Development and Characterization of a Novel in vitro Progression Model for UVB-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest ultraviolet B (UVB) component (290-320 nm) of sun light is the most prevalent etiologic factor for skin carcinogenesis--a disease accounting for more than two million new cases each year in the USA alone. Development of UVB-induced skin carcinoma is a multistep and complex process. The molecular events that occur during UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis are poorly understood largely due to the lack of an appropriate cellular model system. Therefore, to make a progress in this area, we have developed an in vitro model for UVB-induced skin cancer using immortalized human epidermal keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells through repetitive exposure to UVB radiation. We demonstrate that UVB-transformed HaCaT cells gain enhanced proliferation rate, apoptosis-resistance, and colony- and sphere-forming abilities in a progressive manner. Moreover, these cells exhibit increased aggressiveness with enhanced migration and invasive potential and mesenchymal phenotypes. Furthermore, these derived cells are able to form aggressive squamous cell carcinoma upon inoculation into the nude mice, while parental HaCaT cells remain non-tumorigenic. Together, these novel, UVB-transformed progression model cell lines can be very helpful in gaining valuable mechanistic insight into UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis, identification of novel molecular targets of diagnostic and therapeutic significance, and in vitro screening for novel preventive and therapeutic agents.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation from the sun is an established etiological cause of skin cancer, which afflicts more than a million lives each year in the United States alone. Here, we tested the chemopreventive efficacy of silver-nanoparticles (AgNPs) against UVB-irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). AgNPs were synthesized by reduction-chemistry and characterized for their physicochemical properties. AgNPs were well tolerated by HaCaT cells and their pretreatment protected them from UVB-irradiation-induced apoptosis along with significant reduction in cyclobutane-pyrimidine-dimer formation. Moreover, AgNPs pre-treatment led to G1-phase cell-cycle arrest in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. AgNPs were efficiently internalized in UVB-irradiated cells and localized into cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Furthermore, we observed an altered expression of various genes involved in cell-cycle, apoptosis and nucleotide-excision repair in HaCaT cells treated with AgNPs prior to UVB-irradiation. Together, these findings provide support for potential utility of AgNPs as novel chemopreventive agents against UVB-irradiation-induced skin carcinogenesis. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR:Excessive exposure to the sun is known to increase the risk of skin cancer due to DNA damage. In this work, the authors tested the use of silver nanoparticles as protective agents against ultraviolet radiation. The positive results may open a door for the use of silver nanoparticle as novel agents in the future.
Project description:1,8-cineole is a natural monoterpene cyclic ether present in Eucalyptus, and has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, the preventive effect of 1,8-cineole on skin carcinogenesis and the molecular mechanism of action responsible remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 1,8-cineole on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. 1,8-cineole inhibited UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) generation in HaCaT cells. 1,8-cineole also inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and phosphorylation of its upstream kinases, c-Src and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) assay results showed that 1,8-cineole suppressed UVB-induced expression of a target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), cyp1a1, and directly binds to AhR. Knockdown of AhR suppressed COX-2 expression as well as phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, topical treatment of 1,8-cineole on mouse skin delayed tumor incidence and reduced tumor numbers, while inhibiting COX-2 expression in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that 1,8-cineole is a potent chemopreventive agent that inhibits UVB-induced COX-2 expression by targeting AhR to suppress UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis.
Project description:Sunscreen formulations containing UVB filters, such as Zinc-oxide (ZnO) and titanium-dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to limit the exposure of human skin to UV-radiations. Unfortunately, these UVB protective agents have failed in controlling the skin cancer incidence. We recently demonstrated that silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) could serve as novel protective agents against UVB-radiations. Here our goal was to perform comparative analysis of direct and indirect UVB-protection efficacy of ZnO-, TiO2- and Ag-NPs. Sun-protection-factor calculated based on their UVB-reflective/absorption abilities was the highest for TiO2-NPs followed by Ag- and ZnO-NPs. This was further confirmed by studying indirect protection of UVB radiation-induced death of HaCaT cells. However, only Ag-NPs were active in protecting HaCaT cells against direct UVB-induced DNA-damage by repairing bulky-DNA lesions through nucleotide-excision-repair mechanism. Moreover, Ag-NPs were also effective in protecting HaCaT cells from UVB-induced oxidative DNA damage by enhancing SOD/CAT/GPx activity. In contrast, ZnO- and TiO2-NPs not only failed in providing any direct protection from DNA-damage, but rather enhanced oxidative DNA-damage by increasing ROS production. Together, these findings raise concerns about safety of ZnO- and TiO2-NPs and establish superior protective efficacy of Ag-NPs.
