Global perceived stress predicts cognitive change among older adults.
ABSTRACT: Research on stress and cognitive aging has primarily focused on examining the effects of biological and psychosocial indicators of stress, with little attention provided to examining the association between perceived stress and cognitive aging. We examined the longitudinal association between global perceived stress (GPS) and cognitive change among 116 older adults (M(age) = 80, SD = 6.40, range = 67-96) in a repeated measurement burst design. Bursts of 6 daily cognitive assessments were repeated every 6 months over a 2-year period, with self-reported GPS assessed at the start of every burst. Using a double-exponential learning model, 2 parameters were estimated: (a) asymptotic level (peak performance), and (b) asymptotic change (the rate at which peak performance changed across bursts). We hypothesized that greater GPS would predict slowed performance in tasks of attention, working memory, and speed of processing and that increases in GPS across time would predict cognitive slowing. Results from latent growth curve analyses were consistent with our first hypothesis and indicated that level of GPS predicted cognitive slowing across time. Changes in GPS did not predict cognitive slowing. This study extends previous findings by demonstrating a prospective association between level of GPS and cognitive slowing across a 2-year period, highlighting the role of psychological stress as a risk factor for poor cognitive function.
Project description:It is now possible to create individual-specific genetic scores, called genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS). We used a GPS for years of education (EduYears) to predict reading performance assessed at UK National Curriculum Key Stages 1 (age 7), 2 (age 12) and 3 (age 14) and on reading tests administered at ages 7 and 12 in a UK sample of 5,825 unrelated individuals. EduYears GPS accounts for up to 5% of the variance in reading performance at age 14. GPS predictions remained significant after accounting for general cognitive ability and family socioeconomic status. Reading performance of children in the lowest and highest 12.5% of the EduYears GPS distribution differed by a mean growth in reading ability of approximately two school years. It seems certain that polygenic scores will be used to predict strengths and weaknesses in education.
Project description:Recent theorizing differentiates key constraints on cognition, including one's current range of processing efficiency (i.e., flexibility or inconsistency) as well as the capacity to expand flexibility over time (i.e., plasticity). The present study uses intensive assessment of response time data to examine the interplay between markers of intraindividual variability (inconsistency) and gains across biweekly retest sessions (plasticity) in relation to age-related cognitive function.Participants included 304 adults (aged 64 to 92 years: M = 74.02, SD = 5.95) from Project MIND, a longitudinal burst design study assessing performance across micro and macro intervals (response latency trials, weekly bursts, annual retests). For two reaction time (RT) measures (choice RT and one-back choice RT), baseline measures of RT inconsistency (intraindividual standard deviation, ISD, across trials at the first testing session) and plasticity (within-person performance gains in average RT across the 5 biweekly burst sessions) were computed and were then employed in linear mixed models as predictors of individual differences in cognitive function and longitudinal (6-year) rates of cognitive change.Independent of chronological age and years of education, higher RT inconsistency was associated uniformly with poorer cognitive function at baseline and with increased cognitive decline for measures of episodic memory and crystallized verbal ability. In contrast, predictive associations for plasticity were more modest for baseline cognitive function and were absent for 6-year cognitive change.These findings underscore the potential utility of response times for articulating inconsistency and plasticity as dynamic predictors of cognitive function in older adults.
Project description:Confinement of molecules in specific small volumes and areas within a cell is likely to be a general strategy that is developed during evolution for regulating the interactions and functions of biomolecules. The cellular plasma membrane, which is the outermost membrane that surrounds the entire cell, was considered to be a continuous two-dimensional liquid, but it is becoming clear that it consists of numerous nano-meso-scale domains with various lifetimes, such as raft domains and cytoskeleton-induced compartments, and membrane molecules are dynamically trapped in these domains. In this article, we give a theoretical account on the effects of molecular confinement on reversible bimolecular reactions in a partitioned surface such as the plasma membrane. By performing simulations based on a lattice-based model of diffusion and reaction, we found that in the presence of membrane partitioning, bimolecular reactions that occur in each compartment proceed in bursts during which the reaction rate is sharply and briefly increased even though the asymptotic reaction rate remains the same. We characterized the time between reaction bursts and the burst amplitude as a function of the model parameters, and discussed the biological significance of the reaction bursts in the presence of strong inhibitor activity.
