IP3R deficit underlies loss of salivary fluid secretion in Sjogren's Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: The autoimmune exocrinopathy, Sjögren's syndrome (SS), is associated with secretory defects in patients, including individuals with mild lymphocytic infiltration and minimal glandular damage. The mechanism(s) underlying the secretory dysfunction is not known. We have used minor salivary gland biopsies from SS patients and healthy individuals to assess acinar cell function in morphologically intact glandular areas. We report that agonist-regulated intracellular Ca(2+) release, critically required for Ca(2+) entry and fluid secretion, is defective in acini from SS patients. Importantly, these acini displayed reduction in IP3R2 and IP3R3, but not AQP5 or STIM1. Similar decreases in IP3R and carbachol (CCh)-stimulated [Ca(2+)]i elevation were detected in acinar cells from lymphotoxin-alpha (LT?) transgenic (TG) mice, a model for (SS). Treatment of salivary glands from healthy individuals with LT ?, a cytokine linked to disease progression in SS and IL14? mice, reduced Ca(2+) signaling. Together, our findings reveal novel IP3R deficits in acinar cells that underlie secretory dysfunction in SS patients.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an exocrinopathy characterized by the hypofunction of salivary glands (SGs). Aquaporin-5 (AQP5); a water channel involved in saliva formation; is aberrantly distributed in SS SG acini and contributes to glandular dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the role of ezrin in AQP5 mislocalization in SS SGs. The AQP5-ezrin interaction was assessed by immunoprecipitation and proteome analysis and by proximity ligation assay in immortalized human SG cells. We demonstrated, for the first time, an interaction between ezrin and AQP5. A model of the complex was derived by computer modeling and in silico docking; suggesting that AQP5 interacts with the ezrin FERM-domain via its C-terminus. The interaction was also investigated in human minor salivary gland (hMSG) acini from SS patients (SICCA-SS); showing that AQP5-ezrin complexes were absent or mislocalized to the basolateral side of SG acini rather than the apical region compared to controls (SICCA-NS). Furthermore, in SICCA-SS hMSG acinar cells, ezrin immunoreactivity was decreased at the acinar apical region and higher at basal or lateral regions, accounting for altered AQP5-ezrin co-localization. Our data reveal that AQP5-ezrin interactions in human SGs could be involved in the regulation of AQP5 trafficking and may contribute to AQP5-altered localization in SS patients.
Project description:Salivary glands exert exocrine secretory function to provide saliva for lubrication and protection of the oral cavity. Its epithelium consists of several differentiated cell types, including acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells, that are maintained in a lineage-restricted manner during homeostasis or after mild injuries. Glandular regeneration following a near complete loss of secretory cells, however, may involve cellular plasticity, although the mechanism and extent of such plasticity remain unclear. Here, by combining lineage-tracing experiments with a model of severe glandular injury in the mouse submandibular gland, we show that <i>de novo</i> formation of acini involves induction of cellular plasticity in multiple non-acinar cell populations. Fate-mapping analysis revealed that, although ductal stem cells marked by cytokeratin K14 and Axin2 undergo a multipotency switch, they do not make a significant contribution to acinar regeneration. Intriguingly, more than 80% of regenerated acini derive from differentiated cells, including myoepithelial and ductal cells, that appear to dedifferentiate to a progenitor-like state before re-differentiation into acinar cells. The potential of diverse cell populations serving as a reserve source for acini widens the therapeutic options for hyposalivation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15(GCDFP-15)/prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) is a secretory acinar glycoprotein of 14 KDa which we have recently described as significantly lower in salivary samples of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) in comparison to healthy volunteers by proteomic analysis. AIMS OF THE STUDY:(1) to validate our previous data on the decrease of GCDFP-15/PIP protein in a larger number of subjects with pSS (2) to integrate the proteomic results with complementary immunoassays in order better clarify the pathophysiological relevance of GCDFP-15/PIP in pSS exocrinopathy (3) to assess both the glandular expression of the GCDFP-15/PIP and the levels of glandular GCDFP-15/PIP mRNA in the patients' minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsies in order to verify whether the observed reduction of GCDFP-15/PIP in saliva may be related to a decrease in the protein production. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A total of 123 salivary samples from patients affected by pSS, no-SS sicca syndrome and sex- age-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed by different proteomic techniques (SELDI-TOF-MS, 2DE, MALDI-TOF-MS). The expression of GCDFP-15/PIP was then validated by western blot analysis. Real Time PCR and immunohistochemistry for GCDFP-15/PIP in the minor salivary glands (MSG) biopsies were then carried out. RESULTS:By using complementary proteomic analysis we found that a putative peak of 16547 m/z was among the best independent biomarkers for pSS able to discriminate between patients and healthy controls with a sensitivity of 96 % and a specificity of 70%, with a global cross validated error of 29%. We identified the peak as the GCDFP-15/PIP protein and verified that the intensity of GCDFP-15/PIP was significantly lower in pSS patients when compared to both no-SS sicca subjects and healthy controls (p<0.0001). GCDFP-15/PIP expression also correlated with both the salivary flow rate (r=0.312, p=0.023) and MSG biopsies focus score (r=-0.377, p=0.04). Finally, immunohistochemistry confirmed that GCDFP-15/PIP staining was faint in mucus acini and Real Time PCR showed that GCDFP-15/PIP mRNA was significantly lower in pSS patients when compared to both no-SS sicca subjects and healthy controls (p=0.023) thus supporting the hypothesis that the observed reduction of GCDFP-15/PIP in pSS saliva may be related to a decrease in the protein production. CONCLUSION:In this study by different complementary-omic techniques we confirmed the potential role of GCDFP-15/PIP as a novel biomarker for pSS. This finding might also be functionally important as GCDFP-15/PIP has previously been shown to bind to Aquaporin 5 (AQP5), a salivary gland water channel, critical to saliva formation that is known to be downregulated in pSS. It is likely that exploring the GCDFP-15/PIP/AQP5 axis will help better understand the mechanism of salivary gland dysfunction in pSS.