Identification of transcripts regulated by CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) in primary embryonic cardiomyocytes by RNA-seq.
ABSTRACT: CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) is a multi-functional RNA binding protein that regulates pre-mRNA alternative splicing in the nucleus, as well as polyadenylation status, mRNA stability, and translation in the cytoplasm . Dysregulation of CELF1 has been implicated in cardiomyopathies in myotonic dystrophy type 1 and diabetes [2-5], but the targets of CELF1 regulation in the heart have not been systematically investigated. We previously demonstrated that in the developing heart CELF1 expression is restricted to the myocardium and peaks during embryogenesis [6-8]. To identify transcripts regulated by CELF1 in the embryonic myocardium, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptome of primary embryonic cardiomyocytes following siRNA-mediated knockdown of CELF1 to that of controls. Raw data files of the RNA-seq reads have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus  under the GEO Series accession number GSE67360. These data can be used to identify transcripts whose levels or alternative processing (i.e., alternative splicing or polyadenylation site usage) are regulated by CELF1, and should provide insight into the pathways and processes modulated by this important RNA binding protein during normal heart development and during cardiac pathogenesis.
Project description:CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) is a highly conserved RNA binding protein that regulates pre-mRNA alternative splicing, polyadenylation, mRNA stability, and translation. In the heart, CELF1 is expressed in the myocardium, where its levels are tightly regulated during development. CELF1 levels peak in the heart during embryogenesis, and aberrant up-regulation of CELF1 in the adult heart has been implicated in cardiac pathogenesis in myotonic dystrophy type 1, as well as in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Either inhibition of CELF activity or over-expression of CELF1 in heart muscle causes cardiomyopathy in transgenic mice. Nonetheless, many of the cardiac targets of CELF1 regulation remain unknown. In this study, to identify cardiac targets of CELF1 we performed cross-linking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) for CELF1 from embryonic day 8 chicken hearts. We identified a previously unannotated exon in MYH7B as a novel target of CELF1-mediated regulation. We demonstrated that knockdown of CELF1 in primary chicken embryonic cardiomyocytes leads to increased inclusion of this exon and decreased MYH7B levels. We also investigated global changes in the transcriptome of primary embryonic cardiomyocytes following CELF1 knockdown in a published RNA-seq dataset. Pathway and network analyses identified strong associations between CELF1 and regulation of cell cycle and translation. Important regulatory proteins, including both RNA binding proteins and a cardiac transcription factor, were affected by loss of CELF1. Together, these data suggest that CELF1 is a key regulator of cardiomyocyte gene expression.
Project description:The RNA binding protein Celf1 regulates alternative splicing in the nucleus and mRNA stability and translation in the cytoplasm. Celf1 is strongly down-regulated during mouse postnatal heart development. Its re-induction in adults induced severe heart failure and reversion to fetal splicing and gene expression patterns. However, the impact of Celf1 depletion on cardiac transcriptional and posttranscriptional dynamics in neonates has not been addressed. We found that homozygous Celf1 knock-out neonates exhibited cardiac dysfunction not observed in older homozygous animals, although homozygous mice are smaller than wild type littermates throughout development. RNA-sequencing of mRNA from homozygous neonatal hearts identified a network of cell cycle genes significantly up-regulated and down-regulation of ion transport and circadian genes. Cell cycle genes are enriched for Celf1 binding sites supporting a regulatory role in mRNA stability of these transcripts. We also identified a cardiac splicing network coordinated by Celf1 depletion. Target events contain multiple Celf1 binding sites and enrichment in GU-rich motifs. Identification of direct Celf1 targets will advance our knowledge in the mechanisms behind developmental networks regulated by Celf1 and diseases where Celf1 is mis-regulated.
Project description:Dysregulated alternative splicing (AS) that contributes to diabetes pathogenesis has been identified, but little is known about the RNA binding proteins (RBPs) involved. We have previously found that the RBP CELF1 is upregulated in the diabetic heart; however, it is unclear if CELF1 contributes to diabetes-induced AS changes. Utilizing genome wide approaches, we identified extensive changes in AS patterns in Type 1 diabetic (T1D) mouse hearts. We discovered that many aberrantly spliced genes in T1D hearts have CELF1 binding sites. CELF1-regulated AS affects key genes within signaling pathways relevant to diabetes pathogenesis. Disruption of CELF1 binding sites impairs AS regulation by CELF1. In sum, our results indicate that CELF1 target RNAs are aberrantly spliced in the T1D heart leading to abnormal gene expression. These discoveries pave the way for targeting RBPs and their RNA networks as novel therapies for cardiac complications of diabetes.
Project description:Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for regulating gene expression. Transcript 3' end shortening through changes in polyadenylation site usage occurs following T cell activation, but the consequences of APA on gene expression are poorly understood. We previously showed that GU-rich elements (GREs) found in the 3' untranslated regions of select transcripts mediate rapid mRNA decay by recruiting the protein CELF1/CUGBP1. Using a global RNA sequencing approach, we found that a network of CELF1 target transcripts involved in cell division underwent preferential 3' end shortening via APA following T cell activation, resulting in decreased inclusion of CELF1 binding sites and increased transcript expression. We present a model whereby CELF1 regulates APA site selection following T cell activation through reversible binding to nearby GRE sequences. These findings provide insight into the role of APA in controlling cellular proliferation during biological processes such as development, oncogenesis and T cell activation.
