Heterogeneous Determinants of Quality of Life in Different Phenotypes of Parkinson's Disease.
ABSTRACT: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is considered a very important outcome indicator in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A broad list of motor and non-motor features have been shown to affect HRQoL in PD, however, there is a dearth of information about the complexity of interrelationships between determinants of HRQoL in different PD phenotypes. We aimed to find independent determinates and the best structural model for HRQoL, also to investigate the heterogeneity in HRQoL between PD patients with different phenotypes regarding onset-age, progression rate and dominant symptom.A broad spectrum of demographic, motor and non-motor characteristics were collected in 157 idiopathic PD patients, namely comorbidity profile, nutritional status, UPDRS (total items), psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety), fatigue and psychosocial functioning through physical examination, validated questionnaires and scales. Structural equation model (SEM) and multivariate regressions were applied to find determinants of Parkinson's disease summary index (PDSI) and different domains of HRQoL (PDQ-39).Female sex, anxiety, depression and UPDRS-part II scores were the significant independent determinants of PDSI. A structural model consisting of global motor, global non-motor and co-morbidity indicator as three main components was able to predict 89% of the variance in HRQoL. In older-onset and slow-progression phenotypes, the motor domain showed smaller contribution on HRQoL and the majority of its effects were mediated through non-motor features. Comorbidity component was a significant determinant of HRQoL only among older-onset and non-tremor-dominant PD patients. Fatigue was not a significant indicator of non-motor component to affect HRQoL in rapid-progression PD.Our findings showed outstanding heterogeneities in the pattern and determinants of HRQoL among PD phenotypes. These factors should be considered during the assessments and developing personalized interventions to improve HRQOL in PD patients with different phenotypes or prominent feature.
Project description:The impact of motor- and non-motor symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received increasing attention.To address this, the study explored a large cohort of patients enrolled in the PD Biomarker Program.The PD Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) measured HRQOL, whereas the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) assessed motor and non-motor symptoms. Determinants of HRQOL in PD patients were identified by stepwise linear regression analysis. The relationship between the PDQ-39 and UPDRS subscale scores then was explored through structural equation modeling.The mean disease duration was 6.8 years and the mean PDQ-39 summary index (PDQ-39SI) was 18.4. UPDRS-I (non-motor function) and UPDRS-II (motor questionnaire) scores demonstrated the strongest correlations with PDQ-39SI (r???0.4, P?<?0.05), whereas UPDRS-III (motor exam) and UPDRS-IV (motor complications) scores were correlated moderately with PDQ-39SI (0.3?<?r?<?0.4, P?<?0.05). Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses showed that age (?=?-0.13, P?<?0.001), education (?=?-0.07, P?=?0.008), UPDRS-I (?=?0.32, P?=?0.000), and UPDRS-II (?=?0.44, P?<?0.001) significantly contributed to HRQOL, and cumulatively accounted for 69.1% of the PDQ-39SI variance. UPDRS-II score was the primary predictor of PDQ-39SI, accounting for 57.3% of the variance, whereas UPDRS-I score accounted for 7.5%. UPDRS-III and -IV and other factors measured did not survive stepwise regression. Structural equation modeling confirmed the association of UPDRS-II (?=?0.67, P?<?0.001) and UPDRS-I (?=?0.35, P?<?0.001) with the PDQ-39SI.Both motor and non-motor function scores impacted significantly HRQOL in PD. UPDRS-III, however, has limited contributions to HRQOL although it is used as a main outcome in many clinical trials.
