ABSTRACT: Cavity optomechanics explores the interaction between optical field and mechanical motion. So far, this interaction has relied on the detuning between a passive optical resonator and an external pump laser. Here, we report a new scheme with mutual coupling between a mechanical oscillator supporting the mirror of a laser and the optical field generated by the laser itself. The optically active cavity greatly enhances the light-matter energy transfer. In this work, we use an electrically-pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with an ultra-light-weight (130 pg) high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror, whose reflectivity spectrum is designed to facilitate strong optomechanical coupling, to demonstrate optomechanically-induced regenerative oscillation of the laser optomechanical cavity. We observe >550?nm self-oscillation amplitude of the micromechanical oscillator, two to three orders of magnitude larger than typical, and correspondingly a 23?nm laser wavelength sweep. In addition to its immediate applications as a high-speed wavelength-swept source, this scheme also offers a new approach for integrated on-chip sensors.
Project description:Planar microcavities with distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) host, besides confined optical modes, also mechanical resonances due to stop bands in the phonon dispersion relation of the DBRs. These resonances have frequencies in the 10- to 100-GHz range, depending on the resonator's optical wavelength, with quality factors exceeding 1,000. The interaction of photons and phonons in such optomechanical systems can be drastically enhanced, opening a new route towards the manipulation of light. Here we implemented active semiconducting layers into the microcavity to obtain a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Thereby, three resonant excitations--photons, phonons and electrons--can interact strongly with each other providing modulation of the VCSEL laser emission: a picosecond strain pulse injected into the VCSEL excites long-living mechanical resonances therein. As a result, modulation of the lasing intensity at frequencies up to 40 GHz is observed. From these findings, prospective applications of active optomechanical resonators integrated into nanophotonic circuits may emerge.
Project description:A practical scheme for the demonstration of perfect one-sided device-independent quantum secret sharing is proposed. The scheme involves a three-mode optomechanical system in which a pair of independent cavity modes is driven by short laser pulses and interact with a movable mirror. We demonstrate that by tuning the laser frequency to the blue (anti-Stokes) sideband of the average frequency of the cavity modes, the modes become mutually coherent and then may collectively steer the mirror mode to a perfect Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state. The scheme is shown to be experimentally feasible, it is robust against the frequency difference between the modes, mechanical thermal noise and damping, and coupling strengths of the cavity modes to the mirror.
Project description:Oscillators are one of the key elements in various applications as a signal source to generate periodic oscillations. Among them, an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is a driven harmonic oscillator based on parametric frequency conversion in an optical cavity, which has been widely investigated as a coherent light source with an extremely wide wavelength tuning range. However, steady oscillation in an OPO is confined by the cavity delay, which leads to difficulty in frequency tuning, and the frequency tuning is discrete with the minimum tuning step determined by the cavity delay. Here, we propose and demonstrate a counterpart of an OPO in the optoelectronic domain, i.e., an optoelectronic parametric oscillator (OEPO) based on parametric frequency conversion in an optoelectronic cavity to generate microwave signals. Owing to the unique energy-transition process in the optoelectronic cavity, the phase evolution in the OEPO is not linear, leading to steady single-mode oscillation or multimode oscillation that is not bounded by the cavity delay. Furthermore, the multimode oscillation in the OEPO is stable and easy to realize owing to the phase control of the parametric frequency-conversion process in the optoelectronic cavity, while stable multimode oscillation is difficult to achieve in conventional oscillators such as an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) or an OPO due to the mode-hopping and mode-competition effect. The proposed OEPO has great potential in applications such as microwave signal generation, oscillator-based computation, and radio-frequency phase-stable transfer.
Project description:We report the experimental observation of two-dimensional vector cavity solitons in a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) under linearly polarized optical injection when varying optical injection linear polarization direction. The polarization of the cavity soliton is not the one of the optical injection as it acquires a distinct ellipticity. These experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by the spin-flip VCSEL model. Our findings open the road to polarization multiplexing when using cavity solitons in broad-area lasers as pixels in information technology.
Project description:An all-optical computer has remained an elusive concept. To construct a practical computing primitive equivalent to an electronic Boolean logic, one should utilize nonlinearity that overcomes weaknesses that plague many optical processing schemes. An advantageous nonlinearity provides a complete set of logic operations and allows cascaded operations without changes in wavelength or in signal encoding format. Here we demonstrate an all-optical majority gate based on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Using emulated signal coupling, the arrangement provides Bit Error Ratio (BER) of 10-6 at the rate of 1 GHz without changes in the wavelength or in the signal encoding format. Cascaded operation of the injection-locked laser majority gate is simulated on a full adder and a 3-bit ripple-carry adder circuits. Finally, utilizing the spin-flip model semiconductor laser rate equations, we prove that injection-locked lasers may perform normalization operations in the steady-state with an arbitrary linear state of polarization.
