A Static Picture of the Relaxation and Intersystem Crossing Mechanisms of Photoexcited 2-Thiouracil.
ABSTRACT: Accurate excited-state quantum chemical calculations on 2-thiouracil, employing large active spaces and up to quadruple-? quality basis sets in multistate complete active space perturbation theory calculations, are reported. The results suggest that the main relaxation path for 2-thiouracil after photoexcitation should be S2 ? S1 ? T2 ? T1, and that this relaxation occurs on a subpicosecond time scale. There are two deactivation pathways from the initially excited bright S2 state to S1, one of which is nearly barrierless and should promote ultrafast internal conversion. After relaxation to the S1 minimum, small singlet-triplet energy gaps and spin-orbit couplings of about 130 cm(-1) are expected to facilitate intersystem crossing to T2, from where very fast internal conversion to T1 occurs. An important finding is that 2-thiouracil shows strong pyramidalization at the carbon atom of the thiocarbonyl group in several excited states.
Project description:The deactivation mechanism after ultraviolet irradiation of 2-thiouracil has been investigated using nonadiabatic dynamics simulations at the MS-CASPT2 level of theory. It is found that after excitation the S2 quickly relaxes to S1, and from there intersystem crossing takes place to both T2 and T1 with a time constant of 400 fs and a triplet yield above 80%, in very good agreement with recent femtosecond experiments in solution. Both indirect S1 ? T2 ? T1 and direct S1 ? T1 pathways contribute to intersystem crossing, with the former being predominant. The results contribute to the understanding of how some noncanonical nucleobases respond to harmful ultraviolet light, which could be relevant for prospective photochemotherapeutic applications.
Project description:Multi-state n-electron valence state second order perturbation theory (MS-NEVPT2) was utilized to reveal the photorelaxation pathways of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-nitrostilbene (DANS) upon S1 excitation. Within the interwoven networks of five S1/S0 and three T2/T1 conical intersections (CIs), and three S1/T2, one S1/T1 and one S0/T1 intersystem crossings (ISCs), those competing nonadiabatic decay pathways play different roles in trans-to-cis and cis-to-trans processes, respectively. After being excited to the Franck-Condon (FC) region of the S1 state, trans-S1-FC firstly encounters an ultrafast conversion to quinoid form. Subsequently, the relaxation mainly proceeds along the triplet pathway, trans-S1-FC ? ISC-S1/T2-trans ? CI-T2/T1-trans ? ISC-S0/T1-twist ? trans- or cis-S0. The singlet relaxation pathway mediated by CI-S1/S0-twist-c is hindered by the prominent energy barrier on S1 surface and by the reason that CI-S1/S0-trans and CI-S1/S0-twist-t are both not energetically accessible upon S1 excitation. On the other hand, the cis-S1-FC lies at the top of steeply decreasing potential energy surfaces (PESs) towards the CI-S1/S0-twist-c and CI-S1/S0-DHP regions; therefore, the initial twisting directions of DN and DAP moieties determine the branching ratio between ?C=C twisting (cis-S1-FC ? CI-S1/S0-twist-c ? trans- or cis-S0) and DHP formation relaxation pathways (cis-S1-FC ? CI-S1/S0-DHP ? DHP-S0) on the S1 surface. Moreover, the DHP formation could also take place via the triplet relaxation pathway, cis-S1-FC ? ISC-S1/T1-cis ? DHP-T1 ? DHP-S0, however, which may be hindered by insufficient spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength. The other triplet pathways for cis-S1-FC mediated by ISC-S1/T2-cis are negligible due to the energy or geometry incompatibility of possible consecutive stepwise S1 ? T2 ? T1 or S1 ? T2 ? S1 processes. The present study reveals photoisomerization dynamic pathways via conical intersection and intersystem crossing networks and provides nice physical insight into experimental investigation of DANS.