Project description:The relationship quality, mutuality, has been identified as a protective factor in family care situations, but its role in mediating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients having Parkinson's disease (PD) is not known. Data on patients' and partners' mutuality (MS), motor signs (UPDRS III), non-motor symptoms (NMSQuest), impaired cognition (IQCODE), dependency in activities of daily life (ADL), and HRQoL (PDQ8) were collected from 51 dyads. Structural equation model with manifest variables was applied to explore if the MS score mediated the effect of UPDRS III, NMSQuest, IQCODE, and dependency in ADL on PDQ8. The results suggest that increasing severity of motor and non-motor symptoms decreases patients' mutuality which leads to worse HRQoL. Partners' mutuality mediated the effect of impaired cognition which in turn decreased patients' mutuality. The findings enhance our understanding of how various symptoms may influence PD patients' HRQoL. This may help clinicians to personalize interventions to provide more effective interventions to improve the lives of patients with PD.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The prevalence of non-motor symptoms (NMSs) and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been reported inconsistently among different populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the NMSs and HRQoL profiles and their correlation in Egyptian PD patients, using a culturally adapted Arabic version of the 39-item Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39).<h4>Methods</h4>Ninety-seven PD patients were rated using the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), the non-motor symptoms scales (NMSS), Beck depression inventory (BDI), and the Arabic version of PDQ-39. We used the Spearman's rank correlation and multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the relationship between NMSs domains and HRQoL dimensions.<h4>Results</h4>Fatigue/sleep (91.3%) and mood/cognitive disturbances (87%) were the most frequently and severely affected NMSS domains. Other common NMSs included urinary (75.9%), memory/attention (72.4%), gastrointestinal (67.8%), and cardiovascular problems (64.8%). The total NMSS scores were positively correlated with UPDRS I, II, and III scores. Depression was prevalent in 76.7% of PD patients. Moreover, all enrolled PD patients reported impairment in different HRQoL dimensions, especially mobility (98.9%), activities of daily living (97.8%), and emotional well-being (95.5%). The summary index of PDQ-39 was correlated to the total NMSS, UPDRS-I, UPDRS-II Off, UPDRS-III (Off and On states), and BDI scores.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study showed the high prevalence of NMSs and the value of NMSS and BDI scores as predictors of HRQoL in Egyptian PD patients. Therefore, characterizing the NMSs profile is essential for tailoring management strategies for PD patients.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To apply a scaled, preference-based measure to the evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD); to evaluate the relationship between disease-specific rating scales and estimated HRQoL; and to identify predictors of diminished HRQoL.<h4>Background</h4>Scaled, preference-based measures of HRQoL ("utilities") serve as indices of impact of disease, and can be used to generate quality-adjusted estimates of survival for health-economic evaluations. Evaluation of utilities for PD and their correlation with standard rating scales have been limited.<h4>Methods</h4>Utilities were generated using the Health Utilities Index Mark III (HUI-III) on consecutive patients attending a PD Clinic between October 2003 and June 2006. Disease severity, medical, surgical (subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS)), and demographic information were used as model covariates. Predictors of HUI-III utility scores were evaluated using the Wilxocon rank-sum test and linear regression models.<h4>Results</h4>68 men with a diagnosis of PD and a mean age of 74.0 (SD 7.4) were included in the data analysis. Mean HUI-III utility at first visit was 0.45 (SD 0.33). In multivariable models, UPDRS-II score (r2 = 0.56, P < 0.001) was highly predictive of HRQoL. UPDRS-III was a weaker, but still significant, predictor of utility scores, even after adjustment for UPDRS-II (P = 0.01).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Poor self-care in PD reflected by worsening UPDRS-II scores is strongly correlated with low generic HRQoL. HUI-III-based health utilities display convergent validity with the UPDRS-II. These findings highlight the importance of measures of independence as determinants of HRQoL in PD, and will facilitate the utilization of existing UPDRS data into economic analyses of PD therapies.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments may reflect different aspects of lives in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and thus be associated with different determinants. We used the same cluster of predictors for the generic and disease-specific HRQoL instruments to examine and compare the determinants of HRQoL.<h4>Method</h4>HRQoL was measured in 92 patients with PD by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). The predictors included demographic and disease characteristics, and motor and non-motor symptoms. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify HRQoL determinants.<h4>Results</h4>Depressive symptoms and motor difficulties of daily living were the first two significant determinants for both instruments. The other significant determinant for the SF-36 was fatigue and non-motor difficulties of daily living, and for the PDQ-39 was motor signs of PD.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results suggest the importance of the evaluation and intervention focused on depressive symptoms and motor difficulties of daily living in patients with PD. In addition, the SF-36 seems more related to non-motor symptoms, while the PDQ-39 appears more associated with motor symptoms. This information is important for understanding results from these two instruments and for choosing which to use.