Project description:CUG-BP1/CELF1 is a multifunctional RNA-binding protein involved in the regulation of alternative splicing and translation. To elucidate its role in mammalian development, we produced mice in which the Cugbp1 gene was inactivated by homologous recombination. These Cugbp1(-/-) mice were viable, although a significant portion of them did not survive after the first few days of life. They displayed growth retardation, and most Cugbp1(-/-) males and females exhibited impaired fertility. Male infertility was more thoroughly investigated. Histological examination of testes from Cugbp1(-/-) males showed an arrest of spermatogenesis that occurred at step 7 of spermiogenesis, before spermatid elongation begins, and an increased apoptosis. A quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed a decrease of all the germ cell markers tested but not of Sertoli and Leydig markers, suggesting a general decrease in germ cell number. In wild-type testes, CUG-BP1 is expressed in germ cells from spermatogonia to round spermatids and also in Sertoli and Leydig cells. These findings demonstrate that CUG-BP1 is required for completion of spermatogenesis.
Project description:CUGBP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) is an RNA binding protein with important roles in the regulation of splicing, mRNA decay and translation. CELF1 contains three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs). We used gel retardation, gel filtration, isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR titration studies to investigate the recognition of RNA by the first two RRMs of CELF1. NMR shows that RRM1 is promiscuous in binding to both UGU and CUG repeat sequences with comparable chemical shift perturbations. In contrast, RRM2 shows greater selectivity for UGUU rather than CUG motifs. A construct (T187) containing both binding domains (RRM1 and RRM2) was systematically studied for interaction with tandem UGU RNA binding sites with different length linker sequences UGU(U)(x)UGU where x = 1-7. A single U spacer results in interactions only with RRM1, demonstrating both steric constraints in accommodating both RRMs simultaneously at adjacent sites, and also subtle differences in binding affinities between RRMs. However, high affinity co-operative binding (K(d)?~ 0.4 µM) is evident for RNA sequences with x = 2-4, but longer spacers (x ? 5) lead to a 10-fold reduction in affinity. Our analysis rationalizes the high affinity interaction of T187 with the 11mer GRE consensus regulatory sequence UGUUUGUUUGU and has significant consequences for the prediction of CELF1 binding sites.
Project description:The RNA binding protein CELF1 (also known as CUGBP1) is emerging as a critical regulator of cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, to provide a global prospective of CELF1 regulation of oral squamous cell carcinoma, we performed RNA-sequencing in oral cancer cells and CELF1 overexpression analysis in non-malignant human oral keratinocytes. Our approaches identified 1283 mRNAs differentially regulated as a function of CELF1 expression and more importantly CELF1 promoted alternative splicing of several target pre-mRNAs, which are known to be involved in various cancer biological processes. Overexpression of CELF1 in non-malignant human oral keratinocytes protected cells against oxidative damage and altered gene expression patterns. Finally, we provide evidence that reduction of CELF1 protein using a xenograft tumorigenesis mouse model decreased tumor growth. Altogether, these data provided a comprehensive view of the CELF1 mRNA regulatory network in oral cancer and suggests that CELF1 and/or its target mRNAs are viable candidates for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:The RNA binding protein Celf1 regulates alternative splicing in the nucleus and mRNA stability and translation in the cytoplasm. Celf1 is strongly down-regulated during mouse postnatal heart development. Its re-induction in adults induced severe heart failure and reversion to fetal splicing and gene expression patterns. However, the impact of Celf1 depletion on cardiac transcriptional and posttranscriptional dynamics in neonates has not been addressed. We found that homozygous Celf1 knock-out neonates exhibited cardiac dysfunction not observed in older homozygous animals, although homozygous mice are smaller than wild type littermates throughout development. RNA-sequencing of mRNA from homozygous neonatal hearts identified a network of cell cycle genes significantly up-regulated and down-regulation of ion transport and circadian genes. Cell cycle genes are enriched for Celf1 binding sites supporting a regulatory role in mRNA stability of these transcripts. We also identified a cardiac splicing network coordinated by Celf1 depletion. Target events contain multiple Celf1 binding sites and enrichment in GU-rich motifs. Identification of direct Celf1 targets will advance our knowledge in the mechanisms behind developmental networks regulated by Celf1 and diseases where Celf1 is mis-regulated. Overall design: RNA-seq was performed in RNA samples of cardiac ventricles at postnatal day 3 (PN3) and at postnatal day 38 (PN38) from wild type mice or Celf1 knock out mice (homozygous)
Project description:The CUG-BP and ETR-3-like factor 1 (Celf1) RNA binding protein plays an important role in heart and muscle development, and is over-expressed in the disease myotonic dystrophy. Celf1 has known roles in regulation of RNA splicing, RNA stability, and protein translation. To identify transcriptome-wide targets of the Celf1 protein in heart, we performed RNA-Seq of polyA+ RNA from mice inducibly expressing Celf1 in the heart. Mice were engineered to express the reverse tetracycline trans-activator (rtTA) from a heart-specific alpha myosin heavy chain promoter, and an N-terminal Flag-tagged version of the LYLQ isoform of human Celf1 from a tet-inducible promoter. Mice were fed doxycycline to induce Celf1 expression in heart, and hearts were harvested from 3 mice each at 12 hour, 24 hour, 72 hour, and 7 day time points. To account for potential doxycycline-dependent effects, control mice were fed doxycycline for 72 hours but these mice did not contain the tet-inducible Celf1 cassette. In total, 15 hearts were analyzed by RNA-Seq.