Structural Characterization and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Astragalus taipaishanensis and Their Structure-Activity Relationship.
ABSTRACT: Eight phenolic compounds were isolated using bio-guided isolation and purified from the roots of Astragalus taipaishanensis Y. C. Ho et S. B. Ho (A. taipaishanensis) for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR as 7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxy isoflavan (1), formononetin (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), quercetin (4), kaempferol (5), ononin (6), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (7) and vanillic acid (8). Six flavonoids (compounds 1-6) exhibited stronger antioxidant activities (determined by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays) than those of BHA and TBHQ and also demonstrated noticeable protective effects (particularly quercetin and kaempferol) on Escherichia coli under oxidative stress. Additionally, the chemical constituents compared with those of Astragalus membranaceus and the structure-activity relationship of the isolated compounds were both analyzed. The results clearly demonstrated that A. taipaishanensis has the potential to be selected as an alternative medicinal and food plant that can be utilized in health food products, functional tea and pharmaceutical products.
Project description:A validated HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) method for the analysis of non-anthocyanin flavonoids was applied to nine different tissues of twelve lotus genotypes of Nelumbo nucifera and N. lutea, together with an optimized anthocyanin extraction and separation protocol for lotus petals. A total of five anthocyanins and twenty non-anthocyanin flavonoids was identified and quantified. Flavonoid contents and compositions varied with cultivar and tissue and were used as a basis to divide tissues into three groups characterized by kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. Influences on flower petal coloration were investigated by principal components analyses. High contents of kaempferol glycosides were detected in the petals of N. nucifera while high quercetin glycoside concentrations occurred in N. lutea. Based on these results, biosynthetic pathways leading to specific compounds in lotus tissues are deduced through metabolomic analysis of different genotypes and tissues and correlations among flavonoid compounds.
Project description:In this report, we presented the profile of polyphenolic substances in flowers, leaves, stalk and roots of Fagopyrum tataricum estimated by using RP-UHPLC-ESI-MS equipment (reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry). The neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose were also determined. Flowers, leaves, stalk and roots showed varying levels of dietary fibre and polyphenols. The highest content of neutral and acid detergent fibre were found in the roots (63.92 and 45.45% d.m., respectively) while the most rich in phenolic compounds were flowers (4.8 mg/1 g d.m.). Root and stalk contained the highest level of cellulose, 38.70 and 25.57% d.m., respectively. Among the investigated polyphenolic substances such as: 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydrobenzoic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, fagopyrin, ferulic acid, myricetin, gallic acid, isovanilic acid, isovitexin, kaempferol, luteolin, p-coumaric acid, procyanidin B2, quercetin, quercetin 3-D galactoside, rutin, syringic acid and vitexin, we observed that the contents of rutin and chlorogenic acid were the highest. We found some correlation between dietary fibre fractions and individual phenolic substances. The levels of acid detergent fibre (ADF), cellulose and hemicellulose were negatively correlated with isovitexin, kaempferol, vitexin, fagopyrin, caffeic acid and procyanidin B2 content. In this investigation, two solvents (water and methanol) were estimated regarding their extraction efficiency of phenolic compounds. Taking these results into consideration, we recommend using methanol as the extractor to isolate chlorogenic acid, fagopyrin, kaempferol, procyanidin B2, quercetin, quercetin 3-D-galactoside, rutin, vitexin, and water for other investigated polyphenolic substances obtained from Fagopyrum tataricum.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut), as a food product is known for its various nutrients and functional values to the human health. The present study was carried out to analyze the anti-diabetic complications and anti-cancer activities of the bioactive compounds present in C. mollissima. METHODS: The kernels (CK), shells (CS) and involucres (CI) parts of C. Blume were extracted with 90% alcohol. The water suspension of these dried alcohol extracts were extracted using EtOAc and n-BuOH successively. The n-BuOH fraction of CI (CI-B) was isolated by silica gel column, Sephadex LH 20 column and preparative HPLC. The isolated compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMBC, HMQC and ESI-Q-TOF MS, All the fractions and compounds isolated were evaluated on human recombinant aldose reductase (HR-AR) assay, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation assay and human COLO 320 DM colon cancer cells inhibitory assay. RESULTS: CI-B was found to show a significant inhibitory effect in above biological screenings. Six flavonoids and three polyphenolic acids were obtained from CI-B. They were identified as kaempferol (1), kaempferol-3-O-[6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3-O-[6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-?