Project description:Penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (PGG) is a gallotannin polyphenolic compound that occurs naturally in fermented Rhus verniciflua. The present study aimed to examine the effect of PGG on UVB-induced skin aging and its molecular mechanisms in HaCaT human keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice models. PGG suppressed UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in HaCaT cells by inhibiting phosphorylation of RAF/MEK/ERK, MKK3/6/p38, and c-Jun. UVB-induced ERK and p38 signaling pathways that induce the MMP-1 expression were mediated by PAK1 in HaCaT cells. PGG suppressed PAK1 and JNK1 kinase activities, and directly bound both PAK1 in an ATP-competitive manner and JNK1 in an ATP-noncompetitive manner. Consistently, PGG decreased UVB-induced wrinkle formation, epidermal thickness, type 1 collagen and MMP-13 expression in mouse skin. Overall, these results indicate that PGG exhibits anti-photoaging effects in vitro and in vivo by the suppression of PAK1 and JNK1 kinase activities, and may be useful for the prevention of skin aging.
Project description:The present study was aimed to investigate the photoprotective effect of the male flower of J. regia L. (MEJR) against ultraviolet-B induced apoptosis in human skin cells. Human skin epidermal keratinocytes were pretreated with the MEJR (80 µg/ml, has been selected after MTT assay), prior to 30 min UVB-irradiation at a dose of 20 mJ/cm2. Mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using Rhodamine-123 staining; the % apoptosis by Hoechst staining and acridine orange staining; DNA damage was measured by comet assay. The levels of p53, Bax, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Cytochrome c, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 expression in HaCaT cells were analyzed by western blotting and RT-PCR. Pretreatment with MEJR 80 µg/ml prior to UVB-irradiation significantly prevents apoptotic characteristics, DNA damage and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Thus, MEJR protects UVB-mediated human skin cells, by modulating the expression of apoptotic markers and UVB-induced DNA damage in HaCaT cells.
Project description:Recent studies show that IL-22, a cytokine produced by activated CD4+ T cells and NK cells, plays a pathogenic role in acute and chronic skin diseases. While IL-22 is produced by immune cells, the expression of IL-22R?, the functional subunit of IL-22R, is mostly restricted to non-hematopoietic cells in organs such as the skin and pancreas. Although it is well known that ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces skin inflammation, there have been no reports regarding the effect of UVB on the expression of IL-22R?. This study investigated IL-22R? expression and IL-22-mediated proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production by UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. IL-22R? was increased in HaCaT and primary human keratinocytes after UVB irradiation through the translocation of IL-22R? from the cytosol to the membrane. This increase in the expression of IL-22R? was mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway. Moreover, the suppression of keratinocyte proliferation by UVB irradiation was inhibited by treatment with IL-22. At the same time, IL-22 increased the production of IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-18 in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells and primary human keratinocytes. Finally, IL-22R? expression was increased in UVB-irradiated human and mouse skin by immunohistochemistry. The increased expression of IL-22R? therefore promotes keratinocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production during UVB-induced skin inflammation, suggesting that UVB facilitates skin inflammation by increasing the responsiveness of keratinocytes to IL-22. This study provides a new insight into UVB-induced skin inflammation and the regulation of related inflammatory skin diseases.
