CCR5 susceptibility to ligand-mediated down-modulation differs between human T lymphocytes and myeloid cells.
ABSTRACT: CCR5 is a chemokine receptor expressed on leukocytes and a coreceptor used by HIV-1 to enter CD4(+) T lymphocytes and macrophages. Stimulation of CCR5 by chemokines triggers internalization of chemokine-bound CCR5 molecules in a process called down-modulation, which contributes to the anti-HIV activity of chemokines. Recent studies have shown that CCR5 conformational heterogeneity influences chemokine-CCR5 interactions and HIV-1 entry in transfected cells or activated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. However, the effect of CCR5 conformations on other cell types and on the process of down-modulation remains unclear. We used mAbs, some already shown to detect distinct CCR5 conformations, to compare the behavior of CCR5 on in vitro generated human T cell blasts, monocytes and MDMs and CHO-CCR5 transfectants. All human cells express distinct antigenic forms of CCR5 not detected on CHO-CCR5 cells. The recognizable populations of CCR5 receptors exhibit different patterns of down-modulation on T lymphocytes compared with myeloid cells. On T cell blasts, CCR5 is recognized by all antibodies and undergoes rapid chemokine-mediated internalization, whereas on monocytes and MDMs, a pool of CCR5 molecules is recognized by a subset of antibodies and is not removed from the cell surface. We demonstrate that this cell surface-retained form of CCR5 responds to prolonged treatment with more-potent chemokine analogs and acts as an HIV-1 coreceptor. Our findings indicate that the regulation of CCR5 is highly specific to cell type and provide a potential explanation for the observation that native chemokines are less-effective HIV-entry inhibitors on macrophages compared with T lymphocytes.
Project description:CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for chemokines and the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 entry into CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Chemokines exert anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro, both by displacing the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 from binding to CCR5 and by promoting CCR5 endocytosis, suggesting that they play a protective role in HIV infection. However, we showed here that different CCR5 conformations at the cell surface are differentially engaged by chemokines and gp120, making chemokines weaker inhibitors of HIV infection than would be expected from their binding affinity constants for CCR5. These distinct CCR5 conformations rely on CCR5 coupling to nucleotide-free G proteins ((NF)G proteins). Whereas native CCR5 chemokines bind with subnanomolar affinity to (NF)G protein-coupled CCR5, gp120/HIV-1 does not discriminate between (NF)G protein-coupled and uncoupled CCR5. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of chemokines is G protein independent, suggesting that "low-chemokine affinity" (NF)G protein-uncoupled conformations of CCR5 represent a portal for viral entry. Furthermore, chemokines are weak inducers of CCR5 endocytosis, as is revealed by EC50 values for chemokine-mediated endocytosis reflecting their low-affinity constant value for (NF)G protein-uncoupled CCR5. Abolishing CCR5 interaction with (NF)G proteins eliminates high-affinity binding of CCR5 chemokines but preserves receptor endocytosis, indicating that chemokines preferentially endocytose low-affinity receptors. Finally, we evidenced that chemokine analogs achieve highly potent HIV-1 inhibition due to high-affinity interactions with internalizing and/or gp120-binding receptors. These data are consistent with HIV-1 evading chemokine inhibition by exploiting CCR5 conformational heterogeneity, shed light into the inhibitory mechanisms of anti-HIV-1 chemokine analogs, and provide insights for the development of unique anti-HIV molecules.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The CCR5 chemokine receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family that is expressed by macrophages, memory T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells and is activated by chemotactic proteins (e.g. MIP-1alpha [CCL3], MIP-1beta [CCL4] and RANTES [CCL5]). CCR5 is also the principal co-receptor for macrophage-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and some chemokines can inhibit HIV-1 infection by stimulating CCR5 receptor endocytosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CCR5 antagonists on CCR5 endocytosis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of CCR5 agonists and antagonists on receptor internalization in CHO cells, expressing a C-terminal green fluorescent protein-tagged human CCR5 receptor (CCR5-GFP), were quantified using a confocal imaging plate reader. KEY RESULTS: MIP-1alpha [CCL3], MIP-1beta [CCL4] and RANTES [CCL5] were all able to stimulate potently the internalization of CCR5-GFP. This effect was inhibited by the non-peptide antagonist TAK 779. The CCR5 peptide antagonist met-RANTES antagonized MIP-1alpha-mediated increases in intracellular free calcium but was also able to stimulate a substantial internalization of the human CCR5-GFP receptor. However, CHO cells exhibited an aminopeptidase activity that was able to metabolize sufficient met-RANTES into an agonist metabolite capable of stimulating calcium mobilization via CCR5 receptors in naïve cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data suggest that there is an endogenous aminopeptidase activity on the surface of CHO cells, that produces a slow internalization of the receptor following a time-dependent conversion of receptor-bound met-RANTES from a CCR5 receptor antagonist into a CCR5 agonist molecule.
