Associations of Bone Mineral Density with Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Dietary Patterns in Postmenopausal Chinese Women: A 2-Year Prospective Study.
ABSTRACT: To assess factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study, and to examine the relative contribution of lean mass, fat mass, dietary patterns, and years since menopause to BMD.Two hundred and eighty-two postmenopausal women were randomly selected from Hongqi Community Health Center, in Harbin City, China. All participants were followed up from 2009 to 2011. Dietary data were collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD of the left hip, the lumbar spine, and the total body, and the body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up.Lean mass and fat mass were positively associated with BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body at both baseline and follow-up. The association between fat mass and BMD at the spine at baseline (P = 0.210) and at the spine (P = 0.116) and hip (P = 0.073) in the second year was not statistically significant when height was adjusted. Six dietary patterns were identified but only cereal grains-fruits pattern (P = 0.001 in the spine, P = 0.037 in hip) and milk-root vegetables pattern (P = 0.010 in hip) were associated with BMD of the spine and hip. The linear mixed model of follow-up data showed that lean mass, years since menopause, and age of menophania were the significant determinants of BMD of all sites. Moreover, lean mass was the best determinant of BMD (VIP = 1.936).Lean mass, years since menopause, age of menophania and dietary patterns are the important determinants of BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body. Lean mass is the best determinant of BMD.
Project description:A longitudinal observational study was performed comparing BMD and body composition in Turner syndrome girls before and after 1 year of HRT treatment. Whole body BMD, femur neck BMD, total hip BMD, and lean mass were significantly increased, but there was no difference in fat mass, and lumbar spine BMD. Purpose: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the major health problems in Turner syndrome (TS) patients, and a certain percentage of TS girls are treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to improve their BMD, among other health benefits. While it is generally accepted that HRT improves BMD and body composition in adolescent and young adult TS patients, studies of HRT in Chinese TS patients are limited. Methods: To investigate the effects of HRT in Chinese TS girls, we performed a longitudinal observational study which compared measurement of BMD and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a Lunar DXA densitometer in 20 Chinese adolescent and young adult TS patients (average age = 18) before and after 1 year of HRT treatment. Results: Whole body BMD (0.85 vs. 0.87 g/cm2, P < 0.001), femur neck BMD (0.6 vs. 0.62 g/cm2, P = 0.02), total hip BMD (0.68 vs. 0.71 g/cm2, P = 0.003) and whole body lean mass (30.39 vs. 31.66 kg, P = 0.002) were significantly increased in these patients after 1 year HRT treatment, but there was no difference in whole body fat mass, android:gynoid ratio and lumbar spine BMD. Conclusions: In summary, our study found that HRT was an effective way to increase whole body BMD, femur neck BMD, total hip BMD and whole body lean mass in Chinese TS girls, with no effect on whole body fat mass, android:gynoid ratio or lumbar spine BMD.
Project description:Weight loss is associated with reduction in bone mineral density (BMD).The objective was to address the role of changes in fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) in BMD decline in both sexes.A 2-year randomized controlled trial, the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS-LOST).The setting was the general community.Enrolled were 424 overweight and obese participants (mean age, 52 ± 9 y; 57% females).Intervention included weight loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrates.Main outcome measures were change in spine, total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) BMD and sex differences after dietary intervention.At baseline, a stronger correlation between BMD and body composition measurements was observed in women, primarily with LM (r = 0.419, 0.507, and 0.523 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively; all P < .001). In men, only LM correlated with hip BMD (r = 0.298; P < .001). Mean weight loss at 2 years was -6.9%, without differences among diets. Two-year changes in BMD were 0.005 (P = .04), -0.014 (P < .001), and -0.014 g/cm(2) (P < .001), at the spine, TH, and FN, respectively. These changes directly correlated with changes in LM in women (r = 0.200, 0.324, and 0.260 for spine, FN, and TH, respectively), whereas FM loss correlated only with changes in TH BMD (0.274; P < .001). In men, changes in LM (-0.323; P < .001) and FM (-0.213; P = .027) negatively correlated with changes in spine BMD.Weight loss diets result in sex-specific effects on BMD. Although men exhibited a paradoxical increase in spine BMD, women tended to decrease in BMD at all sites.
Project description:<label>BACKGROUND</label>Fat mass is variably associated with bone mass, possibly due to differential mechanical and biological effects of fat mass. We examined the association of fat mass with bone mass in a lean population.<label>OBJECTIVE</label>To investigate association between hip bone mineral density and fat and lean mass in a cross-sectional study from southern India.<label>DESIGN</label>The Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study is a prospective cohort study in Hyderabad, India. In 2009-2012, the study collected data on anthropometric measures, bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass, and lean mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and socioeconomic data of the adult participants (n = 1760; mean age = 34.9 years old for women; 2130 and 32.3 for men).<label>RESULTS</label>The median BMI (kg/m2) was 20.1 kg/m2. Women had relatively higher fat mass as compared to men. In models adjusted for lean mass, there was an association between hip bone mineral density and fat mass in women (? (95% confidence interval): premenopausal 0.025 (0.006 to 0.045); postmenopausal 0.045 (0.014 to 0.076)) but not in men (0.001 (-0.012 to 0.0014)). The association between hip BMD and fat mass was stronger in postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Hip BMD was consistently associated with lean mass, in both men and women.<label>CONCLUSIONS</label>In this relatively lean population, lean mass was more consistently associated with hip BMD than fat mass. Weight gain through lean mass improvement may be a more reliable public health strategy for strengthening bone health in transitional settings.