Project description:Burst suppression patterns in the electroencephalogram are a reliable marker of recent severe brain insult. Here we analyze statistical properties of bursts occurring in 20 electroencephalographic recordings acquired from hypothermic asphyxic newborns in the hours immediately following birth. We show that the distributions of burst area and duration in these acute data predict later clinical outcome in both structural neuroimaging and neurodevelopment. Our findings indicate the first early electroencephalographic metrics that offer outcome prediction in asphyxic neonates undergoing hypothermia treatment.
Project description:Cognitive deficits are a core feature of psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Evidence supports a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) for educational attainment (GPS<sub>EDU</sub>) can be used to explain variability in cognitive performance. We aimed to identify different cognitive domains associated with GPS<sub>EDU</sub> in a transdiagnostic clinical cohort of chronic psychiatric patients with known cognitive deficits. Bipolar and schizophrenia patients from the PsyCourse cohort (N?=?730; 43% female) were used. Likewise, we tested whether GPSs for schizophrenia (GPS<sub>SZ</sub>) and bipolar disorder (GPS<sub>BD</sub>) were associated with cognitive outcomes. GPS<sub>EDU</sub> explained 1.5% of variance in the backward verbal digit span, 1.9% in the number of correctly recalled words of the Verbal Learning and Memory Test, and 1.1% in crystallized intelligence. These effects were robust to the influences of treatment and diagnosis. No significant associations between GPS<sub>SZ</sub> or GPS<sub>BD</sub> with cognitive outcomes were found. Furthermore, these risk scores did not confound the effect of GPS<sub>EDU</sub> on cognitive outcomes. GPS<sub>EDU</sub> explains a small fraction of cognitive performance in adults with psychiatric disorders, specifically for domains related to linguistic learning and working memory. Investigating such a proxy-phenotype longitudinally, could give intriguing insight into the disease course, highlighting at what time genes play a more influential role on cognitive performance. Better understanding the origin of these deficits might help identify those patients at risk for lower levels of functioning and poor social outcomes. Polygenic estimates may in the future be part of predictive models for more personalized interventions.
Project description:Sexual dimorphisms have been observed in many species, including humans, and extend to the prevalence and presentation of important mental disorders associated with performance monitoring malfunctions. However, precisely which underlying differences between genders contribute to the alterations observed in psychiatric diseases is unknown. Here, we compare behavioural and neural correlates of cognitive control functions in 438 female and 436 male participants performing a flanker task while EEG was recorded. We found that males showed stronger performance-monitoring-related EEG amplitude modulations which were employed to predict subjects' genders with ~72% accuracy. Females showed more post-error slowing, but both samples did not differ in regard to response-conflict processing and coupling between the error-related negativity (ERN) and consecutive behavioural slowing. Furthermore, we found that the ERN predicted consecutive behavioural slowing within subjects, whereas its overall amplitude did not correlate with post-error slowing across participants. These findings elucidate specific gender differences in essential neurocognitive functions with implications for clinical studies. They highlight that within- and between-subject associations for brain potentials cannot be interpreted in the same way. Specifically, despite higher general amplitudes in males, it appears that the dynamics of coupling between ERN and post-error slowing between men and women is comparable.
Project description:Burst contention is a major problem in the Optical Burst Switching (OBS) networks. Due to inadequate contention resolution techniques, the burst loss is prominent in OBS. In order to resolve contention fiber delay lines, wavelength converters, deflection routing, burst segmentation, and retransmission are used. Each one has its own limitations. In this paper, a new hybrid scheme is proposed which combines buffering and retransmission, which increases the mean number of bursts processed in the system. In this hybrid method, retransmission with controllable arrival and uncontrollable arrival is analyzed. Normally all the bursts reach the first hop and few of them go for second hop to reach destination. After all the bursts reach the destination the server may go for maintenance activity or wait for the arrival of next burst. We model it as a batch arrival single server retrial queue with buffer. Numerical results are analyzed to show the mean number of bursts processed in the system with uncontrollable arrival and controllable arrivals.
