Associations of deceased donor kidney injury with kidney discard and function after transplantation.
ABSTRACT: Deceased donor kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) are often discarded due to fear of poor outcomes. We performed a multicenter study to determine associations of AKI (increasing admission-to-terminal serum creatinine by AKI Network stages) with kidney discard, delayed graft function (DGF) and 6-month estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In 1632 donors, kidney discard risk increased for AKI stages 1, 2 and 3 (compared to no AKI) with adjusted relative risks of 1.28 (1.08-1.52), 1.82 (1.45-2.30) and 2.74 (2.0-3.75), respectively. Adjusted relative risk for DGF also increased by donor AKI stage: 1.27 (1.09-1.49), 1.70 (1.37-2.12) and 2.25 (1.74-2.91), respectively. Six-month eGFR, however, was similar across AKI categories but was lower for recipients with DGF (48 [interquartile range: 31-61] vs. 58 [45-75] ml/min/1.73m(2) for no DGF, p?
Project description:Deceased donor kidneys with AKI are often discarded for fear of poor transplant outcomes. Donor biomarkers that predict post-transplant renal recovery could improve organ selection and reduce discard. We tested whether higher levels of donor urinary YKL-40, a repair phase protein, associate with improved recipient outcomes in a prospective cohort study involving deceased kidney donors from five organ procurement organizations. We measured urinary YKL-40 concentration in 1301 donors (111 had AKI, defined as doubling of serum creatinine) and ascertained outcomes in the corresponding 2435 recipients, 756 of whom experienced delayed graft function (DGF). Donors with AKI had higher urinary YKL-40 concentration (P<0.001) and acute tubular necrosis on procurement biopsies (P=0.05). In fully adjusted analyses, elevated donor urinary YKL-40 concentration associated with reduced risk of DGF in both recipients of AKI donor kidneys (adjusted relative risk, 0.51 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.32 to 0.80] for highest versus lowest YKL-40 tertile) and recipients of non-AKI donor kidneys (adjusted relative risk, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97]). Furthermore, in the event of DGF, elevated donor urinary YKL-40 concentration associated with higher 6-month eGFR (6.75 [95% CI, 1.49 to 12.02] ml/min per 1.73 m2) and lower risk of graft failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.27 to 0.94]). These findings suggest that YKL-40 is produced in response to tubular injury and is independently associated with recovery from AKI and DGF. If ultimately validated as a prognostic biomarker, urinary YKL-40 should be considered in determining the suitability of donor kidneys for transplant.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Existing methods to predict recipient allograft function during deceased-donor kidney procurement are imprecise. Understanding the potential renal reparative role for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a cytokine involved in macrophage recruitment after injury, might help predict allograft outcomes. METHODS:We conducted a sub-study of the multicenter prospective Deceased Donor Study cohort, which evaluated deceased kidney donors from five organ procurement organizations from May 2010 to December 2013. We measured urine MCP-1 (uMCP-1) concentrations from donor samples collected at nephrectomy to determine associations with donor acute kidney injury (AKI), recipient delayed graft function (DGF), 6-month estimated GFR (eGFR), and graft failure. We also assessed perfusate MCP-1 concentrations from pumped kidneys for associations with DGF and 6-month eGFR. RESULTS:AKI occurred in 111 (9%) donors. Median (interquartile range) uMCP-1 concentration was higher in donors with AKI compared to donors without AKI (1.35 [0.41-3.93] ng/ml vs. 0.32 [0.11-0.80] ng/ml, p<0.001). DGF occurred in 756 (31%) recipients, but uMCP-1 was not independently associated with DGF. Higher donor uMCP-1 concentrations were independently associated with higher 6-month eGFR in those without DGF [0.77 (0.10, 1.45) ml/min/1.73m2 per doubling of uMCP1]. However, there were no independent associations between uMCP-1 and graft failure over a median follow-up of about 2 years. Lastly, perfusate MCP-1 concentrations significantly increased during pump perfusion but were not associated with DGF or 6-month eGFR. CONCLUSION:Donor uMCP-1 concentrations were modestly associated with higher recipient 6-month eGFR in those without DGF. However, the results suggest that donor uMCP-1 has minimal clinical utility given no associations with graft failure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Given the gap between patients in need of a