Project description:Nutrition affects bone health status. However, analysis of the dietary patterns gives insights into which particular combination of foods may influence nutritional status and bone health. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between dietary patterns, bone mineral density (BMD) and T-scores, and body composition in New Zealand postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study examined 125 postmenopausal women aged between 54 and 81 years. Body composition, BMD and T-scores were determined using dual-energy X-ray a bsorptiometry (DXA). Diet composition was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) composed of 108 food items, from which 34 food groups were created. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. The bone and body composition data including skeletal sites T-scores, waist circumference, BMI and body fat percentage were regressed onto the dietary patterns. Four dietary patterns were identified; the milk and milk-rich beverages dietary pattern, the dessert, cheese and red meat dietary pattern, the fruit-rich, biscuit and crackers dietary pattern and the oily fish, sports drink and seafood-rich dietary pattern. The milk and milk-rich beverages dietary pattern was significantly positively associated with spine T-score (r = 0.247, P = 0.008), and not whole-body BMD (r = 0.182, P = 0.051). The oily fish, sports drink and seafood-rich dietary pattern was marginally negatively associated with waist circumference (r = -0.157, P = 0.094) and body mass index (r = -0.163, P = 0.081) and significantly associated with body fat percentage (r = -0.247, P = 0.008). Binary logistic regression indicated that intake of the milk and milk-rich beverages dietary pattern reduced the occurrence of osteoporosis [adjusted odds ratio OR (95% CI): 0.589 (0.353, 0.982)]. A dietary pattern characterized by a high factor loading of milk and milk-rich beverages was positively associated with whole-body BMD and spine T-score, while the oily fish, sports drink, seafood-rich dietary pattern was inversely associated with total body fat percentage. Consumption of milk, even with coffee showed a positive association with bone health among postmenopausal women. Further longitudinal intervention studies is warranted to confirm effects of dietary patterns on skeletal body sites such as hip and femoral neck T-scores.
Project description:In a population-based sample of British women aged over 70 years old, lean mass and peak lower limb muscle force were both independently associated with hip strength and fracture risk indices, thereby suggesting a potential benefit of promoting leg muscle strengthening exercise for the prevention of hip fractures in postmenopausal women. INTRODUCTION:To investigate cross-sectional associations of lean mass and physical performance, including lower limb muscle function, with hip strength, geometry and fracture risk indices (FRIs) in postmenopausal women. METHODS:Data were from the Cohort of Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon. Total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD), hip geometry and total body lean mass (TBLM) were assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Finite element analysis of hip DXA was used to derive FN, intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric FRIs. Grip strength, gait speed and chair rise time were measured objectively. Lower limb peak muscle force and muscle power were assessed by jumping mechanography. RESULTS:In total, 241 women were included (age?=?76.4; SD?=?2.6 years). After adjustment for age, height, weight/fat mass and comorbidities, TBLM was positively associated with hip BMD (?TH BMD?=?0.36, P???0.001; ?FN BMD?=?0.26, P?=?0.01) and cross-section moment of inertia (0.24, P???0.001) and inversely associated with FN FRI (-?0.21, P?=?0.03) and intertrochanteric FRI (-?0.11, P?=?0.05) (estimates represent SD difference in bone measures per SD difference in TBLM). Lower limb peak muscle force was positively associated with hip BMD (?TH BMD?=?0.28, P???0.001; ?FN BMD?=?0.23, P?=?0.008) and inversely associated with FN FRI (-?0.17, P?=?0.04) and subtrochanteric FRI (-?0.18, P?=?0.04). Associations of grip strength, gait speed, chair rise time and peak muscle power with hip parameters were close to the null. CONCLUSIONS:Lean mass and lower limb peak muscle force were associated with hip BMD and geometrical FRIs in postmenopausal women. Leg muscle strengthening exercises may therefore help prevent hip fractures in older women.
Project description:Fracture risk is rising in countries undergoing rapid rural to urban migration, but whether this reflects an adverse effect of urbanization on intrinsic bone strength, as reflected by bone mineral density (BMD), is currently unknown.Lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) BMD, and total body fat and lean mass, were obtained from DXA scans performed in the Hyderabad arm of the Indian Migration Study (54% male, mean age 49 years). Sib-pair comparisons were performed between rural-urban migrants (RUM) and rural non-migrated (RNM) siblings (N = 185 sib-pairs).In analyses adjusted for height, gender, age and occupation, rural to urban migration was associated with higher lumbar and hip BMD and greater predicted hip strength; ?LS BMD 0.030 (0.005, 0.055) g/cm2, ?TH BMD 0.044 (0.024; 0.064) g/cm2, ?cross-sectional moment of inertia 0.162 (0.036, 0.289) cm4. These differences were largely attenuated after adjusting for body composition, insulin levels and current lifestyle factors ie. years of smoking, alcohol consumption and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Further analyses suggested that differences in lean mass, and to a lesser extent fat mass, largely explained the BMD differences which we observed.Rural to urban migration as an adult is associated with higher BMD and greater predicted hip strength, reflecting associated alterations in body composition. It remains to be seen how differences in BMD between migration groups will translate into fracture risk in becoming years.
