Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus among Residents of Seven Nursing Homes in Shanghai.
ABSTRACT: Residents in nursing homes (NHs) always represent potential reservoirs for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). To our knowledge, there is no epidemiological information up till now that describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in nursing home residents in Shanghai, China.Four hundred and ninety-one unique residents from 7 NHs were enrolled in this study. Specimens were collected among these residents including 491 nasal swabs, 487 axillary swabs and 119 skin swabs. S. aureus isolated and identified from the swabs was characterized according to antimicrobial susceptibility profiling, toxin gene prevalence, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa and SCCmec typing.Among the 491 residents screened, S. aureus was isolated in 109 residents from 90 nasal swabs (90/491, 18.3%), 29 axillary swabs (29/487, 6.0%), and 22 skin swabs (22/119, 18.5%). Sixty-eight MRSA isolates were detected in 52 residents from 41 nasal carriers, 15 axillary carriers and 12 skin carriers. The overall prevalence rate of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was 22.2% and 10.6% respectively. Ten residents presented S. aureus in all three sample types and 12 residents presented S. aureus in two of the three sample types collected. Molecular analysis revealed CC1 (29.1%) to be the dominant clone in this study, followed by CC398 (19.9%), CC188 (13.5%) and CC5 (12.8%). The most common spa type was t127 (22.0%), followed by t14383 (12.8%) and t002 (10.6%).A high prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was revealed in nursing home residents in Shanghai. CC1 was the most common clonal complex and t127 was the most common spa type among NH residents. The data provides an important baseline for future surveillance of S. aureus in NHs in Shanghai and other highly urbanized regions in China. Implementation of infection control strategies must be given high priority in NHs to fight such high prevalence of both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA).
Project description:Research indicates that Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the elderly with predisposing risks is associated with subsequent infection. However, the molecular epidemiology and risk factors for S. aureus colonization among residents and staff in nursing homes (NHs) in China remain unclear. A multicenter study was conducted in three NHs in Shanghai between September 2019 and October 2019. We explored the prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for S. aureus colonization. All S. aureus isolates were characterized based on antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. NH records were examined for potential risk factors for S. aureus colonization. S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were detected in 109 (100 residents and 9 staff, 19.8%, 109/551) and 28 (24 residents and 4 staff, 5.1%, 28/551) subjects among 496 residents and 55 staff screened, respectively. Compared to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, all 30 MRSA isolates had higher resistance rates to most antibiotics except minocycline, rifampicin, linezolid, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Sequence type (ST) 1 (21.3%) was the most common sequence type, and t127 (20.5%) was the most common spa type among 122 S. aureus isolates. SCCmec type I (70%) was the dominant clone among all MRSA isolates. CC1 (26/122, 21.3%) was the predominant complex clone (CC), followed by CC398 (25/122, 20.5%), CC5 (20/122, 16.4%) and CC188 (18/122, 14.8%). Female sex (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.04-2.79; P = 0.036) and invasive devices (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.26-3.81; P = 0.006) were independently associated with S. aureus colonization.
Project description:Denmark is a country with high prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 in pigs. Even though pig farming is regarded as the main source of human infection or colonization with MRSA CC398, 10-15% of the human cases appear not to be linked to pigs. Following the recent reports of MRSA CC398 in horses in other European countries and the lack of knowledge on S. aureus carriage in this animal species, we carried out a study to investigate whether horses constitute a reservoir of MRSA CC398 in Denmark, and to gain knowledge on the frequency and genetic diversity of S. aureus in horses, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Nasal swabs were collected from 401 horses originating from 74 farms, either at their farms or prior to admission to veterinary clinics. Following culture on selective media, species identification by MALDI-TOF MS and MRSA confirmation by standard PCR-based methods, S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 54 (13%) and 17 (4%) horses originating from 30 (40%) and 7 (9%) farms, respectively. Based on spa typing, MSSA differed genetically from MRSA isolates. The spa type prevalent among MSSA isolates was t127 (CC1), which was detected in 12 horses from 11 farms and represents the most common S. aureus clone isolated from human bacteremia cases in Denmark. Among the 17 MRSA carriers, 10 horses from three farms carried CC398 t011 harboring the immune evasion cluster (IEC), four horses from two farms carried IEC-negative CC398 t034, and three horses from two farms carried a mecC-positive MRSA lineage previously associated with wildlife and domestic ruminants (CC130 t528). Based on whole-genome phylogenetic analysis of the 14 MRSA CC398, t011 isolates belonged to the recently identified horse-adapted clone in Europe and were closely related to human t011 isolates from three Danish equine veterinarians, whereas t034 isolates belonged to pig-adapted clones. Our study confirms that horses carry an equine-specific clone of MRSA CC398 that can be transmitted to veterinary personnel, and reveals that these animals are exposed to MRSA and MSSA clones that are likely to originate from livestock and humans, respectively.