Ire1-mediated decay in mammalian cells relies on mRNA sequence, structure, and translational status.
ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins overwhelm the capacity of the ER, resulting in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Ire1, an ER transmembrane nuclease and conserved transducer of the UPR, cleaves the mRNA encoding the transcription factor Xbp1 at a dual stem-loop (SL) structure, leading to Xbp1 splicing and activation. Ire1 also cleaves other mRNAs localized to the ER membrane through regulated Ire1-dependent decay (RIDD). We find that during acute ER stress in mammalian cells, Xbp1-like SLs within the target mRNAs are necessary for RIDD. Furthermore, depletion of Perk, a UPR transducer that attenuates translation during ER stress, inhibits RIDD in a substrate-specific manner. Artificially blocking translation of the SL region of target mRNAs fully restores RIDD in cells depleted of Perk, suggesting that ribosomes disrupt SL formation and/or Ire1 binding. This coordination between Perk and Ire1 may serve to spatially and temporally regulate RIDD.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) remediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. IRE1, a component of the UPR, senses misfolded protein and cleaves XBP1 mRNA, which is ligated to code for the prosurvival transcription factor. IRE1 also cleaves other mRNAs preceding their degradation, termed regulated IRE1-dependent mRNA decay (RIDD). It has been reported that RIDD may be involved in cell viability under stress and therefore may contribute to cancer cell viability. To investigate RIDD targets that may have functional relevance in cell survival, we identified conserved RIDD targets containing stringent IRE1 RNase target sequences. Using a systematic bioinformatics approach with quantitative-PCR (qPCR) validation, we show that only BLOC1S1 is consistently a RIDD target in all systems tested. Using cancer cell lines, we show that BLOC1S1 is specifically cleaved by IRE1 at guanine 444, but only under conditions of IRE1 hyperactivation. BLOC1S1 cleavage is temporally separate from XBP1 splicing, occurring after depletion of unspliced XBP1. Expression of an uncleavable BLOC1S1 mutant or inhibition of RIDD using an IRE1 RNase inhibitor did not affect cellular recovery from acute ER stress. These data demonstrate that although hyperactivated IRE1 specifically cleaves BLOC1S1, this cleavage event and RIDD as a whole are dispensable for cell viability under acute stress.
Project description:An evolutionarily conserved unfolded protein response (UPR) component, IRE1, cleaves XBP1/HAC1 introns in order to generate spliced mRNAs that are translated into potent transcription factors. IRE1 also cleaves endoplasmic-reticulum-associated RNAs leading to their decay, an activity termed regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD); however, the mechanism by which IRE1 differentiates intron cleavage from RIDD is not well understood. Using in vitro experiments, we found that IRE1 has two different modes of action: XBP1/HAC1 is cleaved by IRE1 subunits acting cooperatively within IRE1 oligomers, whereas a single subunit of IRE1 performs RIDD without cooperativity. Furthermore, these distinct activities can be separated by complementation of catalytically inactive IRE1 RNase and mutations at oligomerization interfaces. Using an IRE1 RNase inhibitor, STF-083010, selective inhibition of XBP1 splicing indicates that XBP1 promotes cell survival, whereas RIDD leads to cell death, revealing modulation of IRE1 activities as a drug-development strategy.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) responds to changes in intracellular homeostasis through activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR can facilitate the restoration of cellular homeostasis, via the concerted activation of three ER stress sensors, namely IRE1, PERK and ATF6. Global approaches in several cellular contexts have revealed that UPR regulates the expression of many miRNAs that play an important role in the regulation of life and death decisions during UPR. Here we show that expression of miR-424(322)-503 cluster is downregulated during UPR. IRE1 inhibitor (4 μ8C) and deficiency of XBP1 had no effect on downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 during UPR. Treatment of cells with CCT030312, a selective activator of EIF2AK3/PERK signalling, leads to the downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 expression. The repression of miR-424(322)-503 cluster during conditions of ER stress is compromised in PERK-deficient MEFs. miR-424 regulates the expression of ATF6 via a miR-424 binding site in its 3' UTR and attenuates the ATF6 transcriptional activity during UPR. Further miR-424 had no effect on IRE1-XBP1 axis but enhanced the regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD). Our results suggest that miR-424 constitutes an obligatory fine-tuning mechanism where PERK-mediated downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 cluster regulates optimal activation of IRE1 and ATF6 during conditions of ER stress.