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin (BoNT) leads to a transient denervation of the submandibular gland and this is associated with reduced salivary secretion. The purpose of the present study was to verify whether temporary acinar atrophy occurs simultaneously with chemical denervation of the glands. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Tissue specimens of the right submandibular gland taken from 18 Wistar rats after intraglandular injection of BoNT A, BoNT B, or a combination of both were examined. As a sham control, an equivalent volume of saline was injected into the left submandibular gland. Morphometric measurements, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and western blot analysis were used to analyse the morphological and functional changes of the denervated glands. KEY RESULTS: Morphological and ultrastructural analyses of the cell organelles and secretory granula showed a clear atrophy of the acini, which was more prominent in glands injected with the combination of BoNT/A and B. Morphometric measurements of the glandular acini revealed a significant reduction of the area of the acinar cells after injection of BoNT (P=0.031). The expression of amylase was significantly reduced in BoNT treated glands. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Intraglandular application of BoNT induces structural and functional changes of the salivary glands indicated by glandular atrophy. These effects may be due to glandular denervation induced by the inhibition of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) involved in acetylcholine release at the neuroglandular junction and also specially inhibition of those involved in exocytosis of the granula of the acinar cells.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic, autoimmune exocrinopathy that leads to severe dryness of the mouth and eyes. Exocrine function is highly regulated by neuronal mechanisms but little is known about the link between chronic inflammation, innervation and altered exocrine function in the diseased eyes and exocrine glands of SS patients. To gain a better understanding of neuronal regulation in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune exocrinopathy, we profiled a mouse model of spontaneous, autoimmune exocrinopathy that possess key characteristics of peripheral neuropathy experienced by SS patients. Mice deficient in the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene developed spontaneous, CD4+ T cell-mediated exocrinopathy and aqueous-deficient dry eye that were associated with loss of nerves innervating the cornea and lacrimal gland. Changes in innervation and tear secretion were accompanied by increased proliferation of corneal epithelial basal cells, limbal expansion of KRT19-positive progenitor cells, increased vascularization of the peripheral cornea and reduced nerve function in the lacrimal gland. In addition, we found extensive loss of MIST1+ secretory acinar cells in the Aire -/- lacrimal gland suggesting that acinar cells are a primary target of the disease, Finally, topical application of ophthalmic steroid effectively restored corneal innervation in Aire -/- mice thereby functionally linking nerve loss with local inflammation in the aqueous-deficient dry eye. These data provide important insight regarding the relationship between chronic inflammation and neuropathic changes in autoimmune-mediated dry eye. Peripheral neuropathies characteristic of SS appear to be tightly linked with the underlying immunopathological mechanism and Aire -/- mice provide an excellent tool to explore the interplay between SS-associated immunopathology and peripheral neuropathy.
Project description:Acinar cells play an essential role in the secretory function of exocrine organs. Despite this requirement, how acinar cells are generated during organogenesis is unclear. Using the acini-ductal network of the developing human and murine salivary gland, we demonstrate an unexpected role for SOX2 and parasympathetic nerves in generating the acinar lineage that has broad implications for epithelial morphogenesis. Despite SOX2 being expressed by progenitors that give rise to both acinar and duct cells, genetic ablation of SOX2 results in a failure to establish acini but not ducts. Furthermore, we show that SOX2 targets acinar-specific genes and is essential for the survival of acinar but not ductal cells. Finally, we illustrate an unexpected and novel role for peripheral nerves in the creation of acini throughout development via regulation of SOX2. Thus, SOX2 is a master regulator of the acinar cell lineage essential to the establishment of a functional organ.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated the expression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in salivary glands and epithelial cell lines derived from Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients. As viral infections are considered to be a trigger for SS, in this study we investigated whether in vivo engagement of TLR3 affects salivary gland function.Female New Zealand Black/WF1 mice were repeatedly injected with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]. TLR3 expression within submandibular glands was studied using immunohistochemistry. RNA levels of inflammatory cytokines in the submandibular glands were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction. Pilocarpine induced saliva volume was used as an index of glandular function.Immunohistochemical analysis of submandibular glands showed TLR3 expression in epithelium of serous and mucous acini, granular convoluted tubules, and ducts. Poly(I:C) treatment rapidly up-regulated the mRNA levels of type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines in the submandibular glands. One week after treatment, the saliva volumes in poly(I:C) treated mice were significantly reduced in comparison with the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) treated mice. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that salivary gland histology was normal and lymphocytic foci were not detected. Glandular function recovered after poly(I:C) treatment was stopped.Our results demonstrate that engagement of TLR3 within the salivary glands results in a rapid loss of glandular function. This phenomenon is associated with the production of type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines in the salivary glands. Restoration of glandular function suggests that for viral etiology of SS, a chronic infection of salivary glands might be necessary.