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4><i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> is one of the important pathogens causing nosocomial infection. <i>spa</i> typing allows identification of <i>S. aureus</i> clones in hospital isolates and is useful for epidemiological studies and nosocomial infection control. This study aims to investigate the <i>spa</i> types in Malaysian <i>S. aureus</i> isolates obtained from various clinical specimens.<h4>Method</h4>A total of 89 methicillin-resistant <i>S. aureus</i> (MRSA) [pus (<i>n</i> = 55), blood (<i>n</i> = 27), respiratory (<i>n</i> = 5), eye (<i>n</i> = 2)] isolates and 109 methicillin-susceptible <i>S. aureus</i> (MSSA) [pus (<i>n</i> = 79), blood (<i>n</i> = 24), respiratory (<i>n</i> = 3), eye (<i>n</i> = 2) and urine (<i>n</i> = 1)] isolates were subjected to <i>spa</i> typing with sequences analysed using BioNumerics version 7.<h4>Results</h4>The <i>spa</i> sequence was successfully amplified from 77.8% of the strains (154/198) and 47 known <i>spa</i> types were detected. The distribution of known <i>spa</i> types in MRSA (36.2%, 17/47) was less diverse than in MSSA (70.2%, 33/47). The most predominant <i>spa</i> types were t032 (50%) in MRSA, and t127 (19%) and t091 (16.7%) in MSSA, respectively. <i>spa</i> type t091 in MSSA was significantly associated with skin and soft tissue infections (<i>p</i> = 0.0199).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The previously uncommon <i>spa</i> type t032 was detected in the Malaysian MRSA strains, which also corresponded to the most common <i>spa</i> type in Europe and Australia, and has replaced the dominant <i>spa</i> type t037 which was reported in Malaysia in 2010.
Project description:A decade of research of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in pigs shows that the prevalence and predominant genotypes (i.e., ST398, ST9, ST5) of MRSA vary widely geographically, yet knowledge of the epidemiology of S. aureus generally in swine remains rudimentary. To characterize S. aureus, including MRSA, in the US swine industry, we sampled 38 swine herds in 11 states in major swine producing regions. The herds sampled included pigs sourced from 9 different breeding stock companies, and the sample was likely biased towards larger herds that use regular veterinary services. Twenty nasal swabs were collected from 36 groups of growing pigs by 36 swine veterinarians, 2 more herds were sampled opportunistically, and a historically MRSA-positive herd was included as a positive control. S. aureus was detected on 37 of the 38 herds, and in 77% of pigs sampled. Other than the positive control herd, no MRSA were detected in the study sample, yielding a 95% upper confidence limit of 9.3% for MRSA herd prevalence. All but two (ST1-t127; ST2007-t8314) of 1200 isolates belonged to three MLST lineages (ST9, ST398, and ST5) that have been prominent in studies of MRSA in pigs globally. A total of 35 spa types were detected, with the most prevalent being t337 (ST9), t034 (ST398), and t002 (ST5). A purposively diverse subset of 128 isolates was uniformly negative on PCR testing for major enterotoxin genes. The findings support previous studies suggesting a relatively low herd prevalence of MRSA in the US swine industry, but confirm that methicillin susceptible variants of the most common MRSA genotypes found in swine globally are endemic in the US. The absence of enterotoxin genes suggests that the source of toxigenic S. aureus capable of causing foodborne enterotoxicosis from pork products is most likely post-harvest contamination.
Project description:Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is a major concern in many parts of the world, including Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in slaughterhouses and meat shops in Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan, 2018-2019. A total of 300 samples were collected: 40 from each of working area, tools (knives, hooks), butcher hands and beef, 30 from each of chicken and mutton, 20 from each of nasal and rectal swabs. S. aureus was phenotypically identified by performing gram staining and biochemical tests. 150 of the 300 samples were confirmed to be S. aureus by phenotypic identification. MRSA was identified among S. aureus positive isolates by performing disk diffusion test and by detecting S. aureus-specific genes such as 16s rRNA, nuc, mecA, spa, and coa. Out of 150 isolates 96 (63%) showed resistance to antibiotic cefoxitin, known as a potential marker for detecting MRSA. While all 150 isolates have shown complete resistance to the four antibiotics neomycin, methicillin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. The nuc and 16s rRNA genes were detected in all 150 S. aureus-positive isolates and 118 (79%) were confirmed to be MRSA through the detection of the mecA gene. MRSA prevalence was highest in chicken (23/30, 77%) followed by beef (25/40, 63%), mutton (15/30, 50%), knives (18/40, 45%), nasal swabs (7/20, 35%), working area (11/40, 28%), rectal swabs (5/20, 25%), hooks (7/40, 18%), and butcher hands (7/40, 18%). 50 MRSA-positive isolates were chosen to identify two virulence factors (spa and coa gene). Of the 50 MRSA isolates subject to coa and spa gene typing, 27 (54%) were positive for the coa gene and 18 (36%) were positive for the spa gene, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study on the molecular identification of MRSA in meat samples from Pakistan. High prevalence of MRSA in meat samples demand for implementation of proper hygienic practices and procedures during the slaughtering, transport and marketing of meat and meat products in order to prevent the spread of these bacteria to the human population.