Project description:When activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, metazoan IRE1, the most evolutionarily conserved unfolded protein response (UPR) transducer, initiates unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA. Unspliced and spliced mRNA are translated to produce pXBP1(U) and pXBP1(S), respectively. pXBP1(S) functions as a potent transcription factor, whereas pXBP1(U) targets pXBP1(S) to degradation. In addition, activated IRE1 transmits two signaling outputs independent of XBP1, namely activation of the JNK pathway, which is initiated by binding of the adaptor TRAF2 to phosphorylated IRE1, and regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of various mRNAs in a relatively nonspecific manner. Here, we conducted comprehensive and systematic genetic analyses of the IRE1-XBP1 branch of the UPR using medaka fish and found that the defects observed in XBP1-knockout or IRE1-knockout medaka were fully rescued by constitutive expression of pXBP1(S). Thus, the JNK and RIDD pathways are not required for the normal growth and development of medaka. The unfolded protein response sensor/transducer IRE1-mediated splicing of XBP1 mRNA encoding its active downstream transcription factor to maintain the homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum is sufficient for growth and development of medaka fish.
Project description:<b>Background</b>: The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER) continuously adapts to the cellular secretory load by the activation of an unfolded protein response (UPR). This stress response results in expansion of the ER, upregulation of proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, and attenuation of protein synthesis. The response is orchestrated by three signalling pathways each activated by a specific signal transducer, either inositol requiring enzyme ? (IRE1?), double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) or activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Activation of IRE1? results in its oligomerisation, autophosphorylation and stimulation of its ribonuclease activity. The ribonuclease initiates the splicing of an intron from mRNA encoding the transcription factor, X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as degradation of specific mRNAs and microRNAs. <b>Methods</b>: To investigate the consequence of expression of exogenous XBP1, we generated a stable cell-line expressing spliced XBP1 mRNA under the control of an inducible promotor. <b>Results</b>: Following induction of expression, high levels of XBP1 protein were detected, which allowed upregulation of target genes in the absence of induction of the UPR. Remarkably under stress conditions, the expression of exogenous XBP1 repressed splicing of endogenous XBP1 mRNA without repressing the activation of PERK. <b>Conclusions</b>: These results illustrate that a feedback mechanism exists to attenuate Ire1? ribonuclease activity in the presence of XBP1.
Project description:XBP1 is a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. XBP1 ablation in liver causes profound hypolipidemia in mice, highlighting its critical role in lipid metabolism. XBP1 deficiency triggers feedback activation of its upstream enzyme IRE1?, instigating regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of cytosolic mRNAs. Here, we identify RIDD as a crucial control mechanism of lipid homeostasis. Suppression of RIDD by RNA interference or genetic ablation of IRE1? reversed hypolipidemia in XBP1-deficient mice. Comprehensive microarray analysis of XBP1 and/or IRE1?-deficient liver identified genes involved in lipogenesis and lipoprotein metabolism as RIDD substrates, which might contribute to the suppression of plasma lipid levels by activated IRE1?. Ablation of XBP1 ameliorated hepatosteatosis, liver damage, and hypercholesterolemia in dyslipidemic animal models, suggesting that direct targeting of either IRE1? or XBP1 might be a feasible strategy to treat dyslipidemias.
