Whole transcriptomic analysis of the plant-beneficial rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 during enhanced biofilm formation regulated by maize root exudates.
ABSTRACT: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with outstanding abilities to enhance plant growth and to control soil-borne diseases. Root exudates is known to play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. To explore the rhizosphere interactions and plant-beneficial characteristics of SQR9, the complete genome sequence as well as the transcriptome in response to maize root exudates under biofilm-forming conditions were elucidated.Maize root exudates stimulated SQR9 biofilm formation in liquid culture, which is known to be positively correlated with enhanced root colonization. Transcriptional profiling via RNA-sequencing of SQR9 under static conditions indicated that, at 24 h post-inoculation, root exudates stimulated the expression of metabolism-relevant genes, while at 48 h post-inoculation, genes related to extracellular matrix production (tapA-sipW-tasA operon) were activated by root exudates. The individual components in maize root exudates that stimulated biofilm formation included glucose, citric acid, and fumaric acid, which either promoted the growth of SQR9 cells or activated extracellular matrix production. In addition, numerous groups of genes involved in rhizosphere adaptation and in plant-beneficial traits, including plant polysaccharide utilization, cell motility and chemotaxis, secondary antibiotics synthesis clusters, and plant growth promotion-relevant, were identified in the SQR9 genome. These genes also appeared to be induced by the maize root exudates.Enhanced biofilm formation of B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by maize root exudates could mainly be attributed to promoting cell growth and to inducing extracellular matrix production. The genomic analysis also highlighted the elements involved in the strain's potential as a PGPR. This study provides useful information for understanding plant-rhizobacteria interactions and hence for promoting the agricultural applications of this strain.
Project description:Root exudates play an important role in plant-microbe interaction. The transcriptional profilings of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 in response to maize root exudates under static condition, were investigated by an Illumina RNA-seq for understanding the regulatory roles of the root exudates. 4 treatments, including 2 blank control (24 h and 48 h-post inoculation, named as 5 and 15, respectively), and 2 treatments with maize root exudates (24 h and 48 h-post inoculation, named as 7 and 17, respectively)
Project description:The successful colonization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere is an initial and compulsory step in the protection of plants from soil-borne pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the role of root exudates in the colonization of PGPR. Banana root exudates were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) which revealed exudates contained several organic acids (OAs) including oxalic, malic and fumaric acid. The chemotactic response and biofilm formation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 were investigated in response to OA's found in banana root exudates. Furthermore, the transcriptional levels of genes involved in biofilm formation, yqxM and epsD, were evaluated in response to OAs via quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results suggested that root exudates containing the OAs both induced the chemotaxis and biofilm formation in NJN-6. In fact, the strongest chemotactic and biofilm response was found when 50??M of OAs were applied. More specifically, malic acid showed the greatest chemotactic response whereas fumaric acid significantly induced biofilm formation by a 20.7-27.3% increase and therefore biofilm formation genes expression. The results showed banana root exudates, in particular the OAs released, play a crucial role in attracting and initiating PGPR colonization on the host roots.
Project description:The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, protects the host plant from pathogen invasion and promotes plant growth through efficient root colonization. The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been suggested to contribute to the plant-growth-promoting effect of Bacillus strains. The possible IAA synthetic pathways in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 were investigated in this study, using a combination of chemical and genetic analysis.Gene candidates involved in tryptophan-dependent IAA synthesis were identified through tryptophan response transcriptional analysis, and inactivation of genes ysnE, dhaS, yclC, and yhcX in SQR9 led to 86, 77, 55, and 24 % reductions of the IAA production, respectively. The genes patB (encoding a conserved hypothetical protein predicted to be an aminotransferase), yclC (encoding a UbiD family decarboxylase), and dhaS (encoding indole 3-acetaldehyde dehydrogenase), which were proposed to constitute the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway for IAA biosynthesis, were separately expressed in SQR9 or co-expressed as an entire IAA synthesis pathway cluster in SQR9 and B. subtilis 168, all these recombinants showed increased IAA production. These results suggested that gene products of dhaS, patB, yclB, yclC, yhcX and ysnE were involved in IAA biosynthesis. Genes patB, yclC and dhaS constitute a potential complete IPyA pathway of IAA biosynthesis in SQR9.In conclusion, biosynthesis of IAA in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 occurs through multiple pathways.
