PAQR3 modulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP complex to the Golgi apparatus.
ABSTRACT: Cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by transcription factors SREBPs and their escort protein Scap. On sterol depletion, Scap/SREBP complex is transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where SREBP is activated. Under cholesterol sufficient condition, Insigs act as anchor proteins to retain Scap/SREBP in the ER. However, the anchor protein of Scap/SREBP in the Golgi is unknown. Here we report that a Golgi-localized membrane protein progestin and adipoQ receptors 3 (PAQR3) interacts with Scap and SREBP and tethers them to the Golgi. PAQR3 promotes Scap/SREBP complex formation, potentiates SREBP processing and enhances lipid synthesis. The mutually exclusive interaction between Scap and PAQR3 or Insig-1 is regulated by cholesterol level. PAQR3 knockdown in liver blunts SREBP pathway and decreases hepatic cholesterol content. Disrupting the interaction of PAQR3 with Scap/SREBP by a synthetic peptide inhibits SREBP processing and activation. Thus, PAQR3 regulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP to the Golgi and disruption of such function reduces cholesterol biosynthesis.
Project description:The polytopic membrane protein SCAP transports sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi, thereby activating cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol accumulation in the ER membranes changes SCAP to an alternate conformation in which it binds ER retention proteins called Insigs, thereby terminating cholesterol synthesis. Here, we show that the conserved Asp-428 in the sixth transmembrane helix of SCAP is essential for SCAP's dissociation from Insigs. In transfected hamster cells, mutant SCAP in which Asp-428 is replaced by alanine (D428A) remained in an Insig-binding conformation when cells were depleted of sterols. As a result, mutant SCAP failed to dissociate from Insigs, and it failed to carry SREBPs to the Golgi. These data identify an important functional residue in SCAP, and they provide genetic evidence that the conformation of SCAP dictates the rate of cholesterol synthesis in animal cells.
Project description:Cholesterol synthesis in animals is controlled by the regulated transport of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, where the transcription factors are processed proteolytically to release active fragments. Transport is inhibited by either cholesterol or oxysterols, blocking cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol acts by binding to the SREBP-escort protein Scap, thereby causing Scap to bind to anchor proteins called Insigs. Here, we show that oxysterols act by binding to Insigs, causing Insigs to bind to Scap. Mutational analysis of the six transmembrane helices of Insigs reveals that the third and fourth are important for Insig's binding to oxysterols and to Scap. These studies define Insigs as oxysterol-binding proteins, explaining the long-known ability of oxysterols to inhibit cholesterol synthesis in animal cells.
Project description:Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors are central regulators of cellular lipid homeostasis and activate expression of genes required for fatty acid, triglyceride, and cholesterol synthesis and uptake. SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays an essential role in SREBP activation by mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport of SREBP. In the Golgi, membrane-bound SREBPs are cleaved sequentially by the site-1 and site-2 proteases. Recent studies have shown a requirement for the SREBP pathway in the development of fatty liver disease and tumor growth, making SCAP a target for drug development. Fatostatin is a chemical inhibitor of the SREBP pathway that directly binds SCAP and blocks its ER-to-Golgi transport. In this study, we determined that fatostatin blocks ER exit of SCAP and showed that inhibition is independent of insulin-induced gene proteins, which function to retain the SCAP-SREBP complex in the ER. Fatostatin potently inhibited cell growth, but unexpectedly exogenous lipids failed to rescue proliferation of fatostatin-treated cells. Furthermore, fatostatin inhibited growth of cells lacking SCAP Using a vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) trafficking assay, we demonstrated that fatostatin delays ER-to-Golgi transport of VSVG. In summary, fatostatin inhibited SREBP activation, but fatostatin additionally inhibited cell proliferation through both lipid-independent and SCAP-independent mechanisms, possibly by general inhibition of ER-to-Golgi transport.
Project description:Cellular cholesterol homeostasis is maintained by Scap, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein with eight transmembrane helices. In cholesterol-depleted cells, Scap transports sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) to the Golgi, where the active fragment of SREBP is liberated by proteases so that it can activate genes for cholesterol synthesis. When ER cholesterol increases, Scap binds cholesterol, and this changes the conformation of cytosolic Loop 6, which contains the binding site for COPII proteins. The altered conformation precludes COPII binding, abrogating movement to the Golgi. Consequently, cholesterol synthesis declines. Here, we identify the cholesterol-binding site on Scap as Loop 1, a 245-amino acid sequence that projects into the ER lumen. Recombinant Loop 1 binds sterols with a specificity identical to that of the entire Scap membrane domain. When tyrosine 234 in Loop 1 is mutated to alanine, Loop 6 assumes the cholesterol-bound conformation, even in sterol-depleted cells. As a result, full-length Scap(Y234A) cannot mediate SREBP processing in transfected cells. These results indicate that luminal Loop 1 of Scap controls the conformation of cytosolic Loop 6, thereby determining whether cells produce cholesterol.
