Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 inhibits cell adhesion via suppression of integrin ?4 expression.
ABSTRACT: We previously reported that IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), a major IGF-binding protein in human serum, regulates angiogenic activities of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms. However, the role of IGFBP-3 in cell adhesion is largely unknown. We demonstrate here that IGFBP-3 inhibits the adhesion of HNSCC cells and HUVECs to the extracellular matrix (ECM). IGFBP-3 reduced transcription of a variety of integrins, especially integrin ?4, and suppressed phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src in these cells through both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent pathways. IGFBP-3 was found to suppress the transcription of c-fos and c-jun and the activity of AP1 transcription factor. The regulatory effect of IGFBP-3 on integrin ?4 transcription was attenuated by blocking c-jun and c-fos gene expression via siRNA transfection. Taken together, our data show that IGFBP-3 has IGF-dependent and -independent inhibitory effects on intracellular adhesion signaling in HNSCC and HUVECs through its ability to block c-jun and c-fos transcription and thus AP-1-mediated integrin ?4 transcription. Collectively, our data suggest that IGFPB-3 may be an effective cancer therapeutic agent by blocking integrin-mediated adhesive activity of tumor and vascular endothelial cells.
Project description:Angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels are recruited to existing ones, is essential for tumor development. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which modulates bioavailability of IGF, has been studied for its potential role in angiogenesis during tissue regeneration and cancer development. In this study, we assessed the role of IGFBP-3 in tumor angiogenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using adenoviral (Ad-BP3) and recombinant (rBP3) IGFBP-3. Using an in vivo orthotopic tongue tumor model, we confirmed that both Ad-BP3 and rBP3 suppress the growth of UMSCC38 HNSCC cells in vivo. Ad-BP3 inhibited vascularization in tongue tumors and chorio-allantoic membrane, and suppressed angiogenesis-stimulating activities in UMSCC38 cells. In HUVECs, Ad-BP3 decreased migration, invasion, and tube formation. rBP3 also suppressed production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HUVECs and UMSCC38 cells. IGFBP-3-GGG, a mutant IGFBP-3 with loss of IGF binding capacity, suppressed VEGF production. In addition, we found that IGFBP-3 suppressed VEGF expression, even in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from an IGF-1R-null mouse. Finally, we demonstrated that IGFBP-3-GGG inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth to the same degree as wild-type IGFBP-3. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that IGFBP-3 has anti-angiogenic activity in HNSCC, at least in part due to IGF-independent suppression of VEGF production from vascular endothelial cells and cancer cells.
Project description:FRA1 (Fos-like antigen 1) is highly expressed in many epithelial cancers including squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (cSCC) and head and neck (HNSCC). However, the functional importance and the mechanisms mediating FRA1 function in these cancers are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that FRA1 gene silencing in HNSCC and cSCC cells resulted in two consequences - impaired cell proliferation and migration. FRA1 regulation of cell growth was distinct from that of c-Jun, a prominent Jun group AP-1 factor. While c-Jun was required for the expression of the G1/S phase cell cycle promoter CDK4, FRA1 was essential for AKT activation and AKT-dependent expression of CyclinB1, a molecule required for G2-M progression. Exogenous expression of a constitutively active form of AKT rescued cancer cell growth defect caused by FRA1-loss. Additionally, FRA1 knockdown markedly slowed cell adhesion and migration, and conversely expression of an active FRA1 mutant (FRA1DD) expedited these processes in a JNK/c-Jun-dependent manner. Through protein and ChIP-PCR analyses, we identified KIND1, a cytoskeletal regulator of the cell adhesion molecule ?1-integrin, as a novel FRA1 transcriptional target. Restoring KIND1 expression rescued migratory defects induced by FRA1 loss. In agreement with these in vitro data, HNSCC cells with FRA1 loss displayed markedly reduced rates of subcutaneous tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis. Together, these results indicate that FRA1 promotes cancer growth through AKT, and enhances cancer cell migration through JNK/c-Jun, pinpointing FRA1 as a key integrator of JNK and AKT signaling pathways and a potential therapeutic target for cSCC and HNSCC.
