Dysbiosis in the Gut Microbiota of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, with a Striking Depletion of Species Belonging to Clostridia XIVa and IV Clusters.
ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease affecting the brain and spinal cord, remains poorly understood. Patients with MS typically present with recurrent episodes of neurological dysfunctions such as blindness, paresis, and sensory disturbances. Studies on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal models have led to a number of testable hypotheses including a hypothetical role of altered gut microbiota in the development of MS. To investigate whether gut microbiota in patients with MS is altered, we compared the gut microbiota of 20 Japanese patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (MS20) with that of 40 healthy Japanese subjects (HC40) and an additional 18 healthy subjects (HC18). All the HC18 subjects repeatedly provided fecal samples over the course of months (158 samples in total). Analysis of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene by using a high-throughput culture-independent pyrosequencing method provided evidence of a moderate dysbiosis in the structure of gut microbiota in patients with MS. Furthermore, we found 21 species that showed significant differences in relative abundance between the MS20 and HC40 samples. On comparing MS samples to the 158 longitudinal HC18 samples, the differences were found to be reproducibly significant for most of the species. These taxa comprised primarily of clostridial species belonging to Clostridia clusters XIVa and IV and Bacteroidetes. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that none of the clostridial species that were significantly reduced in the gut microbiota of patients with MS overlapped with other spore-forming clostridial species capable of inducing colonic regulatory T cells (Treg), which prevent autoimmunity and allergies; this suggests that many of the clostridial species associated with MS might be distinct from those broadly associated with autoimmune conditions. Correcting the dysbiosis and altered gut microbiota might deserve consideration as a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of MS.
Project description:Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been observed in a number of autoimmune diseases. However, the role of the gut microbiota in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypical autoimmune disease characterized by persistent inflammation in multiple organs of the body, remains elusive. Here we report the dynamics of the gut microbiota in a murine lupus model, NZB/W F1, as well as intestinal dysbiosis in a small group of SLE patients with active disease. The composition of the gut microbiota changed markedly before and after the onset of lupus disease in NZB/W F1 mice, with greater diversity and increased representation of several bacterial species as lupus progressed from the predisease stage to the diseased stage. However, we did not control for age and the cage effect. Using dexamethasone as an intervention to treat SLE-like signs, we also found that a greater abundance of a group of lactobacilli (for which a species assignment could not be made) in the gut microbiota might be correlated with more severe disease in NZB/W F1 mice. Results of the human study suggest that, compared to control subjects without immune-mediated diseases, SLE patients with active lupus disease possessed an altered gut microbiota that differed in several particular bacterial species (within the genera Odoribacter and Blautia and an unnamed genus in the family Rikenellaceae) and was less diverse, with increased representation of Gram-negative bacteria. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios did not differ between the SLE microbiota and the non-SLE microbiota in our human cohort.IMPORTANCE SLE is a complex autoimmune disease with no known cure. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been reported for both mice and humans with SLE. In this emerging field, however, more studies are required to delineate the roles of the gut microbiota in different lupus-prone mouse models and people with diverse manifestations of SLE. Here, we report changes in the gut microbiota in NZB/W F1 lupus-prone mice and a group of SLE patients with active disease.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system (CNS) mainly in young adults, and a breakage of immune tolerance to CNS self-antigens has been suggested to initiate CNS autoimmunity. Age and microbial infection are well-known factors involved in the development of autoimmune diseases, including MS. Recent studies have suggested that alterations in the gut microbiota, referred to as dysbiosis, are associated with MS. However, it is still largely unknown how gut dysbiosis affects the onset and progression of CNS autoimmunity. In this study, we investigated the effects of age and gut dysbiosis on the development of CNS autoimmunity in humanized transgenic mice expressing the MS-associated MHC class II (MHC-II) gene, HLA-DR2a, and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes specific for MBP87-99/DR2a that were derived from an MS patient. We show here that the induction of gut dysbiosis triggers the development of spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) during adolescence and early young adulthood, while an increase in immunological tolerance with aging suppresses disease onset after late young adulthood in mice. Furthermore, gut dysbiosis induces the expression of complement C3 and production of the anaphylatoxin C3a, and down-regulates the expression of the Foxp3 gene and anergy-related E3 ubiquitin ligase genes. Consequently, gut dysbiosis was able to trigger the development of encephalitogenic T cells and promote the induction of EAE during the age window of young adulthood.