Project description:Background: Seizure clusters and "bursts" are of clinical importance. Clusters are reported to be a marker of antiepileptic drug resistance. Additionally, seizure clustering has been found to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, there are no statistical methods described in the literature to delineate bursting phenomenon in epileptic seizures. Methods: We present three automatic burst detection methods referred to as precision constrained grouping (PCG), burst duration constrained grouping (BCG), and interseizure interval constrained grouping (ICG). Concordance correlation coefficients were used to confirm the pairwise agreement between common bursts isolated using these three automatic burst detection procedures. Additionally, three graphical methods were employed to demonstrate seizure bursts: modified scatter plots, staircase plots, and dropline plots. Burst detection procedures are demonstrated on data from continuous intracranial ambulatory EEG monitoring in a patient diagnosed with drug-refractory focal epilepsy. Results: We analyzed 1,569 seizures, from our assigned index patient, captured on ambulatory intracranial EEG monitoring. A total of 31, 32, and 32 seizure bursts were detected by the three quantitative methods (BCG, ICG, and PCG), respectively. The concordance correlation coefficient was ?0.99 signifying considerably stronger than chance burst detector agreements with one another. Conclusions: Bursting is a quantifiable temporal phenomenon in epilepsy and seizure bursts can be reliably detected using our methodology.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Phasic bursts of beta band synchronisation have been linked to motor impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about what terminates bursts. METHODS:We used the Hilbert-Huang transform to investigate beta bursts in the local field potential recorded from the subthalamic nucleus in nine patients with PD on and off levodopa. RESULTS:The sharpness of the beta waveform extrema fell as burst amplitude dropped. Conversely, an index of phase slips between waveform extrema, and the power of concurrent theta activity increased as burst amplitude fell. Theta activity was also increased on levodopa when beta bursts were attenuated. These phenomena were associated with reduction in coupling between beta phase and high gamma activity amplitude. We discuss how these findings may suggest that beta burst termination is associated with relative desynchronization of the beta drive, increase in competing theta activity and increased phase slips in the beta activity. CONCLUSIONS:We characterise the dynamical nature of beta bursts, thereby permitting inferences about underlying activities and, in particular, about why bursts terminate. SIGNIFICANCE:Understanding the dynamical nature of beta bursts may help point to interventions that can cause their termination and potentially treat motor impairment in PD.
Project description:In the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, visual stimulation produces two distinct types of responses known as tonic and burst. Due to the dynamics of the T-type Ca(2+) channels involved in burst generation, the type of response evoked by a particular stimulus depends on the resting membrane potential, which is controlled by a network of modulatory connections from other brain areas. In this study, we use simulated responses to natural scene movies to describe how modulatory and stimulus-driven changes in LGN membrane potential interact to determine the luminance sequences that trigger burst responses. We find that at low resting potentials, when the T channels are de-inactivated and bursts are relatively frequent, an excitatory stimulus transient alone is sufficient to evoke a burst. However, to evoke a burst at high resting potentials, when the T channels are inactivated and bursts are relatively rare, prolonged inhibitory stimulation followed by an excitatory transient is required. We also observe evidence of these effects in vivo, where analysis of experimental recordings demonstrates that the luminance sequences that trigger bursts can vary dramatically with the overall burst percentage of the response. To characterize the functional consequences of the effects of resting potential on burst generation, we simulate LGN responses to different luminance sequences at a range of resting potentials with and without a mechanism for generating bursts. Using analysis based on signal detection theory, we show that bursts enhance detection of specific luminance sequences, ranging from the onset of excitatory sequences at low resting potentials to the offset of inhibitory sequences at high resting potentials. These results suggest a dynamic role for burst responses during visual processing that may change according to behavioral state.