Project description:CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the receptor for several inflammatory chemokines and is a coreceptor for HIV-1. Posttranslational sulfation of tyrosines in the N-terminal regions of chemokine receptors has been shown to be important in the binding affinity for chemokine ligands. In addition, sulfation of CCR5 is crucial for mediating interactions with HIV-1 envelope protein gp120. The major sulfation pathway for peptides derived from the N-terminal domains of CCR5 and CCR8 and variations of the peptides were determined by in vitro enzymatic sulfation by tyrosylprotein sulfotranferase-2 (TPST-2), subsequent separation of products by RP-HPLC, and mass spectrometry analysis. It was found that the patterns of sulfation and the rates of sulfation for CCR5 and CCR8 depend on the number of amino acids N-terminal of Tyr-3. Results herein address previous seemingly contradictory studies and delineate the temporal sulfation of N-terminal chemokine receptor peptides.
Project description:CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the major HIV coreceptor, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in cell activation and migration in response to chemokines. Blockade of CCR5 is an effective anti-HIV strategy, and potent anti-HIV chemokine analogs such as PSC-RANTES have been developed. These inhibitors act by interfering with receptor trafficking, thereby inducing prolonged intracellular sequestration of CCR5. Like many GPCRs, CCR5 is desensitized following agonist activation. The initial steps in this process are well understood, but later stages, including where CCR5 is sequestered during desensitization, and how anti-HIV chemokine analogs intervene to achieve prolonged sequestration, have yet to be elucidated in detail. In this study we demonstrate that CCR5 cycles to and from the cell surface via the endosome recycling compartment and the trans-Golgi network during desensitization, accumulating in the trans-Golgi network following internalization by both PSC-RANTES and CCL5, the native ligand from which it was derived. In addition, we show that unlike CCR5 sequestered by CCL5, CCR5 sequestered by PSC-RANTES cannot be induced to return to the cell surface by addition of the small molecule CCR5 inhibitor, TAK-779, and that association of PSC-RANTES with CCR5 is more durable than that of native CCL5 during desensitization. Our findings reconcile the previously conflicting descriptions of the location of sequestered CCR5 during desensitization, as well as providing more general insights into potential trafficking routes for endocytosed GPCRs and further elucidation of the unusual inhibitory mechanism of chemokine analogs with potent anti-HIV activity.
Project description:Pre-B-cell growth-stimulating factor/ stromal cell-derived factor 1 (PBSF/SDF-1) is a member of the CXC group of chemokines that is initially identified as a bone marrow stromal cell-derived factor and as a pre-B-cell stimulatory factor. Although most chemokines are thought to be inducible inflammatory mediators, PBSF/SDF-1 is essential for perinatal viability,. B lymphopoiesis, bone marrow myelopoiesis, and cardiac ventricular septal formation, and it has chemotactic activities on resting lymphocytes and monocytes. In this paper, we have isolated a cDNA that encodes a seven transmembrane-spanning-domain receptor, designated pre-B-cell-derived chemokine receptor (PB-CKR) from a murine pre-B-cell clone, DW34. The deduced amino acid sequence has 90% identity with that of a HUMSTSR/fusin, a human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) entry coreceptor. However, the second extracellular region has lower identity (67%) compared with HUMSTSR/fusin. PB-CKR is expressed during embryo genesis and in many organs and T cells of adult mice. Murine PBSF/SDF-1 induced an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ in DW34 cells and PB-CKR-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, suggesting that PB-CKR is a functional receptor for murine PBSF/SDF-1. Murine PBSF/ SDF-1 also induced Ca2+ influx in fusin-transfected CHO cells. On the other hand, considering previous results that HIV-1 does not enter murine T cells that expressed human CD4, PB-CKR may not support HIV-1 infection. Thus, PB-CKR will be an important tool for functional mapping of HIV-1 entry coreceptor fusin and for understanding the function of PBSF/SDF-1 further.