Project description:UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the sole enzyme that can metabolize bilirubin. Human infants physiologically develop hyperbilirubinemia as the result of inadequate expression of UGT1A1 in the liver. Although phototherapy using blue light is effective in preventing jaundice, sunlight has also been suggested, but without conclusive evidence, to reduce serum bilirubin levels. We investigated the mRNA expression pattern of human UGT1A1 in human skin, human skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, and skin of humanized UGT1 mice. The effects of UVB irradiation on the expression of UGT1A1 in the HaCaT cells were also examined. Multiple UGT1A isoforms, including UGT1A1, were expressed in human skin and HaCaT cells. When HaCaT cells were treated with UVB-exposed tryptophan, UGT1A1 mRNA and activity were significantly induced. Treatment of the HaCaT cells with 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole, which is one of the tryptophan derivatives formed by UVB, resulted in an induction of UGT1A1 mRNA and activity. In neonates, the expression of UGT1A1 was greater in the skin; in adults, UGT1A1 was expressed mainly in the liver. Treatment of humanized UGT1 mice with UVB resulted in a reduction of serum bilirubin levels, along with increased UGT1A1 expression and activity in the skin. Our data revealed a protective role of UGT1A1 expressed in the skin against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Sunlight, a natural and free source of light, makes it possible to treat neonatal jaundice while allowing mothers to breast-feed neonates.
Project description:In the present study, we aimed to examine the antioxidant, antiaging and photoprotective properties of Greek honey samples of various botanical and geographical origin. Ethyl-acetate extracts were used and the and the total phenolic/flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Honey extracts were then studied for their cytoprotective properties against UVB-induced photodamage using human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) and/or reconstituted human skin tissue models. Specifically, the cytotoxicity, oxidative status, DNA damage and gene expression levels of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were examined. Overall, the treatment of HaCaT cells with honey extracts resulted in lower levels of DNA strand breaks and attenuated the decrease in cell viability following UVB exposure. Additionally, honey extracts significantly decreased the total protein carbonyl content of the irradiated cells, however, they had no significant effect on their total antioxidant status. Finally, the extracts alleviated the UVB-induced up-regulation of MMPs-3, -7 and -9 in a model of reconstituted skin tissue. In conclusion, honey extracts exhibited significant photoprotective and antiaging properties under UVB exposure conditions and thus could be further exploited as promising agents for developing novel and naturally-based, antiaging cosmeceutical products.
Project description:Extracts of the cherry blossom plant have been reported to exert various biological effects on human cells. However, no previous investigations have examined the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of these extracts on ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced skin aging. This study explores the underlying mechanisms of the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of cherry blossom extract (CBE) in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. HaCaT cells were treated with CBE at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% for 24 h and then irradiated with UVB (40 mJ/cm<sup>2</sup>). CBE effectively and dose-dependently decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, while increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Pretreatment with 1 and 2% CBE attenuated UVB-induced DNA damage by reducing the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine. Furthermore, CBE also prevented UVB-induced apoptosis and significantly downregulated B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X, cytochrome-c, and caspase-3 expression, while upregulating Bcl-2 expression. Taken together, these results indicate that CBE protects HaCaT cells from UVB-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis and suggest that CBE could be a potent antioxidant against skin aging.
Project description:Microalgae represent a source of bio-active compounds such as carotenoids with potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We aimed to investigate the effects of fucoxanthin (FX) in both in vitro and in vivo skin models. Firstly, its anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages and TNF-α-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes, and its antioxidant activity in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Next, in vitro and ex vivo permeation studies were developed to determine the most suitable formulation for in vivo FX topical application. Then, we evaluated the effects of a FX-containing cream on TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia in mice, as well as on UVB-induced acute erythema in hairless mice. Our results confirmed the in vitro reduction of TNF-α, IL-6, ROS and LDH production. Since the permeation results showed that cream was the most favourable vehicle, FX-cream was elaborated. This formulation effectively ameliorated TPA-induced hyperplasia, by reducing skin edema, epidermal thickness, MPO activity and COX-2 expression. Moreover, FX-cream reduced UVB-induced erythema through down-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS as well as up-regulation of HO-1 protein via Nrf-2 pathway. In conclusion, FX, administered in a topical formulation, could be a novel natural adjuvant for preventing exacerbations associated with skin inflammatory pathologies as well as protecting skin against UV radiation.