Project description:Sterols mediate feedback inhibition of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway by preventing movement of the SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP)/SREBP complex from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi, where proteolytic cleavage of SREBPs releases the transcription factor domain that activates genes for lipid biosynthesis. Our laboratory previously used a trypsin cleavage assay to show that the conformation of SCAP is altered in vitro by addition of cholesterol to ER membranes. More recently, Insig-1 and Insig-2 were identified as ER resident proteins that bind the SCAP/SREBP complex and promote its ER retention when cells are treated with sterols. Here, we use the trypsin assay to show that Insig proteins reduce the concentration of cholesterol needed in vitro to produce the conformational change in SCAP. Insig-1 and Insig-2 also enhance the conformational change in SCAP that occurs upon addition of certain cationic amphiphiles, such as chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, and imipramine, which mimic the effect of cholesterol. The effects of cationic amphiphiles raise the possibility that SCAP may monitor specifically the composition of the cytoplasmic leaflet of the ER membrane.
Project description:SREBPs are master regulators of lipid homeostasis and undergo sterol-regulated export from ER to Golgi apparatus for processing and activation via COPII-coated vesicles. While COPII recognizes SREBP through its escort protein SCAP, factor(s) specifically promoting SREBP/SCAP loading to the COPII machinery remains unknown. Here, we show that the ER/lipid droplet-associated protein Cideb selectively promotes the loading of SREBP/SCAP into COPII vesicles. Sterol deprivation releases SCAP from Insig and enhances ER export of SREBP/SCAP by inducing SCAP-Cideb interaction, thereby modulating sterol sensitivity. Moreover, Cideb binds to the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec12 to enrich SCAP/SREBP at ER exit sites, where assembling of COPII complex initiates. Loss of Cideb inhibits the cargo loading of SREBP/SCAP, reduces SREBP activation, and alleviates diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Our data point to a linchpin role of Cideb in regulated ER export of SREBP and lipid homeostasis.
Project description:Two classes of sterols, cholesterol and oxysterols, block export of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi by preventing the binding of COPII-coated proteins to a hexapeptide sorting signal (MELADL) in Scap, the SREBP-escort protein. Here, we show that anti-MELADL blocks COPII binding in vitro, and microinjection of Fab anti-MELADL blocks Scap.SREBP movement in cells. Cholesterol and oxysterols block COPII binding to MELADL by binding to different intracellular receptors, cholesterol to Scap and oxysterols to Insig. Cysteine labeling shows that both binding events produce a conformational change near the MELADL sequence, abrogating COPII binding but not anti-MELADL binding. Mutagenesis experiments raise the possibility that the distance of MELADL from the ER membrane is crucial for COPII binding, and we speculate that sterols and Insig block SREBP transport by altering the location of MELADL with respect to the membrane, rendering it inaccessible to COPII proteins.
Project description:Sterols inhibit their own synthesis in mammalian cells by blocking the vesicular endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), a sterol-sensing protein that escorts SREBPs. Unable to reach the Golgi, SREBPs are not processed by Golgi-resident proteases, and they fail to activate genes required for cholesterol synthesis. The current studies were designed to reveal whether sterols block SCAP movement by inhibiting synthesis of special vesicles dedicated to SCAP, or whether sterols block SCAP incorporation into common coat protein (COP)II-coated vesicles. Through immunoisolation, we show that SCAP-containing vesicles, formed in vitro, also contain vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) protein, a classic marker of COPII-coated vesicles. Sterols selectively block incorporation of SCAP into these vesicles without blocking incorporation of VSVG protein. We show that the mammalian vesicular budding reaction can be reconstituted by recombinant yeast COPII proteins that support incorporation of SCAP as well as VSVG into vesicles. Sterols block SCAP incorporation into vesicles by blocking Sar1-dependent binding of the COPII proteins Sec 23/24 to SCAP. These studies demonstrate feedback control of a biosynthetic pathway by the regulated binding of COPII proteins to an endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport protein.
Project description:Tumorigenesis is associated with increased glucose consumption and lipogenesis, but how these pathways are interlinked is unclear. Here, we delineate a pathway in which EGFR signaling, by increasing glucose uptake, promotes N-glycosylation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and consequent activation of SREBP-1, an ER-bound transcription factor with central roles in lipid metabolism. Glycosylation stabilizes SCAP and reduces its association with Insig-1, allowing movement of SCAP/SREBP to the Golgi and consequent proteolytic activation of SREBP. Xenograft studies reveal that blocking SCAP N-glycosylation ameliorates EGFRvIII-driven glioblastoma growth. Thus, SCAP acts as key glucose-responsive protein linking oncogenic signaling and fuel availability to SREBP-dependent lipogenesis. Targeting SCAP N-glycosylation may provide a promising means of treating malignancies and metabolic diseases.
Project description:Cholesterol homeostasis is maintained through concerted action of the SREBPs and LXRs. Here, we report that RNF145, a previously uncharacterized ER membrane ubiquitin ligase, participates in crosstalk between these critical signaling pathways. RNF145 expression is induced in response to LXR activation and high-cholesterol diet feeding. Transduction of RNF145 into mouse liver inhibits the expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and reduces plasma cholesterol levels. Conversely, acute suppression of RNF145 via shRNA-mediated knockdown, or chronic inactivation of RNF145 by genetic deletion, potentiates the expression of cholesterol biosynthetic genes and increases cholesterol levels both in liver and plasma. Mechanistic studies show that RNF145 triggers ubiquitination of SCAP on lysine residues within a cytoplasmic loop essential for COPII binding, potentially inhibiting its transport to Golgi and subsequent processing of SREBP-2. These findings define an additional mechanism linking hepatic sterol levels to the reciprocal actions of the SREBP-2 and LXR pathways.