Project description:Metastasis is a critical event in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and closely correlates with clinical outcome. We previously showed that the farnesyl transferase inhibitor SCH66336 has antitumor activities in HNSCC by inducing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), which in turn inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. In our study, we found that SCH66336 at a sublethal dose for HNSCC inhibited the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells. The inhibitory effect of SCH66336 was associated with the blockade of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) pathway via suppressing IGF-1R itself and Akt expression. Consistent with previous work, induction of IGFBP-3 by SCH66336 also contributed in part to the anti-invasive effect. SCH66336 treatment also reduced the expression and activity of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), both important regulators of tumor metastasis. The effect of SCH66336 on uPA activity was inhibited partly by knockdown of IGFBP-3 using small interfering RNA. The inhibitory effect of SCH66336 on migration or invasion was attenuated partly or completely by knockdown of IGFBP-3, Akt or IGF-1R expression, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the IGF-1R pathway plays a major role in the proliferation, migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, suggesting that therapeutic obstruction of the IGF-1R pathway would be a useful approach to treating patients with HNSCC.
Project description:Several phase II/III trials of anti-insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have shown limited efficacy. The mechanisms of resistance to IGF-1R mAb-based therapies and clinically applicable strategies for overcoming drug resistance are still undefined.IGF-1R mAb cixutumumab efficacy, alone or in combination with Src inhibitors, was evaluated in 10 human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and six non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines in vitro in two- or three-dimensional culture systems and in vivo in cell line- or patient-derived xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice (n = 6-9 per group). Cixutumumab-induced changes in cell signaling and IGF-1 binding to integrin ?3 were determined by Western or ligand blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and cell adhesion analyses and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed by the two-sided Student t test or one-way analysis of variance.Integrin ?3-Src signaling cascade was activated by IGF-1 in HNSCC and NSCLC cells, when IGF-1 binding to IGF-1R was hampered by cixutumumab, resulting in Akt activation and cixutumumab resistance. Targeting integrin ?3 or Src enhanced antitumor activity of cixutumumab in multiple cixutumumab-resistant cell lines and patient-derived tumors in vitro and in vivo. Mean tumor volume of mice cotreated with cixutumumab and integrin ?3 siRNA was 133.7 mm(3) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.6 to 209.8 mm(3)) compared with those treated with cixutumumab (1472.5 mm(3); 95% CI = 1150.7 to 1794.3 mm(3); P < .001) or integrin ?3 siRNA (903.2 mm(3); 95% CI = 636.1 to 1170.3 mm(3); P < .001) alone.Increased Src activation through integrin ???3 confers considerable resistance against anti-IGF-1R mAb-based therapies in HNSCC and NSCLC cells. Dual targeting of the IGF-1R pathway and collateral integrin ?3-Src signaling module may override this resistance.
Project description:AXL overexpression is a common resistance mechanism to anti-cancer therapies, including the resistance to BYL719 (Alpelisib) - the p110α isoform specific inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) - in esophagus and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, HNSCC respectively). However, the mechanisms underlying AXL overexpression in resistance to BYL719 remain elusive. Here we demonstrated that the AP-1 transcription factors, c-JUN and c-FOS, regulate AXL overexpression in HNSCC and ESCC. The expression of AXL was correlated with that of c-JUN both in HNSCC patients and in HNSCC and ESCC cell lines. Silencing of c-JUN and c-FOS expression in tumor cells downregulated AXL expression and enhanced the sensitivity of human papilloma virus positive (HPVPos) and negative (HPVNeg) tumor cells to BYL719 in vitro. Blocking of the c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) using SP600125 in combination with BYL719 showed a synergistic anti-proliferative effect in vitro, which was accompanied by AXL downregulation and potent inhibition of the mTOR pathway. In vivo, the BYL719-SP600125 drug combination led to the arrest of tumor growth in cell line-derived and patient-derived xenograft models, and in syngeneic head and neck murine cancer models. Collectively, our data suggests that JNK inhibition in combination with anti-PI3K therapy is a new therapeutic strategy that should be tested in HPVPos and HPVNeg HNSCC and ESCC patients.