Project description:To relieve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, IRE1 splices XBP1 messenger RNA (mRNA) or engages regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of other mRNAs. Upon XBP1 deficiency, IRE1 switches to perform RIDD. We examined IRE1 in XBP1-deficient B cells and discovered that IRE1 undergoes phosphorylation at S729. We generated an anti-phospho-S729 antibody to investigate such phosphorylation. Compared with pharmacological ER stress inducers or Toll-like receptor ligands, the bacterial subtilase cytotoxin has an unusual capability in causing rapid and strong phosphorylation at S729 and triggering B cells to express spliced XBP1. To assess the function of S729 in IRE1, we generated S729A knock-in mice and found S729 is critically important for lipopolysaccharide-stimulated plasmablasts to respond to additional ER stress and for antibody production in response to immunization. We further crossed mice carrying an S729A mutation or ?IRE1 (missing the kinase domain) with B cell-specific XBP1-deficient mice to trigger RIDD and discovered a critical role for S729 in regulating RIDD in B cells.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) monitors and adjusts the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In S. pombe, the ER membrane-resident kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1 utilizes a mechanism of selective degradation of ER-bound mRNAs (RIDD) to maintain homeostasis. We used a genetic screen to identify factors critical to the Ire1-mediated UPR and found several proteins, Dom34, Hbs1 and Ski complex subunits, previously implicated in ribosome rescue and mRNA no-go-decay (NGD). Ribosome profiling in ER-stressed cells lacking these factors revealed that Ire1-mediated cleavage of ER-associated mRNAs results in ribosome stalling and mRNA degradation. Stalled ribosomes iteratively served as a ruler to template precise, regularly spaced upstream mRNA cleavage events. This clear signature uncovered hundreds of novel target mRNAs. Our results reveal that the UPR in S. pombe executes RIDD in an intricate interplay between Ire1, translation, and the NGD pathway, and establish a critical role for NGD in maintaining ER homeostasis.
Project description:The molecular connections between homeostatic systems that maintain both genome integrity and proteostasis are poorly understood. Here we identify the selective activation of the unfolded protein response transducer IRE1? under genotoxic stress to modulate repair programs and sustain cell survival. DNA damage engages IRE1? signaling in the absence of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signature, leading to the exclusive activation of regulated IRE1?-dependent decay (RIDD) without activating its canonical output mediated by the transcription factor XBP1. IRE1? endoribonuclease activity controls the stability of mRNAs involved in the DNA damage response, impacting DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The activation of the c-Abl kinase by DNA damage triggers the oligomerization of IRE1? to catalyze RIDD. The protective role of IRE1? under genotoxic stress is conserved in fly and mouse. Altogether, our results uncover an important intersection between the molecular pathways that sustain genome stability and proteostasis.
Project description:IRE1 is an unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor with kinase and endonuclease activity. It plays a central role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response through unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA and regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD), which cleaves RNA at an XBP1-like consensus sequence (CUGCAG) accompanied by a stem-loop structure. MM cells are known to exhibit an elevated level of baseline ER stress, but RIDD activity has not been well studied in this disease. To investigate novel RIDD targets of possible relevance to the survival/proliferation of MM cells we combined in vitro cleavage assay with RNA sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed hundreds of putative IRE1 substrates, 32 of which were chosen for validation. Looking into the secondary structure of IRE1 substrates, we found that the consensus sequences of IRF4, PRDM1, IKZF1, KLF13, NOTCH1, ATR, DICER, RICTOR, CDK12, FAM168B, and CENPF mRNAs were accompanied by a stem-loop structure essential for IRE1-mediated cleavage. We show that mRNA and protein levels corresponding to these targets were attenuated in an IRE1-dependent manner by treatment with ER-stress-inducing agents. Our results demonstrate for the first time that IRE1 is a key regulator of several proteins of importance in MM survival and proliferation. Overall design: Total RNA obtained from 6 biological replicates of the H929 cell line was exposed to an in vitro cleavage assay in the presence (3 samples) or absence (3 samples) of recombinant IRE1 protein. We carried out RNA-sequencing from purified poly (A)-containing mRNAs.