play an important role in governing the efficacy of vector-based vaccines. These new insights have high potential to be exploited to improve recombinant viral vector-based vaccine design, according to the pathogen of interest and/or therapies against IL-13 associated disease conditions.
Project description:IL-21 is a type I cytokine essential for immune cell differentiation and function. Although IL-21 can activate several STAT family transcription factors, previous studies focused mainly on the role of STAT3 in IL-21 signaling. Here, we investigated the role of STAT1 and show that STAT1 and STAT3 have at least partially opposing roles in IL-21 signaling in CD4(+) T cells. IL-21 induced STAT1 phosphorylation, and this was augmented in Stat3-deficient CD4(+) T cells. RNA-Seq analysis of CD4(+) T cells from Stat1- and Stat3-deficient mice revealed that both STAT1 and STAT3 are critical for IL-21-mediated gene regulation. Expression of some genes, including Tbx21 and Ifng, was differentially regulated by STAT1 and STAT3. Moreover, opposing actions of STAT1 and STAT3 on IFN-? expression in CD4(+) T cells were demonstrated in vivo during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis infection. Finally, IL-21-mediated induction of STAT1 phosphorylation, as well as IFNG and TBX21 expression, were higher in CD4(+) T cells from patients with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome, which is caused by STAT3 deficiency, as well as in cells from STAT1 gain-of-function patients. These data indicate an interplay between STAT1 and STAT3 in fine-tuning IL-21 actions.
Project description:The facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) may cause severe infection in humans and livestock. Control of acute listeriosis is primarily dependent on innate immune responses, which are strongly regulated by NF-?B, and tissue protective factors including fibrin. However, molecular pathways connecting NF-?B and fibrin production are poorly described. Here, we investigated whether the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD, which is an inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent immune responses, regulated these protective host responses in murine listeriosis. Upon high dose systemic infection, all C57BL/6 Cyld(-/-) mice survived, whereas 100% of wildtype mice succumbed due to severe liver pathology with impaired pathogen control and hemorrhage within 6 days. Upon in vitro infection with Lm, CYLD reduced NF-?B-dependent production of reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6 secretion, and control of bacteria in macrophages. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that CYLD impaired STAT3-dependent fibrin production in cultivated hepatocytes. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CYLD interacted with STAT3 in the cytoplasm and strongly reduced K63-ubiquitination of STAT3 in IL-6 stimulated hepatocytes. In addition, CYLD diminished IL-6-induced STAT3 activity by reducing nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3. In vivo, CYLD also reduced hepatic STAT3 K63-ubiquitination and activation, NF-?B activation, IL-6 and NOX2 mRNA production as well as fibrin production in murine listeriosis. In vivo neutralization of IL-6 by anti-IL-6 antibody, STAT3 by siRNA, and fibrin by warfarin treatment, respectively, demonstrated that IL-6-induced, STAT3-mediated fibrin production significantly contributed to protection in Cyld(-/-) mice. In addition, in vivo Cyld siRNA treatment increased STAT3 phosphorylation, fibrin production, pathogen control and survival of Lm-infected WT mice illustrating that therapeutic inhibition of CYLD augments the protective NF-?B/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and fibrin production.
Project description:Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has broad actions on T- and B-cells, but its actions in innate immunity are poorly understood. Here we show that IL-21 induced apoptosis of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) via STAT3 and Bim, and this was inhibited by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed genome-wide binding competition between GM-CSF-induced STAT5 and IL-21-induced STAT3. Expression of IL-21 in vivo decreased cDC numbers, and this was prevented by GM-CSF. Moreover, repetitive α-galactosylceramide injection of mice induced IL-21 but decreased GM-CSF production by natural killer T (NKT) cells, correlating with decreased cDC numbers. Furthermore, adoptive-transfer of wild-type CD4+ T cells caused more severe colitis with increased DCs and interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells in Il21r-/-Rag2-/- mice (which lack T cells and have IL-21-unresponsive DCs) than in Rag2-/- mice. Thus, IL-21 and GM-CSF exhibit cross-regulatory actions on gene regulation and apoptosis, regulating cDC numbers and thereby the magnitude of the immune response. Total 6 samples were examined. Splenic dendritic cells were treated with IL-21 and/or GM-CSF studying STAT3 and STAT5B binding in the genome
Project description:Interactions between tumor and immune cells either enhance or inhibit cancer progression. We show here that Stat3 signaling within the tumor microenvironment induces a procarcinogenic cytokine, IL-23, while inhibiting a central anticarcinogenic cytokine, IL-12, thereby shifting the balance of tumor immunity toward carcinogenesis. Stat3 induces expression of IL-23, which is mainly produced by tumor-associated macrophages, via direct transcriptional activation of the IL-23/p19 gene. Furthermore, Stat3 inhibits NF-kappaB/c-Rel-dependent IL-12/p35 gene expression in tumor-associated dendritic cells. Tumor-associated regulatory T cells (Tregs) express IL-23 receptor, which activates Stat3 in this cell type, leading to upregulation of the Treg-specific transcription factor Foxp3 and the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. These results demonstrate that Stat3 promotes IL-23-mediated procarcinogenic immune responses while inhibiting IL-12-dependent antitumor immunity.