Project description:Given the growing evidence of a link between gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis and multiple sclerosis (MS), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), aimed at rebuilding GM, has been proposed as a new therapeutic approach to MS treatment. To evaluate the viability of FMT for MS treatment and its impact on MS pathology, we tested FMT in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. We provide evidence that FMT can rectify altered GM to some extent with a therapeutic effect on EAE. We also found that FMT led to reduced activation of microglia and astrocytes and conferred protection on the blood-brain barrier (BBB), myelin, and axons in EAE. Taken together, our data suggest that FMT, as a GM-based therapy, has the potential to be an effective treatment for MS.
Project description:Gut dysbiosis during inflammatory bowel disease involves alterations in the gut microbiota associated with inflammation of the host gut. We used a combination of shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metabolomics to analyze fecal samples from pediatric patients with Crohn's disease and found an association between disease severity, gut dysbiosis, and bacterial production of free amino acids. Nitrogen flux studies using 15N in mice showed that activity of bacterial urease, an enzyme that releases ammonia by hydrolysis of host urea, led to the transfer of murine host-derived nitrogen to the gut microbiota where it was used for amino acid synthesis. Inoculation of a conventional murine host (pretreated with antibiotics and polyethylene glycol) with commensal Escherichia coli engineered to express urease led to dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, resulting in a predominance of Proteobacteria species. This was associated with a worsening of immune-mediated colitis in these animals. A potential role for altered urease expression and nitrogen flux in the development of gut dysbiosis suggests that bacterial urease may be a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel diseases.
Project description:Gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. This is still an area of active research given that the role of gut microbiota on the primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remains unclear. In this study, fecal samples of 30 untreated adult primary ITP patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs) were used to investigate the gut microbial community and metabolite profiles. Our results show that fecal bacteria such as Blautia, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus are enriched, whereas bacteria such as Bacteroides are depleted in ITP patients. Notably, fecal metabolites such as fatty acyls and glycerophospholipids are enriched and strongly correlate with discrepant gut microbiota. Furthermore, combinations of Weissella and Streptococcus anginosus, or Cer (t18:0/16:0), Cer (d18:1/17:0), and 13-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid could provide good diagnostic markers for ITP. Moreover, a strong negative correlation was found between platelet count and altered gut microbiota such as S. anginosus and gut metabolites such as Cer (t18:0/16:0) in ITP. In conclusion, dysbiosis of both gut microbiota and metabolome develops in ITP patients compared to HCs. Several ITP-altered gut bacteria and metabolites can be diagnostic biomarkers for ITP, and are highly correlated with platelet count, suggesting that they may also play a role in ITP pathogenesis.
Project description:Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with complex immunopathogenesis. Dysbiosis has been linked to many autoimmune diseases, but its detailed role in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) still needs rigorous evaluation, especially in Egypt. We aimed to identify the shift in the gut microbiota profile and resultant metabolic pathways in AIH Egyptian patients compared to healthy individuals. Stool samples were collected from 15 AIH-naive patients and from 10 healthy individuals. The V3-V4 hyper-variable regions in16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. Significantly lower bacterial diversity in AIH patients was found compared to the controls. A phylum-level analysis showed the overrepresentation of Firmicutes, Bacteroides, and Proteobacteria. At the genus level, AIH-associated enrichment of Faecalibacterium, Blautia, Streptococcus, Haemophilus, Bacteroides, Veillonella, Eubacterium, Lachnospiraceae and Butyricicoccus was reported in contrast to Prevotella, Parabacteroides and Dilaster, which were significantly retracted in such patients. Overall, the predicted metabolic pathways associated with dysbiosis in AIH patients could orchestrate the potential pathogenic roles of gut microbiota in autoimmune disease, though not in a disease-specific manner, calling for future large-scale studies.
Project description:Male Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) mice spontaneously develop obesity and obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Gut dysbiosis, an imbalance of gut microbiota, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but its mechanisms are unknown. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main fermentation products of gut microbiota and a link between the gut microbiota and the host's physiology. Here, we investigated a correlation among gut dysbiosis, SCFAs, and metabolic syndrome in TSOD mice. We detected enriched levels of Gram-positive bacteria and corresponding decreases in Gram-negative bacteria in 24-wk-old metabolic syndrome-affected TSOD mice compared with age-matched controls. The abundance of Bacteroidetes species decreased, the abundance of Firmicutes species increased, and nine genera of bacteria were altered in 24-wk-old TSOD mice. The total plasma SCFA level was significantly lower in the TSOD mice than in controls. The major plasma SCFA-acetate-decreased in TSOD mice, whereas propionate and butyrate increased. TSOD mice had no minor SCFAs (valerate and hexanoate) but normal mice did. We thus concluded that gut dysbiosis and consequent disruptions in plasma SCFA profiles occurred in metabolic syndrome-affected TSOD mice. We also propose that the TSOD mouse is a useful model to study gut dysbiosis, SCFAs, and metabolic syndrome.