Project description:The MS-CASPT2 method has been employed to optimize minimum-energy structures of 6-selenoguanine (6SeGua) and related two- and three-state intersection structures in and between the lowest five electronic states, i.e., S2(1??*), S1(1 n?*), T2(3 n?*), T1(3??*), and S0. In combination with MS-CASPT2 calculated linearly interpolated internal coordinate paths, the photophysical mechanism of 6SeGua has been proposed. The initially populated S2(1??*) state decays to either S1(1 n?*) or T2(3 n?*) states through a three-state S2/S1/T2 intersection point. The large S2/T2 spin-orbit coupling of 435 cm-1, according to the classical El-Sayed rule, benefits the S2 ? T2 intersystem crossing process. The S1(1 n?*) state that stems from the S2 ? S1 internal conversion process at the S2/S1/T2 intersection point can further jump to the T2(3 n?*) state through the S1 ? T2 intersystem crossing process. This process does not comply with the El-Sayed rule, but it is still related to a comparatively large spin-orbit coupling of 39 cm-1 and is expected to occur relatively fast. Finally, the T2(3 n?*) state, which is populated from the above S2 ? T2 and S1 ? T2 intersystem crossing processes, decays to the T1(3??*) state via an internal conversion process. Because there is merely a small energy barrier of 0.11 eV separating the T1(3??*) minimum and an energetically allowed two-state T1/S0 intersection point, the T1(3??*) state still can decay to the S0 state quickly, which is also enhanced by a large T1/S0 spin-orbit coupling of 252 cm-1. Our proposed mechanism explains experimentally observed ultrafast intersystem crossing processes in 6SeGua and its 835-fold acceleration of the T1 state decay to the S0 state compared with 6tGua. Finally, we have found that the ground-state electronic structure of 6SeGua has more apparent multireference character.
Project description:Singlet exciton fission photovoltaic technology requires chromophores with their lowest excited states arranged so that 2E(T1) < E(S1) and E(S1) < E(T2). Herein, qualitative theory and quantum chemical calculations are used to develop explicit strategies on how to use Baird's 4n rule on excited-state aromaticity, combined with Hückel's 4n + 2 rule for ground-state aromaticity, to tailor new potential chromophores for singlet fission. We first analyze the E(T1), E(S1), and E(T2) of benzene and cyclobutadiene (CBD) as excited-state antiaromatic and aromatic archetypes, respectively, and reveal that CBD fulfills the criteria on the state ordering for a singlet fission chromophore. We then look at fulvenes, a class of compounds that can be tuned by choice of substituents from Baird-antiaromatic to Baird-aromatic in T1 and S1 and from Hückel-aromatic to Hückel-antiaromatic in S0. The T1 and S1 states of most substituted fulvenes (159 of 225) are described by singly excited HOMO ? LUMO configurations, providing a rational for the simultaneous tuning of E(T1) and E(S1) along an approximate (anti)aromaticity coordinate. Key to the tunability is the exchange integral (KH,L), which ideally is constant throughout the compound class, providing a constant ?E(S1 - T1). This leads us to a geometric model for the identification of singlet fission chromophores, and we explore what factors limit the model. Candidates with calculated E(T1) values of ?1 eV or higher are identified among benzannelated 4n?-electron compound classes and siloles. In brief, it is clarified how the joint utilization of Baird's 4n and Hückel's 4n + 2 rules, together with substituent effects (electronic and steric) and benzannelation, can be used to tailor new chromophores with potential use in singlet fission photovoltaics.