renal transplantation (RTx) and organs available, transplantation centers increasingly accept organs of suboptimal quality, e.g. from donors with acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS:To determine the outcome of kidney transplants from deceased donors with AKI (defined as ? AKIN stage 1), all 107 patients who received a RTx from donors with AKI between August 2004 and July 2014 at our center were compared to their respective consecutively transplanted patients receiving kidneys from donors without AKI. 5-year patient and graft survival, frequencies of delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejections and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD-EPI) were assessed. RESULTS:Patient survival was similar in both groups, whereas death-censored and overall graft survival were decreased in AKI kidney recipients. AKI kidney recipients showed higher frequencies of DGF and had a reduced eGFR at 7 days, three months and one and three years after RTx. However, mortality was noticeably lower compared to waiting list candidates. Rejection-free survival was similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS:In our cohort, both short-term and long-term renal function was inferior in recipients of AKI kidneys, while patient survival was similar. Our data indicates that recipients of donor AKI kidneys should be carefully selected and additional factors impairing short- and long-term outcome should be minimized to prevent further deterioration of graft function.
Project description:Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) is increasingly used in deceased donor kidney transplantation, but controversy exists regarding the value of perfusion biomarkers and pump parameters for assessing organ quality. We prospectively determined associations between perfusate biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], kidney injury molecule 1, IL-18 and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein [L-FABP]) and pump parameters (resistance and flow) with outcomes of delayed graft function (DGF) and 6-mo estimated GFR (eGFR). DGF occurred in 230 of 671 (34%) recipients. Only 1-h flow was inversely associated with DGF. Higher NGAL or L-FABP concentrations and increased resistance were inversely associated with 6-mo eGFR, whereas higher flow was associated with higher adjusted 6-mo eGFR. Discarded kidneys had consistently higher median resistance and lower median flow than transplanted kidneys, but median perfusate biomarker concentrations were either lower or not significantly different in discarded compared with transplanted kidneys. Notably, most recipients of transplanted kidneys with isolated "undesirable" biomarker levels or HMP parameters experienced acceptable 6-mo allograft function, suggesting these characteristics should not be used in isolation for discard decisions. Additional studies must confirm the utility of combining HMP measurements with other characteristics to assess kidney quality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Accumulating evidence implicates the complement cascade as pathogenically contributing to ischemia-reperfusion injury and delayed graft function (DGF) in human kidney transplant recipients. Building on observations that kidney injury can initiate in the donor before nephrectomy, we tested the hypothesis that anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a in donor urine before transplantation associate with risk of posttransplant injury. METHODS:We evaluated the effects of C3a and C5a in donor urine on outcomes of 469 deceased donors and their corresponding 902 kidney recipients in a subset of a prospective cohort study. RESULTS:We found a threefold increase of urinary C5a concentrations in donors with stage 2 and 3 acute kidney injury (AKI) compared donors without AKI (P < 0.001). Donor C5a was higher for the recipients with DGF (defined as dialysis in the first week posttransplant) compared with non-DGF (P = 0.002). In adjusted analyses, C5a remained independently associated with recipient DGF for donors without AKI (relative risk, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.54). For donors with AKI, however, urinary C5a was not associated with DGF. We observed a trend toward better 12-month allograft function for kidneys from donors with C5a concentrations in the lowest tertile (P = 0.09). Urinary C3a was not associated with donor AKI, recipient DGF, or 12-month allograft function. CONCLUSIONS:Urinary C5a correlates with the degree of donor AKI. In the absence of clinical donor AKI, donor urinary C5a concentrations associate with recipient DGF, providing a foundation for testing interventions aimed at preventing DGF within this high-risk patient subgroup.