Project description:Gut microbiota dysbiosis has adverse health effects on human body. Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment uses a variety of antibiotics typically for more than 20 months, which may induce gut microbiota dysbiosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the long-term effects of MDR-TB treatment on human gut microbiota and its related health consequences. A total of 76 participants were recruited at a hospital in Linyi, China. The study included one active MDR-TB treatment group, one recovered group from MDR-TB and two treatment-naive tuberculosis groups as control. The two treatment-naïve tuberculosis groups were constructed to match the sex and the age of the active MDR-TB treatment and the recovered group, respectively. The fecal and blood samples were collected and analyzed for gut microbiota and metabolic parameters. An altered gut microbiota community and a loss of richness were observed during the MDR-TB treatment. Strikingly, 3-8 years after recovery and discontinuing the treatment, the gut microbiota still exhibited an altered taxonomic composition (p = 0.001) and a 16% decrease in richness (p = 0.018) compared to the gut microbiota before the treatment. The abundance of fifty-eight bacterial genera was significantly changed in the MDR-TB recovered group versus the untreated control group. Although there were persistent and pervasive gut microbiota alterations, no gastrointestinal symptom such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, flatulence, and constipation was observed in the recovered group. However, chronic disorders may be indicated by the elevated level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) (p = 0.034) and total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.017). These adverse lipid changes were associated with the altered gut bacterial taxa, including phylum Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia and genera Adlercreutzia, Akkermansia, Butyricicoccus, Coprococcus, Clostridioides, Eubacterium, Erysipelatoclostridium, Fusicatenibacter, Klebsiella, Psychrobacter, and Streptococcus. Collectively, MDR-TB treatment induced a lasting gut microbiota dysbiosis, which was associated with unfavorable changes in lipid profile.
Project description:Purpose: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a spectrum of autoimmune diseases, which result in chronic intestinal inflammation. Previous findings suggest a role for diet, nutrition and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in both the development and progression of the condition. Vitamin B12 is a key cofactor of methionine synthase and is produced solely by microbes. Previous work links increased levels of homocysteine, a substrate of methionine synthase, MetH, to IBD indicating a potential role for vitamin B12 deficiency in intestinal injury and inflammation. This study assessed the role of vitamin B12 in shaping the gut microbiota and determining responses to intestinal injury using a reproducible murine model of colitis. Methods: The effects of vitamin B12 supplementation and deficiency were assessed in vivo; 3-week-old post-weanling C57Bl/6 mice were divided into three dietary treatment groups: (1) sufficient vitamin B12 (50 mg/Kg), (2) deficient vitamin B12 (0 mg/Kg) and (3) supplemented vitamin B12 (200 mg/Kg) for a period of 4 weeks. Intestinal injury was induced with 2% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) via drinking water for 5 days. The impact of varying levels of dietary vitamin B12 on gut microbiota composition was assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing from fecal samples collected at day 0 and day 28 of the dietary intervention, and 7 days following induction of colitis on day 38, when blood and colonic tissues were also collected. Results: No significant alterations were found in the gut microbiota composition of disease-free animals in response to dietary interventions. By contrast, after DSS-induced colitis, >30 genera were significantly altered in vitamin B12 deficient mice. Altered B12 levels produced no significant effect on composite disease-activity scores; however, administration of a B12 deficient diet resulted in reduced DSS-induced epithelial tissue damage. Conclusions: Vitamin B12 supplementation does not alter the gut microbiota composition under healthy conditions, but does contribute to differential microbial responses and intestinal dysbiosis following the induction of experimental colitis.
Project description:Previous studies suggested a possible gut microbiota dysbiosis in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, direct evidence was lacking. In this study, we investigated the composition and metabolic patterns of gut microbiota in CHF patients to provide direct evidence and comprehensive understanding of gut microbiota dysbiosis in CHF. We enrolled 53 CHF patients and 41 controls. Metagenomic analyses of faecal samples and metabolomic analyses of faecal and plasma samples were then performed. We found that the composition of gut microbiota in CHF was significantly different from controls. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decrease and Ruminococcus gnavus increase were the essential characteristics in CHF patients' gut microbiota. We also observed an imbalance of gut microbes involved in the metabolism of protective metabolites such as butyrate and harmful metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide in CHF patients. Metabolic features of both faecal and plasma samples from CHF patients also significantly changed. Moreover, alterations in faecal and plasma metabolic patterns correlated with gut microbiota dysbiosis in CHF. Taken together, we found that CHF was associated with distinct gut microbiota dysbiosis and pinpointed the specific core bacteria imbalance in CHF, along with correlations between changes in certain metabolites and gut microbes.