Project description:We describe the photophysical processes that give rise to thermally activated delayed fluorescence in the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) molecule, triquinolonobenzene (TQB). Using transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, we fully characterize prompt and delayed emission, phosphorescence, and oxygen quenching to reveal the reverse intersystem crossing mechanism (rISC). After photoexcitation and rapid ESIPT to the TQB-TB tautomer, emission from S1 is found to compete with thermally activated ISC to an upper triplet state, T2, very close in energy to S1 and limiting photoluminescence quantum yield. T2 slowly decays to the lowest triplet state, T1, via internal conversion. In the presence of oxygen, T2 is quenched to the ground state of the double proton transferred TQB-TC tautomer. Our measurements demonstrate that rISC in TQB occurs from T2 to S1 driven by thermally activated reverse internal conversion from T1 to T2 and support recent calculations by Cao et al. (Cao, Y.; Eng, J.; Penfold, T. J. Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer Dynamics for Triplet Harvesting in Organic Molecules. J. Phys. Chem. A 2019, 123, 2640-2649).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Accurate measurement of the QT interval is very important from a clinical and pharmaceutical drug safety screening perspective. Expert manual measurement is both imprecise and imperfectly reproducible, yet it is used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of current automatic computer algorithms, which thus produce reproducible but incorrect measurements of the QT interval. There is a scientific imperative to evaluate the most commonly used algorithms with an accurate and objective 'gold standard' and investigate novel automatic algorithms if the commonly used algorithms are found to be deficient.<h4>Methods</h4>This study uses a validated computer simulation of 8 different noise contaminated ECG waveforms (with known QT intervals of 461 and 495 ms), generated from a cell array using Luo-Rudy membrane kinetics and the Crank-Nicholson method, as a reference standard to assess the accuracy of commonly used QT measurement algorithms. Each ECG contaminated with 39 mixtures of noise at 3 levels of intensity was first filtered then subjected to three threshold methods (T1, T2, T3), two T wave slope methods (S1, S2) and a Novel method. The reproducibility and accuracy of each algorithm was compared for each ECG.<h4>Results</h4>The coefficient of variation for methods T1, T2, T3, S1, S2 and Novel were 0.36, 0.23, 1.9, 0.93, 0.92 and 0.62 respectively. For ECGs of real QT interval 461 ms the methods T1, T2, T3, S1, S2 and Novel calculated the mean QT intervals(standard deviations) to be 379.4(1.29), 368.5(0.8), 401.3(8.4), 358.9(4.8), 381.5(4.6) and 464(4.9) ms respectively. For ECGs of real QT interval 495 ms the methods T1, T2, T3, S1, S2 and Novel calculated the mean QT intervals(standard deviations) to be 396.9(1.7), 387.2(0.97), 424.9(8.7), 386.7(2.2), 396.8(2.8) and 493(0.97) ms respectively. These results showed significant differences between means at >95% confidence level. Shifting ECG baselines caused large errors of QT interval with T1 and T2 but no error with Novel.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The algorithms T2, T1 and Novel gave low coefficients of variation for QT measurement. The Novel technique gave the most accurate measurement of QT interval, T3 (a differential threshold method) was the next most accurate by a large margin. The objective and accurate 'gold standard' presented in this paper may be useful to assess new QT measurement algorithms. The Novel algorithm may prove to be more accurate and reliable method to measure the QT interval.
Project description:We present the first study to measure the dissociative photochemistry of 2-thiouracil (2-TU), an important nucleobase analogue with applications in molecular biology and pharmacology. Laser photodissociation spectroscopy is applied to the deprotonated and protonated forms of 2-TU, which are produced in the gas-phase using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Our results show that the deprotonated form of 2-thiouracil ([2-TU-H]-) decays predominantly by electron ejection and hence concomitant production of the [2-TU-H]· free-radical species, following photoexcitation across the UVA-UVC region. Thiocyanate (SCN-) and a m/z 93 fragment ion are also observed as photodecay products of [2-TU-H]- but at very low intensities. Photoexcitation of protonated 2-thiouracil ([2-TU·H]+) across the same UVA-UVC spectral region produces the m/z 96 cationic fragment as the major photofragment. This ion corresponds to ejection of an HS· radical from the precursor ion and is determined to be a product of direct excited state decay. Fragment ions associated with decay of the hot ground state (i.e., the ions we would expect to observe if 2-thiouracil was behaving like UV-dissipating uracil) are observed as much more minor products. This behaviour is consistent with enhanced intersystem crossing to triplet excited states compared to internal conversion back to the ground state. These are the first experiments to probe the effect of protonation/deprotonation on thionucleobase photochemistry, and hence explore the effect of pH at a molecular level on their photophysical properties.