-D-galactopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-[2''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-?-D-glucopyranoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-[2", 6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-?-D-glucopyranoside (5) and kaempferol-3-O-[2", 6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-?-D-galactopyranoside (6), casuariin (7), casuarinin (8) and castalagin (9). Compounds 2-9 were found to show higher activity than quercetin (positive control) in the AR assay. Compounds 3-6, 8, and 9 showed stronger inhibitory effects than amino guanidine (positive control) on AGEs production. Compounds 4-6, 7, and 8 showed much higher cytotoxic activity than 5-fluorouracil (positive control) against the human COLO 320 DM colon cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that flavonoids and polyphenolic acids possesses anti-diabetes complications and anti-cancer properties, and they were presumed to be the bioactive components of Castanea mollissima Blume.
Project description:Transcriptional activation of the human CYP1A1 gene (coding for cytochrome P450 1A1) is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the present study we have examined the effect of the common dietary polyphenolic compounds quercetin and kaempferol on the transcription of CYP1A1 and the function of the AhR in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Quercetin caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the amount of CYP1A1 mRNA and CYP1A1 enzyme activity in MCF-7 cells. The increase in CYP1A1 mRNA caused by quercetin was prevented by the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D. Quercetin also caused an increase in the transcription of a chloramphenicol reporter vector containing the CYP1A1 promoter. Quercetin failed to induce CYP1A1 enzyme activity in AhR-deficient MCF-7 cells. Gel retardation studies demonstrated that quercetin activated the ability of the AhR to bind to an oligonucleotide containing the xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE) of the CYP1A1 promoter. These results indicate that quercetin's effect is mediated by the AhR. Kaempferol did not affect CYP1A1 expression by itself but it inhibited the transcription of CYP1A1 induced by the prototypical AhR ligand 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), as measured by a decrease in TCDD-induced CYP1A1 promoter-driven reporter vector activity, and CYP1A1 mRNA in cells. Kaempferol also abolished TCDD-induced XRE binding in a gel-shift assay. Both compounds were able to compete with TCDD for binding to a cytosolic extract of MCF-7 cells. Known ligands of the AhR are, for the most part, man-made compounds such as halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These results demonstrate that the dietary flavonols quercetin and kaempferol are natural, dietary ligands of the AhR that exert different effects on CYP1A1 transcription.
Project description:Ventilago denticulata is an herbal medicine for the treatment of wound infection; therefore this plant may rich in antibacterial agents. UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS-Based molecular networking guided isolation and dereplication led to the identification of antibacterial and antifungal agents in V. denticulata. Nine antimicrobial agents in V. denticulata were isolated and characterized; they are divided into four groups including (I) flavonoid glycosides, rhamnazin 3-rhamninoside (7), catharticin or rhamnocitrin 3-rhamninoside (8), xanthorhamnin B or rhamnetin 3-rhamninoside (9), kaempferol 3-rhamninoside (10) and flavovilloside or quercetin 3-rhamninoside (11), (II) benzisochromanquinone, ventilatones B (12) and A (15), (III) a naphthopyrone ventilatone C (16) and (IV) a triterpene lupeol (13). Among the isolated compounds, ventilatone C (16) was a new compound. Moreover, kaempferol, chrysoeriol, isopimpinellin, rhamnetin, luteolin, emodin, rhamnocitrin, ventilagodenin A, rhamnazin and mukurozidiol, were tentatively identified as antimicrobial compounds in extracts of V. denticulata by a dereplication method. MS fragmentation of rhamnose-containing compounds gave an oxonium ion, C6H9O3+ at m/z 129, while that of galactose-containing glycosides provided the fragment ion at m/z 163 of C6H11O5+. These fragment ions may be used to confirm the presence of rhamnose or galactose in mass spectrometry-based analysis of natural glycosides or oligosaccharide attached to biomolecules, that is, glycoproteins.