Project description:Leptin, an adipokine regulating energy metabolism, appears to be associated with breast cancer progression. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mediates the pathogenesis of breast cancer. The regulation of IGF-1 expression by leptin in breast cancer cells is unclear. Here, we found that leptin upregulates IGF-1 expression at the transcriptional level in breast cancer cells. Activating protein-1 (AP-1)-binding element within the proximal region of IGF-1 was necessary for leptin-induced IGF-1 promoter activation. Forced expression of AP-1 components, c-FOS or c-JUN, enhanced leptin-induced IGF-1 expression, while knockdown of c-FOS or c-JUN abrogated leptin responsiveness. All three MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK) mediated leptin-induced IGF-1 expression. These results suggest that leptin contributes to breast cancer progression through the transcriptional upregulation of leptin via the MAPK pathway. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(6): 385-390].
Project description:Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is a commonly prescribed adjuvant therapy for estrogen receptor-? (ER?)-positive breast cancer patients. To determine if extracellular factors contribute to the modulation of IGF-1 signaling after tamoxifen treatment, MCF-7 cells were treated with IGF-1 in conditioned medium (CM) obtained from 4-OHT-treated MCF-7 cells and the accumulation of phospho-Akt (S473) was measured. CM inhibited IGF-1-dependent cell signaling and suggesting the involvement of extracellular factors (ie. IGFBPs). A significant increase in IGFBP-1 mRNA and extracellular IGFBP-1 protein was observed in 4-OHT-treated MCF-7 cells. Knockdown experiments demonstrated that both GPER1 and CREB mediate IGFBP-1 induction. Furthermore, experiments showed that 4-OHT-dependent IGFBP-1 transcription is downstream of GPER1-activation in breast cancer cells. Additionally, neutralization and knockdown experiments demonstrated a role for IGFBP-1 in the observed inhibition of IGF-1 signaling. These results suggested that 4-OHT inhibits IGF-1 signaling via GPER1 and CREB mediated extracellular IGFBP-1 accumulation in breast cancer cells.
Project description:The aim of this paper was to determine whether the interaction between IGF, IGFBP, and VN modulates the functions of porcine EOE cells. Enamel organs from 6-month-old porcine third molars were dissociated into single epithelial cells and subcultured on culture dishes pretreated with VN, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 (IGF-IGFBP-VN complex). The subcultured EOE cells retained their capacity for ameloblast-related gene expression, as shown by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Amelogenin expression was detected in the subcultured EOE cells by immunostaining. The subcultured EOE cells were then seeded onto collagen sponge scaffolds in combination with fresh dental mesenchymal cells and transplanted into athymic rats. After 4 weeks, enamel-dentin-like complex structures were present in the implanted constructs. These results show that EOE cells cultured on IGF-IGFBP-VN complex differentiated into ameloblasts-like cells that were able to secrete amelogenin proteins and form enamel-like tissues in vivo. Functional assays demonstrated that the IGF/IGFBP/VN complex significantly enhanced porcine EOE cell proliferation and tissue forming capacity for enamel. This is the first study to demonstrate a functional role of the IGF-IGFBP-VN complex in EOE cells. This application of the subculturing technique provides a foundation for further tooth-tissue engineering and for improving our understanding of ameloblast biology.
Project description:Context:Depending on its lipolytic activity, glucagon plays a promising role in obesity treatment. Glucagon-induced growth hormone (GH) release can promote its effect on lipid metabolism, although the underlying mechanisms have not been well-defined. Objective:The present study highlights the glucagon effect on the GH/insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) axis in vivo and in vitro, taking into consideration insulin as a confounding factor. Materials and Methods:In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated changes in GH, IGFBP, and IGF-1 bioactivity after intramuscular glucagon administration in 13 lean controls, 11 obese participants, and 13 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The effect of glucagon on the transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) translocation, the transcription of GH/IGF-1 system members, and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) was further investigated in vitro. Results:Despite unchanged total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels, glucagon decreased IGF-1 bioactivity in all study groups by increasing IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. The reduction in IGF-1 bioactivity occurred before the glucagon-induced surge in GH. In contrast to the transient increase in circulating insulin in obese and lean participants, no change was observed in those with T1DM. In vitro, glucagon dose dependently induced a substantial nuclear translocation of FOXO1 in human osteosarcoma cells and tended to increase IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes, despite absent Akt phosphorylation. Conclusions:Our data point to the glucagon-induced decrease in bioactive IGF-1 levels as a mechanism through which glucagon induces GH secretion. This insulin-independent reduction is related to increased IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 levels, which are most likely mediated via activation of the FOXO/mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway.