Efficacy and safety of canakinumab in adolescents and adults with colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever.
ABSTRACT: This open-label pilot study aimed to investigate the efficacy of canakinumab in colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients.Patients with one or more attacks in a month in the preceding 3 months despite colchicine were eligible to enter a 30-day run-in period. Patients who had an attack during the first run-in period advanced to a second 30-day period. At the first attack, patients started to receive three canakinumab 150 mg subcutaneous injections at 4-week intervals, and were then followed for an additional 2 months. Primary efficacy outcome measure was the proportion of patients with 50 % or more reduction in attack frequency. Secondary outcome measures included time to next attack following last canakinumab dose and changes in quality of life assessed by SF-36.Thirteen patients were enrolled in the run-in period and 9 advanced to the treatment period. All 9 patients achieved a 50 % or more reduction in attack frequency, and only one patient had an attack during the treatment period. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein levels remained low throughout the treatment period. Significant improvement was observed in both physical and mental component scores of the Short Form-36 at Day 8. Five patients had an attack during the 2-month follow-up, occurring median 71 (range, 31 to 78) days after the last dose. Adverse events were similar to those observed in the previous canakinumab trials.Canakinumab was effective at controlling the attack recurrence in patients with FMF resistant to colchicine. Further investigations are warranted to explore canakinumab's potential in the treatment of patients with colchicine resistant FMF.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01088880 . Registered 16 March 2010.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In 5%-10% of patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), colchicine is not effective in preventing inflammatory attacks. Another 5%-10% of patients are intolerant to effective doses of colchicine and experience serious side effects. Treatment with anti-interleukin-1 (IL-1) drugs may be an alternative for these patients, although it is not reimbursed for this indication in many countries. METHODS:We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for reports of anti-IL-1 treatment in FMF patients. RESULTS:Out of 284 potentially relevant articles, 27 eligible reports were identified and included in the data analysis. CONCLUSION:A complete response to therapy without a single attack during treatment was reported in 76.5% of patients on anakinra treatment and in 67.5% of patients during canakinumab treatment. In patients with established type AA amyloidosis, anti-IL-1 treatment can reverse proteinuria. Anti-IL-1 therapy seems to be a safe and effective alternative for patients with FMF who do not respond to or cannot tolerate colchicine.
Project description:Purpose: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common monogenic auto-inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and serositis. It is associated with mutation in pyrin inflammasome leading to interleukin-1 (IL-1) over secretion. Although colchicine is the first line treatment in FMF, 5-10% of patients are reported in literature as non-responders. Colchicine is not always well-tolerated due either to its direct toxicity or to co-morbidities that preclude the administration of its proper dosage. For these patients an alternative or additional treatment to colchicine is necessary. This literature review reports the published data regarding the use of IL-1 inhibitors in Familial Mediterranean Fever. Results: There is no uniform definition of colchicine resistance, but the different studies of treatment with IL-1 inhibitors provide evidence of IL-1 pathogenic role in colchicine-resistant FMF. IL-1 inhibition is an efficacious option for controlling and preventing flares -at least at the short term- in FMF patients who are insufficiently controlled with colchicine alone. Although canakinumab is the only approved drug in Europe for colchicine resistant FMF treatment, experience with anakinra is also substantial. In the absence of comparative studies both treatments seem to be an equal option for the management of these patients. Overall the safety profile of IL-1 inhibitors seems not different in FMF patients than in the other diseases and can be considered as globally safe. The main side effects are local injection site reactions and infections. Conclusion: IL-1 inhibitors have the potential to improve patient outcome even in FMF patients with co-morbidities or severe complications in whom inflammation control is difficult to achieve with colchicine alone. Nevertheless, current data are limited and further evaluation of long-term efficacy and safety of IL-1 inhibitors are necessary, in order to provide robust evidence in this domain.
Project description:Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of canakinumab treatment in active hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS). Methods. This is a 3-part open-label study with a 6-month treatment period (P1; 300 mg or 4 mg/kg q6w) a 6-month withdrawal period (P2) and a 24-month treatment period (P3). The primary endpoint was reduction in frequency of flares during treatment period compared with the historical period (HP; period in which patients did not receive drugs other than NSAIDs and/or steroids). Overall design: 63 samples total. 7 at visit 1: anakinra treatment (V1_AK) 9 at visit 2: during active disease after anakinra withdrawal (V2_NT) 9 at visit 3: after anakinra withdrawal and on canakinumab (V3) 8 at visit 4: after anakinra withdrawal and on canakinumab (V4) 8 at visit 5: after anakinra withdrawal and on canakinumab (V5) 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Note: V2_NT is BL in the associated manuscript. 7 at visit 6: during active disease after canakinumab withdrawal (ATTACK)
Project description:This study assessed the efficacy and safety of canakinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin 1β monoclonal antibody, for prophylaxis against acute gouty arthritis flares in patients initiating urate-lowering treatment.In this double-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging study, 432 patients with gouty arthritis initiating allopurinol treatment were randomised 1:1:1:1:1:1:2 to receive: a single dose of canakinumab, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg subcutaneously; 4×4-weekly doses of canakinumab (50+50+25+25 mg subcutaneously); or daily colchicine 0.5 mg orally for 16 weeks. Patients recorded details of flares in diaries. The study aimed to determine the canakinumab dose having equivalent efficacy to colchicine 0.5 mg at 16 weeks.A dose-response for canakinumab was not apparent with any of the four predefined dose-response models. The estimated canakinumab dose with equivalent efficacy to colchicine was below the range of doses tested. At 16 weeks, there was a 62% to 72% reduction in the mean number of flares per patient for canakinumab doses ≥50 mg versus colchicine based on a negative binomial model (rate ratio: 0.28-0.38, p≤0.0083), and the percentage of patients experiencing ≥1 flare was significantly lower for all canakinumab doses (15% to 27%) versus colchicine (44%, p<0.05). There was a 64% to 72% reduction in the risk of experiencing ≥1 flare for canakinumab doses ≥50 mg versus colchicine at 16 weeks (hazard ratio (HR): 0.28-0.36, p≤0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar across treatment groups.Single canakinumab doses ≥50 mg or four 4-weekly doses provided superior prophylaxis against flares compared with daily colchicine 0.5 mg.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited disorder caused by a number of mutations of the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene, coding a protein named pyrin that acts as a major regulatory component of the inflammasome. The first-line drug for FMF treatment is colchicine, but 10% of patients with FMF do not respond well to colchicine. Although the efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ), which is a recombinant, humanized, antihuman interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor monoclonal antibody, has been reported to prevent FMF attacks, the effects of TCZ on individuals with colchicine-resistant or colchicine-intolerant FMF have not been evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. METHODS/DESIGN:In this phase III, investigator-initiated, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group trial, the efficacy and safety of TCZ will be compared with placebo in patients with colchicine-resistant or colchicine-intolerant FMF. The study will be conducted in nine centers in Japan. Participants (n =?24) will be randomly assigned to receive 162?mg of TCZ (n =?12) or placebo (n =?12) administered subcutaneously once weekly for 24?weeks. Rescue treatment will be allowed if rescue criteria are met. A primary endpoint is the number of fever attacks until 24?weeks. Secondary endpoints include the number of occurrences of accompanying symptoms during attacks; the time until a fever attack occurs; the duration of fever attacks; serum C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A; 36-item Short Form Health Survey; general evaluation by a physician (100-mm visual analogue scale); body temperature; the percentage of subjects who achieve FMF 50 at 12?weeks and 24?weeks; and pharmacodynamic assessment, including the measurement of serum TCZ level and soluble IL-6 receptor. DISCUSSION:The study is expected to produce evidence regarding the efficacy of a potential new therapeutic agent, TCZ, in improving the clinical course and outcome for patients with colchicine-resistant or colchicine-intolerant FMF. TRIAL REGISTRATION:University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000028010 . Registered on 7 July 2017.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although not validated fully, recommendations are present for diagnosis, screening and treatment modalities of patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF).<h4>Objective</h4>To review the current practices of clinicians regarding FMF and reveal their adherence to consensus guidelines.<h4>Methods</h4>Fifteen key points selected regarding the diagnosis and management of FMF were assessed by 14 paediatric rheumatologists with a three-round modified Delphi panel.