Project description:Precision gravimetry is key to a number of scientific and industrial applications, including climate change research, space exploration, geological surveys and fundamental investigations into the nature of gravity. A variety of quantum systems, such as atom interferometry and on-chip-Bose-Einstein condensates have thus far been investigated to this aim. Here, we propose a new method which involves using a quantum optomechanical system for measurements of gravitational acceleration. As a proof-of-concept, we investigate the fundamental sensitivity for gravitational accelerometry of a cavity optomechanical system with a trilinear radiation pressure light-matter interaction. The phase of the optical output encodes the gravitational acceleration g and is the only component which needs to be measured. We prove analytically that homodyne detection is the optimal readout method and we predict an ideal fundamental sensitivity of ?g?=?10-15?ms-2 for state-of-the-art parameters of optomechanical systems, showing that they could, in principle, surpass the best atomic interferometers even for low optical intensities. Further, we show that the scheme is strikingly robust to the initial thermal state of the oscillator.
Project description:We report a fundamentally new approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that functions as a narrow bandwidth and tunable mirror of an external cavity laser. This scheme leads to ?10× increase in the electromagnetic enhancement factor compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. In our experiments, the cavity automatically tunes its lasing wavelength to the resonance wavelength of the photonic crystal, ensuring optimal on-resonance coupling even in the presence of variable device parameters and variations in the density of surface-adsorbed capture molecules. We achieve ?10(5) × improvement in the limit of detection of a fluorophore-tagged protein compared to its detection on an unpatterned glass substrate. The enhanced fluorescence signal and easy optical alignment make cavity-coupled photonic crystals a viable approach for further reducing detection limits of optically-excited light emitters that are used in biological assays.
Project description:Utilizing a tunable photonic crystal resonant reflector as a mirror of an external cavity laser cavity, we demonstrate a new type of label-free optical biosensor that achieves a high quality factor through the process of stimulated emission, while at the same time providing high sensitivity and large dynamic range. The photonic crystal is fabricated inexpensively from plastic materials, and its resonant wavelength is tuned by adsorption of biomolecules on its surface. Gain for the lasing process is provided by a semiconductor optical amplifier, resulting in a simple detection instrument that operates by normally incident noncontact illumination of the photonic crystal and direct back-reflection into the amplifier. We demonstrate single-mode, biomolecule-induced tuning of the continuous-wave laser wavelength. Because the approach incorporates external optical gain that is separate from the transducer, the device represents a significant advance over previous passive optical resonator biosensors and laser-based biosensors.
Project description:Cavity-optomechanics, a rapidly developing area of research, has made a remarkable progress. A stunning manifestation of optomechanical phenomena is in exploiting the mechanical effects of light to couple the optical degree of freedom with mechanical degree of freedom. In this report, we investigate the controlled bistable dynamics of such hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside high-finesse optical cavity with one moving-end mirror and is driven by a single mode optical field. The numerical results provide evidence for controlled optical bistability in optomechanics using transverse optical field which directly interacts with atoms causing the coupling of transverse field with momentum side modes, exited by intra-cavity field. This technique of transverse field coupling is also used to control bistable dynamics of both moving-end mirror and BEC. The report provides an understanding of temporal dynamics of moving-end mirror and BEC with respect to transverse field. Moreover, dependence of effective potential of the system on transverse field has also been discussed. To observe this phenomena in laboratory, we have suggested a certain set of experimental parameters. These findings provide a platform to investigate the tunable behavior of novel phenomenon like electromagnetically induced transparency and entanglement in hybrid systems.
Project description:Integrated plasmonic sources and detectors are imperative in the practical development of plasmonic circuitry for bio- and chemical sensing, nanoscale optical information processing, as well as transducers for high-density optical data storage. Here we show that vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be employed as an on-chip, electrically pumped source or detector of plasmonic signals, when operated in forward or reverse bias, respectively. To this end, we experimentally demonstrate surface plasmon polariton excitation, waveguiding, frequency conversion and detection on a VCSEL-based plasmonic platform. The coupling efficiency of the VCSEL emission to waveguided surface plasmon polariton modes has been optimized using asymmetric plasmonic nanostructures. The plasmonic VCSEL platform validated here is a viable solution for practical realizations of plasmonic functionalities for various applications, such as those requiring sub-wavelength field confinement, refractive index sensitivity or optical near-field transduction with electrically driven sources, thus enabling the realization of on-chip optical communication and lab-on-a-chip devices.