Project description:The flowering process has been reported to play crucial roles in improving the flavor and efficacy of fermented tea. <i>Hippophae rhamnoides</i> leaves containing many beneficial ingredients are a suitable plant source for tea processing. In this study, we isolated a ?-glucosidase-producing fungus <i>Eurotium amstelodami</i> BSX001 from the fermented tea and used <i>Hippophae rhamnoides</i> leaves (HRL) as a substrate to explore the detailed process of bioconversion of some important functional factors. The results show that the contents of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids increased significantly after seven days, especially flavonoid aglycones (e.g., quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin). Such compounds greatly enhance the antioxidative activity of fermented products. Metabolic analysis of the standard compounds (rutin, quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, quercetin, isorhamnetin-3-glucoside, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol) further confirmed the effective biotransformation by <i>E. amstelodami</i>. Mechanisms of the bioconversion could be involved in deglycosylation, dihydroxylation, and O-methylation. Our findings expand the understanding of tea fermentation process and provide further guidance for the fermented tea industry.
Project description:Attack by herbivores is a major biotic stress limiting the soybean crop production. Plant defenses against caterpillars include the production of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, which constitute a diverse group of plant secondary metabolites. Thus, a more discriminate metabolic profiling between genotypes are important for a more comprehensive and reliable characterization of soybean resistance. Therefore, in this study a non-targeted LC/MS-based for analysis of flavonoid profiles of soybean genotypes contrasting to the resistance to A. gemmatalis was applied. Clustering analysis revealed profiles highly distinct between the susceptible UFV 105 AP and the resistant IAC 17 genotypes. This comparative approach enables to identify directly from leaf extract some new compounds related to resistance, some of which were present in higher abundance specifically in the IAC 17 genotype: four Quercetin conjugates, Rutin (Quercetin 3-O-Rutinoside), Quercetin-3,7-O- di-glucoside, Quercetin-3-O-rhamnosylglycoside-7-O-glucoside and Quercetin-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-glucopyranoside-rhamnopyranoside; two Genistein conjugates, Genistein-7-O-diglucoside-dimalonylated and Genistein-7-O-6-O-malonylglucoside; and one Daidzein conjugate, Daidzein-7-O-Glucoside-malonate. The most abundant flavonoid glycoconjugates in soybean leaves belongs to Quercetin and Kaempferol classes. However, only one from the identified compounds was classified as a Kaempferol. The Kaempferol-3-O-L-rhamnopyranosyl-glucopyranoside showed high abundance in the resistant genotype IAC 17. The metabolic profiles generated by LC/MS allowed the reconstruction of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways, which revealed a constitutive character for herbivory resistance in the resistant genotype IAC-17 and a metabolic regulation for the rechanneling of Quercetin, Kaempferol and Genistein conjugates in soybean. Highest relative abundances were detected for glyconjugates, such as Rutin, Quercetin 3-O-rhamnosylglycoside-7-O-glucoside and Quercitin-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-glucopyranoside-rhamnopyranoside in the leaves of the resistant genotype.