<h4>Results</h4>Consensus was reached on the following aspects: genetic analysis should be ordered to all patients when clinical findings support FMF, but its result is not decisive alone. In the absence of clinical features, colchicine should be commenced when two pathogenic alleles and family history of amyloidosis are present. Serum amyloid A testing at each visit is recommended in patients resistant to colchicine, with subclinical inflammation and family history of amyloidosis. Consensus was reached on both the definition of colchicine resistance and starting biologic in resistant cases. Cost, efficiency, ease of use, treatment adherence, accessibility and emergence of adverse events are the factors affecting the choice of biologic agents. In patients without any attack and evidence of subclinical inflammation within the last 6 months following initiation of biologics, treatment dose intervals can be prolonged.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A consensus was achieved regarding the routine diagnosis and screening and treatment of FMF patients. The definition of colchicine resistance was made and a protocol was created for prolongation of treatment intervals of biologic agents. We anticipate that the results of the study reveal real-life data on the approach to patients in clinical practice.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of canakinumab to treat patients with colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever (crFMF) during Epoch 4 (weeks 41 to 113) of the CLUSTER study. METHODS:Patients received open-label canakinumab 150 or 300?mg, every 4 or 8 weeks during a 72-week period. We evaluated disease activity every 8 weeks using the physician global assessment (PGA) of disease activity, counting the number of flares, and measuring concentrations of C reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA). Safety was studied by determination and classification of observed adverse events (AEs). We analysed safety and efficacy separately in two subgroups of patients receiving a cumulative dose of less than 2700?mg, or equal or more than 2700?mg. RESULTS:Of the 61 patients that started the CLUSTER study, 60 entered Epoch 4 and 57 completed it. During the 72-week period, 35/60 (58.3%) patients experienced no flares, and 23/60 (38.3%) had one flare, as compared with a median of 17.5 flares per year reported at baseline. PGA scores indicated no disease activity for the majority of patients throughout the study. Median CRP concentrations were always lower than 10?mg/L, while median SAA concentrations remained over the limit of normal (10?mg/L) but under the 30?mg/L threshold. No new or unexpected AEs were reported. CONCLUSION:crFMF patients treated with canakinumab during 72 weeks experienced a minimal incidence of flares and good control of clinical disease activity, with no new safety concerns reported.
Project description:Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder mainly affecting Mediterranean populations, which is associated with mutations of the MEFV gene that encodes pyrin. Functional studies suggest that pyrin is implicated in the maturation and secretion of interleukin-1 (IL-1). The IL-1 receptor antagonist or anti-IL-1 monoclonal antibody may therefore represent a rational approach for the treatment of the rare patients who are refractory to conventional therapy. We report the case of a young female affected by familial Mediterranean fever who proved to be resistant to colchicine and was successfully treated with canakinumab.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), an autoinflammatory disease, is characterized by self-limited inflammatory attacks of fever and polyserositis along with high acute phase response. Although colchicine remains the mainstay in treatment, intolerance and resistance in a certain portion of patients have been posing a problem for physicians. MAIN BODY:Like many autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, many colchicine-resistant or intolerant FMF cases have been successfully treated with biologics. In addition, many studies have tested the efficacy of biologics in treating FMF manifestations. CONCLUSION:Since carriers of FMF show significantly elevated levels of serum TNF alpha, IL-1, and IL-6, FMF patients who failed colchicine were successfully treated with anti IL-1, anti IL-6, or TNF inhibitors drugs. It is best to use colchicine in combination with biologics.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The genotype-phenotype correlation of MEFV remains unclear for the familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients, especially without canonical MEFV mutations in exon 10. The risk of FMF appeared to be under the influence of other factors in this case. The contribution of HLA polymorphisms to the risk of FMF was examined as strong candidates of modifier genes.<h4>Methods</h4>Genotypes of HLA-B and -DRB1 loci were determined for 258 mutually unrelated Japanese FMF patients, who satisfied modified Tel-Hashomer criteria, and 299 healthy controls. The effects of carrier status were evaluated for the risk of FMF by odds ratio (OR). The HLA effects were also assessed for clinical forms of FMF, subsets of FMF with certain MEFV genotypes and responsiveness to colchicine treatment.<h4>Results</h4>The carriers of B*39:01 were increased in the patients (OR = 3.25, p = 0.0012), whereas those of DRB1*15:02 were decreased (OR = 0.45, p = 0.00050), satisfying Bonferroni's correction for multiple statistical tests (n = 28, p<0.00179). The protective effect of DRB1*15:02 was completely disappeared in the co-existence of B*40:01. The HLA effects were generally augmented in the patients without a canonical MEFV variant allele M694I, in accordance with the notion that the lower penetrance of the mutations is owing to the larger contribution of modifier genes in the pathogenesis, with a few exceptions. Further, 42.9% of 14 colchicine-resistant patients and 13.5% of 156 colchicine-responders possessed B*35:01 allele, giving OR of 4.82 (p = 0.0041).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The differential effects of HLA class I and class II polymorphisms were identified for Japanese FMF even in those with high-penetrance MEFV mutations.