Project description:Drought stress is a major obstacle to agriculture. Although many studies have reported on plant drought tolerance achieved via genetic modification, application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to achieve tolerance has rarely been studied. In this study, the ability of three isolates, including Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 54, from 30 potential PGPR to induce drought tolerance in tomato plants was examined via greenhouse screening. The results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 54 significantly enhanced drought tolerance by increasing survival rate, relative water content and root vigor. Coordinated changes were also observed in cellular defense responses, including decreased concentration of malondialdehyde and elevated concentration of antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, expression levels of stress-responsive genes, such as lea, tdi65, and ltpg2, increased in B. amyloliquefaciens 54-treated plants. In addition, B. amyloliquefaciens 54 induced stomatal closure through an abscisic acid-regulated pathway. Furthermore, we constructed biofilm formation mutants and determined the role of biofilm formation in B. amyloliquefaciens 54-induced drought tolerance. The results showed that biofilm-forming ability was positively correlated with plant root colonization. Moreover, plants inoculated with hyper-robust biofilm (?abrB and ?ywcC) mutants were better able to resist drought stress, while defective biofilm (?epsA-O and ?tasA) mutants were more vulnerable to drought stress. Taken altogether, these results suggest that biofilm formation is crucial to B. amyloliquefaciens 54 root colonization and drought tolerance in tomato plants.
Project description:Rhizosphere colonization by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) along plant roots facilitates the ability of PGPR to promote plant growth and health. Thus, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the root colonization process by plant-beneficial Bacillus strains is essential for the use of these strains in agriculture. Here, we observed that an sfp gene mutant of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus velezensis SQR9 was unable to form normal biofilm architecture, and differential protein expression was observed by proteomic analysis. A minor wall teichoic acid (WTA) biosynthetic protein, GgaA, was decreased over 4-fold in the ?sfp mutant, and impairment of the ggaA gene postponed biofilm formation and decreased cucumber root colonization capabilities. In addition, we provide evidence that the major WTA biosynthetic enzyme GtaB is involved in both biofilm formation and root colonization. The deficiency in biofilm formation of the ?gtaB mutant may be due to an absence of UDP-glucose, which is necessary for the synthesis of biofilm matrix exopolysaccharides (EPS). These observations provide insights into the root colonization process by a plant-beneficial Bacillus strain, which will help improve its application as a biofertilizer.IMPORTANCE Bacillus velezensis is a Gram-positive plant-beneficial bacterium which is widely used in agriculture. Additionally, Bacillus spp. are some of the model organisms used in the study of biofilms, and as such, the molecular networks and regulation systems of biofilm formation are well characterized. However, the molecular processes involved in root colonization by plant-beneficial Bacillus strains remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that WTAs play important roles in the plant root colonization process. The loss of the gtaB gene affects the ability of B. velezensis SQR9 to sense plant polysaccharides, which are important environmental cues that trigger biofilm formation and colonization in the rhizosphere. This knowledge provides new insights into the Bacillus root colonization process and can help improve our understanding of plant-rhizobacterium interactions.
Project description:Plants have developed a wide-range of adaptations to overcome nutrient limitation, including changes to the quantity and composition of carbon-containing compounds released by roots. Root-associated bacteria are largely influenced by these compounds which can be perceived as signals or substrates. Here, we evaluate the effect of root exudates collected from maize plants grown under nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), iron (Fe) and potassium (K) deficiencies on the transcriptome of the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. The largest shifts in gene expression patterns were observed in cells exposed to exudates from N-, followed by P-deficient plants. Exudates from N-deprived maize triggered a general stress response in FZB42 in the exponential growth phase, which was evidenced by the suppression of numerous genes involved in protein synthesis. Exudates from P-deficient plants induced bacterial genes involved in chemotaxis and motility whilst exudates released by Fe and K deficient plants did not cause dramatic changes in the bacterial transcriptome during exponential growth phase. Global transcriptional changes in bacteria elicited by nutrient deficient maize exudates were significantly correlated with concentrations of the amino acids aspartate, valine and glutamate in root exudates suggesting that transcriptional profiling of FZB42 associated with metabolomics of N, P, Fe and K-deficient maize root exudates is a powerful approach to better understand plant-microbe interactions under conditions of nutritional stress.