Project description:Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (LA-MRSA) is an important zoonotic microorganism that is increasingly causing public health concern worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the transmission and occurrence of MRSA in a slaughterhouse environment and evaluate its antimicrobial resistance and genetic characterization. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive epidemiological survey of <i>S. aureus</i> by <i>spa</i> typing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of samples obtained from the pork production chain, the environment, and community residents. To clarify the evolutionary relationships of MRSA sequence type (ST) 398 in this study and global isolates, 197 published whole-genome sequences data of MRSA ST398 strains were downloaded from the GenBank database and included in the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 585 porcine samples (snout and carcass swabs), 78 human nasal samples, and 136 environmental samples were collected. The MRSA isolates were detected at higher frequencies in samples from swine (15.0%) than carcasses (10.0%), slaughterhouse workers (8.0%), community residents (0%), and environment samples (5.9%). The <i>spa</i> typing results showed that t571 accounted for a higher proportion than other <i>spa</i> types. Closely related isolates from the samples of swine, slaughterhouse workers, carcasses, carrier vehicle, and surrounding fishpond water indicate that MRSA ST398 strains may spread among swine, humans, and the environment. MRSA ST398-t571 isolates were genetically different from global strains, except for two Korean isolates, which showed genetic closeness with it. In addition, a MRSA ST398 isolate recovered from an infected patient in Europe differed by only 31 SNPs from the airborne dust-associated strain isolated in this study, thereby suggesting potential transmission among different countries. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing results demonstrated that 99.0% (96/97) of MRSA and 95.1% (231/243) of methicillin-sensitive <i>S. aureus</i> (MSSA) showed multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. According to WGS analysis, the <i>poxtA</i>-carrying segment (IS<i>431mec</i>-<i>optrA</i>-IS<i>1216-fexB</i>-IS<i>431mec</i>) was reported in MRSA ST398 isolates for the first time. The coexistence of <i>cfr</i> and <i>optrA</i> in a plasmid was first detected in MRSA ST398. The potential transmission of MRSA among humans, animals, and the environment is a cause for concern. The emergence and transmission of LA-MRSA ST398 with high levels of resistance profiles highlight the urgent need for LA-MRSA surveillance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of severe infections in humans and animals worldwide. Studies elucidating the population structure, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types, resistance phenotypes, and virulence gene profiles of animal-associated MRSA are needed to understand spread and transmission. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to determine 1) clonal complexes and spa types, 2) resistance phenotypes, and 3) virulence/resistance gene profiles of MRSA isolated from animals in Switzerland. METHODS:We analyzed 31 presumptive MRSA isolates collected from clinical infections in horses, dogs, cattle, sheep, and pigs, which had tested positive in the Staphaurex Latex Agglutination Test. The isolates were characterized by spa typing and DNA microarray profiling. In addition, we performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the VITEK 2 Compact system. RESULTS:Characterization of the 31 presumptive MRSA isolates revealed 3 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates, which were able to grow on MRSA2 Brilliance agar. Of the 28 MRSA isolates, the majority was assigned to CC398 (86%), but CC8 (11%) and CC1 (4%) were also detected. The predominant spa type was t011 (n = 23), followed by t009 (n = 2), t034 (n = 1), t008 (n = 1), and t127 (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study extend the current body of knowledge on the population structure, resistance phenotypes, and virulence and resistance gene profiles of MRSA from livestock and companion animals.