Project description:HIV-1 entry into CD4(+) T cells requires binding of the virus to CD4 followed by engagement of either the C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) coreceptor. Pharmacologic blockade or genetic inactivation of either coreceptor protects cells from infection by viruses that exclusively use the targeted coreceptor. We have used zinc-finger nucleases to drive the simultaneous genetic modification of both ccr5 and cxcr4 in primary human CD4(+) T cells. These gene-modified cells proliferated normally and were resistant to both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 in vitro. When introduced into a humanized mouse model of HIV-1 infection, these coreceptor negative cells engraft and traffic normally, and are protected from infection with CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 strains. These data suggest that simultaneous disruption of the HIV coreceptors may provide a useful approach for the long-term, drug-free treatment of established HIV-1 infections.
Project description:The chemokine receptor CCR5 is the major fusion coreceptor for macrophage-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To define the structures of CCR5 that can support envelope (Env)-mediated membrane fusion, we analyzed the activity of homologs, chimeras, and mutants of human CCR5 in a sensitive gene reporter cell-cell fusion assay. Simian, but not murine, homologs of CCR5 were fully active as HIV-1 fusion coreceptors. Chimeras between CCR5 and divergent chemokine receptors demonstrated the existence of two distinct regions of CCR5 that could be utilized for Env-mediated fusion, the amino-terminal domain and the extracellular loops. Dual-tropic Env proteins were particularly sensitive to alterations in the CCR5 amino-terminal domain, suggesting that this domain may play a pivotal role in the evolution of coreceptor usage in vivo. We identified individual residues in both functional regions, Asp-11, Lys-197, and Asp-276, that contribute to coreceptor function. Deletion of a highly conserved cytoplasmic motif rendered CCR5 incapable of signaling but did not abrogate its ability to function as a coreceptor, implying the independence of fusion and G-protein-mediated chemokine receptor signaling. Finally, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody to CCR5 to assist in future studies of CCR5 expression.
Project description:HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env.Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1 receptor antagonist, NF279, is due to the blocking of virus interactions with both the CXCR4 and CCR5 coreceptors. The ability of NF279 to abrogate cellular calcium signaling induced by the respective chemokines showed that this compound acts as a dual-coreceptor antagonist. P2X1 receptor antagonists could thus represent a new class of dual-coreceptor inhibitors with a structure and a mechanism of action that are distinct from those of known HIV-1 coreceptor antagonists.
Project description:The chemokines are a complex superfamily of small, secreted proteins that were initially characterized through their chemotactic effects on a variety of leucocytes. The superfamily is divided into families based on structural and genetic considerations and have been termed the CXC, CC, C and CX3C families. Chemokines from these families have a key role in the recruitment and function of T lymphocytes. Moreover, T lymphocytes have also been identified as a source of a number of chemokines. T lymphocytes also express most of the known CXC and CC chemokine receptors to an extent that depends on their state of activation/differentiation and/or the activating stimuli. The expression of two chemokine receptors, namely CXCR4 and CCR5, together with the regulated production of their respective ligands, appears to be extremely important in determining sensitivity of T cells to HIV-1 infection. The intracellular events which mediate the effects of chemokines, particularly those elicited by the CC chemokine RANTES, include activation of both G-protein- and protein tyrosine kinase-coupled signalling pathways. The present review describes our current understanding of the structure and expression of chemokines and their receptors, the effects of chemokines on T-cell function(s), the intracellular signalling pathways activated by chemokines and the role of certain chemokines and chemokine receptors in determining sensitivity to HIV-1 infection.
Project description:The association of CD4, a glycoprotein involved in T-cell development and antigen recognition, and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), a chemotactic G protein-coupled receptor, which regulates trafficking and effector functions of immune cells, forms the main receptor for HIV. We observed that the majority of CCR5 is maintained within the intracellular compartments of primary T lymphocytes and in a monocytic cell line, contrasting with its relatively low density at the cell surface. The CCR5-CD4 association, which occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum, enhanced CCR5 export to the plasma membrane in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas inhibition of endogenous CD4 with small interfering RNAs decreased cell-surface expression of endogenous CCR5. This effect was specific for CCR5, as CD4 did not affect cellular distribution of CXCR4, the other HIV coreceptor. These results reveal a previously unappreciated role of CD4, which contributes to regulating CCR5 export to the plasma membrane.