Project description:This study assessed longitudinal changes in body composition, fat distribution and energy balance in perimenopausal women. We hypothesized that total fat and abdominal body fat would increase at menopause due to decreased energy expenditure (EE) and declining estrogen, respectively.Observational, longitudinal study with annual measurements for 4 years.Healthy women (103 Caucasian; 53 African-American), initially premenopausal. During follow-up, lack of menstruation for 1 year and follicle-stimulating hormone >30 mIU ml(-1) defined a subject as postmenopausal.Fat and lean mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAT) (computed tomography), dietary intake (4-day food record), serum sex hormones and physical activity (tri-axial accelerometry). Twenty-four hour EE was measured by whole-room calorimeter in a subset of 34 women at baseline and at year 4.Body fat and weight increased significantly over time only in those women who became postmenopausal by year 4 (n=51). All women gained SAT over time; however, only those who became postmenopausal had a significant increase in VAT. The postmenopausal group also exhibited a significant decrease in serum estradiol. Physical activity decreased significantly 2 years before menopause and remained low. Dietary energy, protein, carbohydrate and fiber intake were significantly higher 3-4 years before the onset of menopause compared with menopause onset. Twenty-four hour EE and sleeping EE decreased significantly with age; however, the decrease in sleeping EE was 1.5-fold greater in women who became postmenopausal compared with premenopausal controls (-7.9 vs -5.3%). Fat oxidation decreased by 32% in women who became postmenopausal (P<0.05), but did not change in those who remained premenopausal.Middle-aged women gained SAT with age, whereas menopause per se was associated with an increase in total body fat and VAT. Menopause onset is associated with decreased EE and fat oxidation that can predispose to obesity if lifestyle changes are not made.
Project description:A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995-Fall 1997) of postmenopausal women (n = 266; 56.6 ± 4.7 years) participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST) study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2-L4), and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT), total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P < 0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward's triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399.
Project description:We sought to determine the extent to which higher lean and fat mass as measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in older adults with frailty are related to total hip bone mass density (BMD) index and the rate of hip fractures.The data are from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. We identified 872 participants aged ?65?years with body composition measures and positive frailty. Frailty was determined using modified Fried's criteria. Linear and Cox regressions were used to model study outcomes.During the follow-up period, 5.6% patients (n?=?49) had sustained a hip fracture. Body composition indexes were associated with total hip BMD (P?<?0.001 for all). In models adjusted for age, ethnicity, smoking, history of fractures, recurrent falls, number of frailty criteria and corresponding lean mass, the hazard ratio for hip fracture per 1?kg/m2 increase in fat mass was 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.60-0.88) for appendicular compartment, 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.65-0.89) for trunk and 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.77-0.93) for whole-body fat mass. The hazard ratio for hip fracture per 1?kg/m2 increase in appendicular lean mass was 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.46-0.88). However, after final adjustment for total hip BMD, the only index that remained statistically significant was whole-body fat mass (P for trend?=?0.04).We showed that in frail older women, higher fat and lean mass was associated with reduced hip-fracture rates. Higher whole-body adiposity, however, was also associated with lower hip-fracture rate independent of total hip BMD. The present results confirm the importance of weight maintenance in frail populations. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 898-904.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We compared skeletal microarchitecture using trabecular bone score (TBS) and evaluated relationships between change in TBS and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) in women with and without HIV. METHODS:Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed on 319 women with HIV and 118 without HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study at baseline and 2 and 5 years, to measure regional BMD and lean and fat mass. TBS was extracted from LS dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images and examined continuously and categorically [normal (?1.35), intermediate (1.20-1.35), or degraded (?1.20) microarchitecture]. Pearson correlation and linear regression examined associations of TBS with regional BMD at baseline and over time. RESULTS:Women with HIV were older (43 vs. 37 years), more likely to be postmenopausal (27% vs. 4%), have lower baseline total fat mass, trunk fat, and leg fat than uninfected women, degraded microarchitecture (27% vs. 9%, P = 0.001), and lower baseline mean TBS (1.3 ± 0.1 vs. 1.4 ± 0.1, P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, race, menopause status, and body mass index, TBS remained lower in women with HIV (P < 0.0001). Annual change in TBS correlated with LS BMD change among women with HIV (r = 0.36, P < 0.0001) and without HIV (r = 0.26, P = 0.02); however, mean % annual TBS change did not differ by HIV status (-1.0%/yr ± 2.9% for HIV+ vs. -0.8%/yr ± 1.7% for HIV-, P = 0.42). CONCLUSIONS:Women with HIV have worse bone microarchitecture than uninfected women, but annual percent change in LS BMD or TBS was similar. Use of TBS as an adjunct to BMD to improve prediction of fragility fractures in women with HIV merits further study.