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:A recent study from Sweden showed that European hedgehogs may constitute a reservoir for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), but this host-parasite relationship remains to be investigated in other countries. In this study, we therefore sought to: 1) determine the dissemination of MRSA in European hedgehogs throughout Denmark; 2) investigate determinants of MRSA carriage in hedgehogs; 3) determine the potential for zoonotic transmission of MRSA from hedgehogs to humans; and 4) characterise the detected MRSA on both a phenotypic and molecular level. METHODS:Nasal swabs were taken from 188 dead hedgehogs collected by volunteers throughout Denmark to determine the occurrence of MRSA. Additionally, 16 hedgehog rehabilitators were tested for potential zoonotic transmission of MRSA from hedgehogs to humans. The swabs were incubated in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, followed by spread of 10 μl on Brilliance MRSA 2 agar. One presumptive MRSA colony from each plate was subcultured on 5% blood agar. All S. aureus subcultures were verified by a PCR assay detecting mecA, mecC, lukF-PV, scn, and spa, followed by spa typing. RESULTS:A total of 114 (61%) hedgehogs carried mecC-MRSA, whereas none carried mecA-MRSA. The detected mecC-MRSA belonged to two genetic lineages CC130 (spa-types: t528, t843, t1048, t3256, t3570, t6220, t17133) and CC1943 (spa-types: t978, t2345, t3391, t8835, t16868), 52% of which were spa-type t843 (CC130).The detection rate of mecC-MRSA in the hedgehogs was similar regardless of cause of death, sex, region and habitat type. None of the hedgehog rehabilitators carried MRSA. CONCLUSIONS:This nationwide study confirms a high occurrence of mecC-MRSA in hedgehogs, which could serve as a natural reservoir for this specific type of MRSA. Furthermore, our study did not find signs of zoonotic transmission of mecC-MRSA to hedgehog rehabilitators.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a major cause of healthcare and community- associated infections due to their ability to express a variety of virulence factors. We investigated 209 MRSA isolates obtained from 1 January to 31 December 2016 using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods to understand the genetic backgrounds of MRSA strains obtained in a General hospital in Kuwait. Antibiotics susceptibility was performed with disk diffusion, and MIC was measured with Etest strips. Molecular typing was performed using SCCmec typing, spa typing, and DNA microarray for antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. The isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, rifampicin, ceftaroline, and linezolid but were resistant to gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Molecular typing revealed six SCCmec types, 56 spa types and 16 clonal complexes (CC). The common SCCmec types were type IV (39.5%), type III (34.4%), type V (25.8%) and type VI (3.8%). The dominant spa types were t860 (23.9%), t945 (8.6%), t127 (6.7%), t688 (6.7%), t304 (6.2) and t044 (5.7%). The other spa types occurred sporadically. Genes for PVL was detected in 59 (28.2%) of the isolates. CC8-ST239-MRSA-III?+?SCCmer (23.3%) was the most prevalent clone, followed by CC6-MRSA-IV (8.3%), CC80-MRSA-IV [PVL+] (5.8%), CC5-MRSA-VI?+?SCCfus (5.0%), CC30-MRSA-IV[PVL+] (4.1%), CC1-MRSA-V?+?SCCfus [PVL+] (4.1%), CC5-MRSA-V?+?SCCfus (4.1%) and CC22-MRSA-IV[PVL+] (4.1%). The study revealed that despite the emergence of MRSA with diverse genetic backgrounds over the years, ST239-MRSA-III remained the dominant clone in the hospital. This warrants reassessment of infection prevention and control procedures at this hospital.
Project description:<b>Objective: </b>Determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms (ESBLs), and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) among residents and in the environment of nursing homes (NHs).<br><br><b>Design: </b>Point prevalence sampling of residents and environmental sampling of high-touch objects in resident rooms and common areas.<br><br><b>Setting: </b>Twenty-eight NHs in Southern California from 2016 to 2017.<br><br><b>Participants: </b>NH participants in Project PROTECT, a cluster-randomized trial of enhanced bathing and decolonization vs routine care.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Fifty residents were randomly sampled per NH. Twenty objects were sampled, including 5 common room objects plus 5 objects in each of 3 rooms (ambulatory, total care, and dementia care residents).<br><br><b>Results: </b>A total of 2797 swabs were obtained from 1400 residents in 28 NHs. Median prevalence of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) carriage per NH was 50% (range: 24%-70%). Median prevalence of specific MDROs were as follows: MRSA, 36% (range: 20%-54%); ESBL, 16% (range: 2%-34%); VRE, 5% (range: 0%-30%); and CRE, 0% (range: 0%-8%). A median of 45% of residents (range: 24%-67%) harbored an MDRO without a known MDRO history. Environmental MDRO contamination was found in 74% of resident rooms and 93% of common areas.<br><br><b>Conclusions and implications: </b>In more than half of the NHs, more than 50% of residents were colonized with MDROs of clinical and public health significance, most commonly MRSA and ESBL. Additionally, the vast majority of resident rooms and common areas were MDRO contaminated. The unknown submerged portion of the iceberg of MDRO carriers in NHs may warrant changes to infection prevention and control practices, particularly high-fidelity adoption of universal strategies such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and decolonization.