Project description:We report the utility of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analysis of urine from deceased donors for prognosis of kidney transplant outcomes. Iodide-modified silver nanoparticles were used as the enabler for sensitive measurements of urine proteins. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed for the statistical analysis of the SERS data. Thirty urine samples in three classes were analysed. The ATN class consists of donors whose kidneys had acute tubular necrosis (ATN), the most common type of acute kidney injury (AKI) with high risk of poor graft performance in recipients, yet yielded acceptable transplant outcome. The DGF class is comprised of donors whose kidney had delayed graft function (DGF) in recipients. The control class includes donors whose kidneys did not have donor ATN or recipient DGF. We show a sensitivity of more than 90?% in differentiating the ATN class from the DGF and control classes. Our methodology can thus help clinicians choose kidneys in the high-risk ATN category for transplant which would otherwise be discarded. Our research is impactful in that it could serve as a valuable guidance to expand the deceased donor pool to include those perceived as high-risk AKI type based on common urinary biomarkers. Picutre: Scheme of SERS analysis of urine samples from deceased donors for kidney transplant outcome indication.
Project description:Deceased-donor acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with organ discard and delayed graft function, but data on longer-term allograft survival are limited. We performed a multicenter study to determine associations between donor AKI (from none to severe based on AKI Network stages) and all-cause graft failure, adjusting for donor, transplant, and recipient factors. We examined whether any of the following factors modified the relationship between donor AKI and graft survival: kidney donor profile index, cold ischemia time, donation after cardiac death, expanded-criteria donation, kidney machine perfusion, donor-recipient gender combinations, or delayed graft function. We also evaluated the association between donor AKI and a 3-year composite outcome of all-cause graft failure or estimated glomerular filtration rate ? 20 mL/min/1.73 m2 in a subcohort of 30% of recipients. Among 2,430 kidneys transplanted from 1,298 deceased donors, 585 (24%) were from donors with AKI. Over a median follow-up of 4.0 years, there were no significant differences in graft survival by donor AKI stage. We found no evidence that pre-specified variables modified the effect of donor AKI on graft survival. In the subcohort, donor AKI was not associated with the 3-year composite outcome. Donor AKI was not associated with graft failure in this well-phenotyped cohort. Given the organ shortage, the transplant community should consider measures to increase utilization of kidneys from deceased donors with AKI.
Project description:Importance:The shortage of deceased donor kidneys for transplants is an ongoing concern. Prior studies support transplanting kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury (AKI), but those investigations have been subject to selection bias and small sample sizes. Current allocation practices of AKI kidneys in the United States are not well characterized. Objectives:To evaluate the association of deceased donor AKI with recipient graft survival and to characterize recovery and discard practices for AKI kidneys by organ procurement organizations. Design, Setting, and Participants:Registry-based, propensity score-matched cohort study from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013, in the United States. The dates of analysis were March 1 to November 1, 2019. From 2010 to 2013, a total of 6832 deceased donors with AKI and 15?310 deceased donors without AKI had at least 1 kidney transplanted. This study used a 1:1, propensity score-matched analysis to match deceased donors with AKI to deceased donors without AKI and investigated outcomes in their corresponding kidney recipients. Exposure:Deceased donor AKI, defined as at least 50% or 0.3-mg/dL increase in terminal serum creatinine level from admission. Main Outcomes and Measures:Recipients were assessed for the time to death-censored graft failure and the following secondary outcomes: delayed graft function, primary nonfunction, and the time to all-cause graft failure. Results:Ninety-eight percent (6722 of 6832) of deceased donors with AKI were matched to deceased donors without AKI. The mean (SD) age of the 13?444 deceased donors was 40.4 (14.4) years, and 63% (8529 of 13?444) were male. A total of 25?323 recipients were analyzed (15?485 [61%] were male), and their mean (SD) age was 52.0 (14.7) years. Recipients were followed up for a median of 5 (interquartile range, 4-6) years. Deceased donor AKI status had no association with death-censored graft failure (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.95-1.08) or all-cause graft failure (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.93-1.02). The results were consistent after examining by AKI stage and adjusting for recipient and transplant characteristics. More recipients of AKI kidneys developed delayed graft function (29% vs 22%, P?<?.001). Few recipients (120 of 25?323 [0.5%]) developed primary nonfunction regardless of deceased donor AKI status. Recovery and transplantation of AKI kidneys varied by organ procurement organization; most (39 of 58) had high recovery and high discard of AKI kidneys. Conclusions and Relevance:Deceased donor AKI kidneys transplanted in the study period had recipient graft survival comparable to that of non-AKI kidneys. This study's findings suggest that the transplant community should evaluate whether currently discarded AKI kidneys from donors without substantial comorbidities can be used more effectively.