Project description:While the influence of proquinoidal character upon the linear absorption spectrum of low optical bandgap ?-conjugated polymers and molecules is well understood, its impact upon excited-state relaxation pathways and dynamics remains obscure. We report the syntheses, electronic structural properties, and excited-state dynamics of a series of model highly conjugated near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing chromophores based on a (porphinato)metal(ii)-proquinoidal spacer-(porphinato)metal(ii) (PM-Sp-PM) structural motif. A combination of excited-state dynamical studies and time-dependent density functional theory calculations: (i) points to the cardinal role that excited-state configuration interaction (CI) plays in determining the magnitudes of S1 ? S0 radiative (kr), S1 ? T1 intersystem crossing (kISC), and S1 ? S0 internal conversion (kIC) rate constants in these PM-Sp-PM chromophores, and (ii) suggests that a primary determinant of CI magnitude derives from the energetic alignment of the PM and Sp fragment LUMOs (?EL). These insights not only enable steering of excited-state relaxation dynamics of high oscillator strength NIR absorbers to realize either substantial fluorescence or long-lived triplets (?T1 > ?s) generated at unit quantum yield (?ISC = 100%), but also crafting of those having counter-intuitive properties: for example, while (porphinato)platinum compounds are well known to generate non-emissive triplet states (?ISC = 100%) upon optical excitation at ambient temperature, diminishing the extent of excited-state CI in these systems realizes long-wavelength absorbing heavy-metal fluorophores. This work highlights approaches to: (i) modulate low-lying singlet excited-state lifetime over the picosecond-to-nanosecond time domain, (ii) achieve NIR fluorescence with quantum yields up to 25%, (iii) tune the magnitude of S1-T1 ISC rate constant from 109 to 1012 s-1 and (iv) realize T1-state lifetimes that range from ?0.1 to several ?s, for these model PM-Sp-PM chromophores, and renders new insights to evolve bespoke photophysical properties for low optical bandgap ?-conjugated polymers and molecules based on proquinoidal conjugation motifs.
Project description:A combination of the advanced chemometrics method with quantum mechanics calculation was for the first time applied to explore a facile yet efficient analysis strategy to thoroughly resolve femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of ortho-nitroaniline (ONA), served as a model compound of important nitroaromatics and explosives. The result revealed that the ONA molecule is primarily excited to S3 excited state from the ground state and then ultrafast relaxes to S2 state. The internal conversion from S2 to S1 occurs within 0.9 ps. One intermediate state S* was identified in the intersystem crossing (ISC) process, which is different from the specific upper triplet receiver state proposed in some other nitroaromatics systems. The S1 state decays to the S* one within 6.4 ps and then intersystem crossing to the lowest triplet state within 19.6 ps. T1 was estimated to have a lifetime up to 2 ns. The relatively long S* state and very long-lived T1 one should play a vital role as precursors to various nitroaromatic and explosive photoproducts.
Project description:UV-absorbing rhodopsins are essential for UV vision and sensing in all kingdoms of life. Unlike the well-known visible-absorbing rhodopsins, which bind a protonated retinal Schiff base for light absorption, UV-absorbing rhodopsins bind an unprotonated retinal Schiff base. Thus far, the photoreaction dynamics and mechanisms of UV-absorbing rhodopsins have remained essentially unknown. Here, we report the complete excited- and ground-state dynamics of the UV form of histidine kinase rhodopsin 1 (HKR1) from eukaryotic algae, using femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) and transient absorption spectroscopy, covering time scales from femtoseconds to milliseconds. We found that energy-level ordering is inverted with respect to visible-absorbing rhodopsins, with an optically forbidden low-lying S1 excited state that has Ag- symmetry and a higher-lying UV-absorbing S2 state of Bu+ symmetry. UV-photoexcitation to the S2 state elicits a unique dual-isomerization reaction: first, C13?C14 cis-trans isomerization occurs during S2-S1 evolution in <100 fs. This very fast reaction features the remarkable property that the newly formed isomer appears in the excited state rather than in the ground state. Second, C15?N16 anti-syn isomerization occurs on the S1-S0 evolution to the ground state in 4.8 ps. We detected two ground-state unprotonated retinal photoproducts, 13-trans/15-anti (all-trans) and 13-cis/15-syn, after relaxation to the ground state. These isomers become protonated in 58 ?s and 3.2 ms, respectively, resulting in formation of the blue-absorbing form of HKR1. Our results constitute a benchmark of UV-induced photochemistry of animal and microbial rhodopsins.