Project description:To create a model system that investigates mechanisms resulting in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of respiratory tract submucosal glands, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) system wherein normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells differentiated into glandular acini when grown on a basement membrane matrix. The differentiation of primary HBE cells into glandular acini was monitored temporally by light microscopy. Apoptosis-induced lumen formation was observed by immunofluorescence analysis. The acinar cells expressed and secreted MUC5B mucin (marker for glandular mucous cells) and lysozyme, lactoferrin, and zinc-?2-glycoprotein (markers for glandular serous cells) at Day 22. ?-Tubulin IV, a marker for ciliated cells, was not detected. Expression of mucous and serous cell markers in HBE glandular acini demonstrated that HBE cells grown on a basement membrane matrix differentiated into acini that exhibit molecular characteristics of respiratory tract glandular acinar cells. Inhibition studies with neutralizing antibodies resulted in a marked decrease in size of the spheroids at Day 7, demonstrating that laminin (a major component of the basement membrane matrix), the cell surface receptor integrin ?6, and the cell junction marker E-cadherin have functional roles in HBE acinar morphogenesis. No significant variability was detected in the average size of glandular acini formed by HBE cells from two normal individuals. These results demonstrated that this in vitro model system is reproducible, stable, and potentially useful for studies of glandular differentiation and hyperplasia.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune process that primarily affects the exocrine glands and leads to their functional impairment. The exocrine gland involvement is characterized by a focal, mononuclear cell infiltrate which is accumulated around ducts and, in some patients, extends and replaces the secretory functional units. The mechanisms of this autoimmune 'exocrinopathy' are not fully understood. The immune attack that follows activation or apoptosis of glandular epithelial cells exposing autoantigens in genetically predisposed individuals may drive the immune-mediated tissue injury. Abnormalities related to the upregulation of type I interferon-regulated genes (interferon signature), abnormal expression of B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) and activation of the IL-23/TH17 pathway are among the immune mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune lesions within the salivary glands. Such abnormalities demonstrate the complex interplay between innate and adaptive immunity that contributes to autoimmune 'exocrinopathy'.
Project description:Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers leads to permanent xerostomia due to the loss of secretory acinar cells in the salivary glands. Regenerative treatments utilizing primary submandibular gland (SMG) cells show modest improvements in salivary secretory function, but there is limited evidence of salivary gland regeneration. We have recently shown that poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels can support the survival and proliferation of SMG cells as multicellular spheres in vitro. To further develop this approach for cell-based salivary gland regeneration, we have investigated how different modes of PEG hydrogel degradation affect the proliferation, cell-specific gene expression, and epithelial morphology within encapsulated salivary gland spheres. Comparison of non-degradable, hydrolytically-degradable, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-degradable, and mixed mode-degradable hydrogels showed that hydrogel degradation by any mechanism is required for significant proliferation of encapsulated cells. The expression of acinar phenotypic markers Aqp5 and Nkcc1 was increased in hydrogels that are MMP-degradable compared with other hydrogel compositions. However, expression of secretory acinar proteins Mist1 and Pip was not maintained to the same extent as phenotypic markers, suggesting changes in cell function upon encapsulation. Nevertheless, MMP- and mixed mode-degradability promoted organization of polarized cell types forming tight junctions and expression of the basement membrane proteins laminin and collagen IV within encapsulated SMG spheres. This work demonstrates that cellularly remodeled hydrogels can promote proliferation and gland-like organization by encapsulated salivary gland cells as well as maintenance of acinar cell characteristics required for regenerative approaches. Investigation is required to identify approaches to further enhance acinar secretory properties. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:Regenerative strategies to replace damaged salivary glands require the function and organization of acinar cells. Hydrogel-based approaches have shown promise to control cell function and phenotype. However, little is known about how specific parameters, such as the mechanism of hydrogel degradation (e.g., hydrolytic or enzymatic), influence the viability, proliferation, organization, and phenotype of salivary gland cells. In this work, it is shown that hydrogel-encapsulated primary salivary gland cell proliferation is dependent upon hydrogel degradation. Hydrogels crosslinked with enzymatically degradable peptides promoted the expression of critical acinar cell markers, which are typically downregulated in primary cultures. Furthermore, salivary gland cells encapsulated in enzymatically- but not hydrolytically-degradable hydrogels displayed highly organized and polarized salivary gland cell markers, which mimics characteristics found in native gland tissue. In sum, results indicate that salivary gland cells respond to cellularly remodeled hydrogels, resulting in self-assembly and organization akin to acini substructures of the salivary gland.