Project description:The most frequently used instrument to assess health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39 (PDQ-39). However, both the dimensionality of the eight PDQ-39 subscales and their summary score recently faced criticism. Furthermore, data on disease-related and neuropsychological determinants and the role of gender on HrQoL in PD are inconclusive yet. Therefore, our aim was to reevaluate the PDQ-39 structure and to further explore determinants of HrQoL in PD. 245 PD patients (age: M?=?69.64, SD?=?8.43; 62.9% male; H&Y: Md?=?3.00; cognitive assessment with PANDA: M?=?24.82, SD?=?3.57) from the baseline database of the Cologne Parkinson Network were used to reevaluate the dimensionality of the PDQ-39 with a principal component analysis (PCA). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to clarify general and domain-specific relationships between clinical, (neuro)psychological, and sociodemographic variables, gender in particular, and HrQoL. The PCA identified three HrQoL domains: physical-functioning, cognition, and socioemotional HrQoL. Depressive symptoms were identified as the most important determinant of HrQoL across all models. Disease-related HrQoL determinants (UPDRS-III, H&Y stage, and LEDD) were less strong and consistent HrQoL determinants than nonmotor symptoms. Analyses did not reveal a global gender effect; however, female gender was a negative predictor for physical-functioning and socioemotional HrQoL, whereas male gender was a negative predictor for cognition HrQoL. Our analyses suggest the consideration of a reevaluation of the PDQ-39. Only the full understanding of HrQoL, its determinants, and their interrelationships will allow the development of PD intervention strategies focusing on what matters the most for patients' HrQoL. Gender is one relevant variable that should be considered in this context.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are more likely to develop impaired nutritional status because of the symptoms, medications and complications of the disease. However, little is known about the determinants and consequences of malnutrition in PD. This study aimed to investigate the association of motor, psychiatric and fatigue features with nutritional status as well as the effects of malnutrition on different aspects of quality of life (QoL) in PD patients. METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients with idiopathic PD (IPD) were recruited in this study. A demographic checklist, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were completed through face-to-face interviews and clinical examinations. The health-related QoL (HRQoL) was also evaluated by means of the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). For evaluation of nutritional status, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) questionnaire was applied together with anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Thirty seven (25.3%) patients were at risk of malnutrition and another 3 (2.1%) were malnourished. The total score of the UPDRS scale (r = -0.613, P<0.001) and PD duration (r = -0.284, P = 0.002) had a significant inverse correlation with the total MNA score. The median score of the Hoehn and Yahr stage was significantly higher in PD patients with abnormal nutritional status [2.5 vs. 2.0; P<0.001]. More severe anxiety [8.8 vs. 5.9; P = 0.002], depression [9.0 vs. 3.6; P<0.001] and fatigue [5.4 vs. 4.2; P<0.001] were observed in PD patients with abnormal nutritional status. Except for stigma, all other domains of the PDQ-39 were significantly correlated with the total score of the MNA. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that disease duration, severity of motor and psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety) and fatigue are associated with nutritional status in PD. Different aspects of the HRQoL were affected by patients' nutritional status especially the emotional well-being and mobility domains.