Project description:Four flavonoids including apigenin-7,4'-dimethylether, genkwanin, quercetin, and kaempferol were isolated in a preparative or semi-preparative scale from the leaves of wild Aquilaria sinensis using an improved preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography apparatus. The separations were performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate, methanol-water at suitable volume ratios. The obtained fractions were analyzed by HPLC, and the identification of each target compound was carried out by ESI-MS and NMR. The yields of the above four target flavonoids were 4.7, 10.0, 11.0 and 4.4%, respectively. All these four flavonoids exhibited nitrite scavenging activities with the clearance rate of 12.40 ± 0.20%, 5.84 ± 0.03%, 28.10 ± 0.17% and 5.19 ± 0.11%, respectively. Quercetin was originally isolated from the Thymelaeaceae family, while kaempferol was isolated from the Aquilaria genus for the first time. In cytotoxicity test these two flavonoids exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against HepG2 cells with the IC50 values of 12.54 ± 1.37 and 38.63 ± 4.05 ?M, respectively.
Project description:Owing to overexploitation, wild resources of Astragalus mongolica, a Chinese herbal plant that is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid areas of Northern China, have gradually become exhausted, and therefore, commercial cultivation is increasingly important to meet the growing demand for astragalus and reduce the pressure on wild populations. Nitrogen level is an important factor that affects the yield and quality of A. mongolica. However, uniform standards for fertilization among production areas have not yet been determined. In this study, the effect of nitrogen fertilizer treatment on the yield and quality of A. mongolica in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was explored using a control treatment (no added nitrogen, N0) and five different nutrient levels: 37.5 kg/ha (N1), 75 kg/ha (N2), 112.5 kg/ha (N3), 150 kg/ha (N4), and 187.5 kg/ha (N5). According to grey relational analysis, the optimal nitrogen fertilizer treatment was the N4 level followed by the N5 and N2 levels. Nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased the root biomass, plant height, root length, and root diameter. However, nitrogen fertilization had no significant effect on the content of Astragaloside IV and mullein isoflavone glucoside. The content of ononin and calycosin continually accumulated throughout the growing period. The results showed that the ononin and calycosin content under N4 and N2 is higher than other levels and there is not significantly different between different nitrogen fertilizer levels about them. The content of formononetin decreased gradually with the progression of the growing season. The optimal nitrogen fertilizer treatment for A. mongolica is recommended to be 150 kg/ha and the content of active compounds and yield were observed to reach the maximum in October.
Project description:Backgroud:Rhododendron przewalskii Maxim. is an evergreen shrub that is used as a traditional medicine in China. However, the modern pharmacology and the chemical components of this plant has not been studied. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and underlying mechanism of its aqueous and ethanol extracts, and analyze their chemical composition and active compounds of R. przewalskii. Methods: The antifungal activity was determined in vitro, and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and underlying mechanism of its aqueous and ethanol extracts were evaluated in vitro and in RAW 264.7 cells. The chemical composition were analyzed using UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS, and the contents of six compounds were determined via HPLC. Results: Both extracts of R. przewalskii showed promising anti-inflammatory activity in vitro; decreased the production of four inflammatory cytokines, namely, nitric oxide, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?, in RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide; and exhibited weak cytotoxicity. The extracts significantly scavenged DPPH radicals, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals to exert antioxidant effects in vitro. The two extracts also exhibited cellular antioxidant activity by increasing superoxide dismutase and CAT activities and decreasing malondialdehyde content in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS. However, the antifungal activity of the two extracts was weak. Nine flavonoids were identified by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS. Of these, six compounds were analyzed quantitatively, including avicularin, quercetin, azaleatin, astragalin and kaempferol, and five compounds (myricetin 3-O-galactoside, paeoniflorin, astragalin, azaleatin and kaempferol) were found in this species for the first time. These compounds demonstrated antioxidant activities that were similar to those of the R. przewalskii extracts and were thought to be the active compounds in the extracts. Conclusion:R. przewalskii extracts presented promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The extracts contained amounts of valuable flavonoids (8.98 mg/g fresh material) that were likely the active compounds in the extract contributing to the potential antioxidant activity. These results highlight the potential of R. przewalskii as a source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents for the pharmaceutical industry.