Project description:The interaction between baseline kidney function and the performance of biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) on the development of AKI is unclear.Post hoc analysis of prospective cohort study.The 1,219 TRIBE-AKI Consortium adult cardiac surgery cohort participants.Unadjusted postoperative urinary biomarkers of AKI measured within 6 hours of surgery.AKI was defined as AKI Network stage 1 (any AKI) or higher, as well as a doubling of serum creatinine level from the preoperative value or the need for post-operative dialysis (severe AKI).Stratified analyses by preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ? 60 versus > 60mL/min/1.73m(2).180 (42%) patients with preoperative eGFRs?60mL/min/1.73m(2) developed clinical AKI compared with 246 (31%) of those with eGFRs>60mL/min/1.73m(2) (P<0.001). For log2-transformed biomarker concentrations, there was a significant interaction between any AKI and baseline eGFR for interleukin 18 (P=0.007) and borderline significance for liver-type fatty acid binding protein (P=0.06). For all biomarkers, the adjusted relative risk (RR) point estimates for the risk for any AKI were higher in those with elevated baseline eGFRs compared with those with eGFRs?60mL/min/1.73m(2). However, the difference in magnitude of these risks was low (adjusted RRs were 1.04 [95% CI, 0.99-1.09] and 1.11 [95% CI, 1.07-1.15] for those with preoperative eGFRs?60mL/min/1.73m(2) and those with higher eGFRs, respectively). Although no biomarker displayed an interaction for baseline eGFR and severe AKI, log2-transformed interleukin 18 and kidney injury molecule 1 had significant adjusted RRs for severe AKI in those with and without baseline eGFRs?60mL/min/1.73m(2).Limited numbers of patients with severe AKI and post-operative dialysis.The association between early postoperative AKI urinary biomarkers and AKI is modified by preoperative eGFR. The degree of this modification and its impact on the biomarker-AKI association is small across biomarkers. Our findings suggest that distinct biomarker cutoffs for those with and without a preoperative eGFR?60mL/min/1.73m(2) is not necessary.
Project description:Robust biomarkers are needed to identify donor kidneys with poor quality associated with inferior early and longer-term outcome. The occurrence of delayed graft function (DGF) is most often used as a clinical outcome marker to capture poor kidney quality. Gene expression profiles of 92 preimplantation biopsies were evaluated in relation to DGF and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to identify preoperative gene transcript changes associated with short-term function. Patients were stratified into those who required dialysis during the first week (DGF group) versus those without (noDGF group) and subclassified according to 1-month eGFR of >45 mL/min (eGFR(hi)) versus eGFR of ?45 mL/min (eGFR(lo)). The groups and subgroups were compared in relation to clinical donor and recipient variables and transcriptome-associated biological pathways. A validation set was used to confirm target genes. Donor and recipient characteristics were similar between the DGF versus noDGF groups. A total of 206 probe sets were significant between groups (P < 0.01), but the gene functional analyses failed to identify any significantly affected pathways. However, the subclassification of the DGF and noDGF groups identified 283 probe sets to be significant among groups and associated with biological pathways. Kidneys that developed postoperative DGF and sustained an impaired 1-month function (DGF(lo) group) showed a transcriptome profile of significant immune activation already preimplant. In addition, these kidneys maintained a poorer transplant function throughout the first-year posttransplant. In conclusion, DGF is a poor marker for organ quality and transplant outcome. In contrast, preimplant gene expression profiles identify "poor quality" grafts and may eventually improve organ allocation.