Project description:Motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with long-term oral levodopa treatment and linked to pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation. L-dopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is delivered continuously by percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube (PEG-J), which reduces L-dopa-plasma-level fluctuations and can translate to reduced motor complications. We present final results of the largest international, prospective, 54-week, open-label LCIG study. PD patients with severe motor fluctuations (>3 h/day "off" time) despite optimized therapy received LCIG monotherapy. Additional PD medications were allowed >28 days post-LCIG initiation. Safety was the primary endpoint measured through adverse events (AEs), device complications, and number of completers. Secondary endpoints included diary-assessed off time, "on" time with/without troublesome dyskinesia, UPDRS, and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) outcomes. Of 354 enrolled patients, 324 (91.5%) received PEG-J and 272 (76.8%) completed the study. Most AEs were mild/moderate and transient; complication of device insertion (34.9%) was the most common. Twenty-seven (7.6%) patients withdrew because of AEs. Serious AEs occurred in 105 (32.4%), most commonly complication of device insertion (6.5%). Mean daily off time decreased by 4.4 h/65.6% (P?<?0.001). On time without troublesome dyskinesia increased by 4.8 h/62.9% (P?<?0.001); on time with troublesome dyskinesia decreased by 0.4 h/22.5% (P?=?0.023). Improvements persisted from week 4 through study completion. UPDRS and HRQoL outcomes were also improved throughout. In the advanced PD population, LCIG's safety profile consisted primarily of AEs associated with the device/procedure, l-dopa/carbidopa, and advanced PD. LCIG was generally well tolerated and demonstrated clinically significant improvements in motor function, daily activities, and HRQoL sustained over 54 weeks.
Project description:There is wide variation in the phenotypic expression of Parkinson's disease (PD), which is driven by both genetic and epidemiological influences.To define and explain variation in the clinical phenotype of PD, in relation to genotypic variation.Tracking Parkinson's is a multicentre prospective longitudinal epidemiologic and biomarker study of PD. Patients attending specialist clinics in the United Kingdom with recent onset (<3.5 years) and young onset (diagnosed <50 years of age) PD were enrolled. Motor, non-motor and quality of life assessments were performed using validated scales. Cases are followed up 6 monthly up to 4.5 years for recent onset PD, and up to 1 year for young onset PD. We present here baseline clinical data from this large and demographically representative cohort.2247 PD cases were recruited (1987 recent onset, 260 young onset). Recent onset cases had a mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 67.6 years (9.3) at study entry, 65.7% males, with disease duration 1.3 years (0.9), MDS-UPDRS 3 scores 22.9 (12.3), LEDD 295?mg/day (211) and PDQ-8 score 5.9 (4.8). Young onset cases were 53.5 years old (7.8) at study entry, 66.9% male, with disease duration 10.2 years (6.7), MDS-UPDRS 3 scores 27.4 (15.3), LEDD 926?mg/day (567) and PDQ-8 score 11.6 (6.1).We have established a large clinical PD cohort, consisting of young onset and recent onset cases, which is designed to evaluate variation in clinical expression, in relation to genetic influences, and which offers a platform for future imaging and biomarker research.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Motor progression varies even among those with a single diagnosis such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and little is known about the trajectory of motor signs prior to death. Understanding deterioration patterns may help clinicians counsel patients and proactively plan interdisciplinary care, including palliative care. The objective of this study was to examine and describe Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (UPDRS-III) trajectories at the end of life in PD. <b>Methods:</b> A retrospective chart review was performed for deceased PD patients who attended the Parkinson and Movement Disorders Program at the University of Alberta for at least 5 years between 1999 and 2018. UPDRS-III scores were recorded for all visits. Trajectory patterns were visualized with Loess curves stratified by sex and age at diagnosis. Piecewise linear models were used to individually model the UPDRS-III scores, and the trajectories obtained were clustered based on their features. <b>Results:</b> Among the 202 charts reviewed, 84 meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed. The UPDRS-III increased over time regardless of sex and age. Distinct trajectory variations present in PD (e.g., Consistent Deterioration, Stability-Deterioration, Improvement-Deterioration, Deterioration-Improvement-Deterioration) were identified. Twenty-five percent of the patients were classified as Undetermined/Irregular trajectories. In addition, regardless of trajectory type, many patients experienced a steep increase in UPDRS-III approaching death. Those with disease diagnosis after age 65 years had a shorter survival time, compared to PD patients with a younger age of onset. <b>Conclusion:</b> Our study identified dominant types of motor trajectory in PD that can help clinicians understand their patients' course of illness. This information can help counsel patients regarding the variability in motor deterioration and should alert physicians to recognize a terminal decline. Age of disease onset was correlated with survival time.