Project description:Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are associated with plant roots and use organic compounds that are secreted from root exudates as food and energy source. Root exudates can chemoattract and help bacteria to colonize the surface of plant roots by inducing chemotactic responses of rhizospheric bacteria. In this study, we show that root colonization of Brachypodium distachyon by Bacillus velezensis strain B26 depends on several factors. These include root exudates, organic acids, and their biosynthetic genes, chemotaxis, biofilm formation and the induction of biofilm encoding genes. Analysis of root exudates by GC-MS identified five intermediates of the TCA cycle; malic, fumaric, citric, succinic, oxaloacetic acids, and were subsequently evaluated. The strongest chemotactic responses were induced by malic, succinic, citric, and fumaric acids. In comparison, the biofilm formation was induced by all organic acids with maximal induction by citric acid. Relative to the control, the individual organic acids, succinic and citric acids activated the epsD gene related to EPS biofilm, and also the genes encoding membrane protein (yqXM) and hydrophobin component (bslA) of the biofilm of strain B26. Whereas epsA and epsB genes were highly induced genes by succinic acid. Similarly, concentrated exudates released from inoculated roots after 48 h post-inoculation also induced all biofilm-associated genes. The addition of strain B26 to wild type and to icdh mutant line led to a slight induction but not biologically significant relative to their respective controls. Thus, B26 has no effect on the expression of the ICDH gene, both in the wild type and the mutant backgrounds. Our results indicate that root exudates and individual organic acids play an important role in selective recruitment and colonization of PGPR and inducing biofilm. The current study increases the understanding of molecular mechanisms behind biofilm induction by organic acids.
Project description:Consumption of heavy metals, especially lead (Pb) contaminated food is a serious threat to human health. Higher Pb uptake by the plant affects the quality, growth and yield of crops. However, inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) along with a mixture of organic amendments and biochar could be an effective way to overcome the problem of Pb toxicity. That's why current pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of compost mixed biochar (CB) and ACC deaminase producing PGPR on growth and yield of spinach plants under artificially induced Pb toxicity. Six different treatments i.e., control, Alcaligenes faecalis (PGPR1), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (PGPR2), compost?+?biochar (CB), PGPR1?+?CB and PGPR2?+?CB were applied under 250 mg Pb kg-1 soil. Results showed that inoculation of PGPRs (Alcaligenes faecalis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) alone and along with CB significantly enhanced root fresh (47%) and dry weight (31%), potassium concentration (11%) in the spinach plant. Whereas, CB?+?Bacillus amyloliquefaciens significantly decreased (43%) the concentration of Pb in the spinach root over control. In conclusion, CB?+?Bacillus amyloliquefaciens has the potential to mitigate the Pb induced toxicity in the spinach. The obtained result can be further used in the planning and execution of rhizobacteria and compost mixed biochar-based soil amendment.
Project description:Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) of the genus Bacillus are successfully used as biofertilizers and biopesticides. They potentially can reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture as an ecologically safe alternative, but to optimize the application of PGPR, more profound knowledge on specific gene regulation and molecular mechanisms of interaction with plants is needed. Advance in sequencing technologies made it affordable to compare transcriptom profiles of relative organisms to check to which extend PGPR strains or closely related species differ in their strategies of plant colonization. This work aimed at analysis of gene regulation in a biotechnological strain Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 to compare it with the gene expression profile of a generally recognized PGPR strain B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42. It was found out that despite the close taxonomic relatedness, these two organisms developed ability to colonize plants independently and use different strategies of plant colonization. Root exudate has triggered in UCMB-5137 alteration in expression in many genes controlled by stress response transcription factors (TF) SigB and SigD, while SigF, SigH, SigW, CcpA and several other TFs regulated genes associated with quorum sensing and biofilm formation, and adjusted the carbohydrate metabolism. Counting to peculiarities of gene regulation in different PGPR strains will allow optimization of their practical application. Overall design: Examination of 2 experimental samples grown on liquid medium with maize root exudate and 3 control samples
Project description:Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion through efficient root colonization. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus, the response regulator DegU regulates genetic competence, swarming motility, biofilm formation, complex colony architecture, and protease production. In this study, we report that stepwise phosphorylation of DegU in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can influence biocontrol activity by coordinating multicellular behavior and regulating the synthesis of antibiotics. Results from in vitro and in situ experiments and quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies demonstrate the following: (i) that the lowest level of phosphorylated DegU (DegU?P) (the degQ mutation) impairs complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, and biocontrol efficiency of Fusarium wilt disease but increases the production of macrolactin and bacillaene, and (ii) that increasing the level of DegU?P by degQ and degSU overexpression significantly improves complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, production of the antibiotics bacillomycin D and difficidin, and efficiency of biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease. The results offer a new strategy to enhance the biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9.