Mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning across Canada: a trend analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of mortality and morbidity from carbon monoxide poisoning in Canada has received little attention. Our objective was to evaluate trends in mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning across Canada. METHODS: Age- and sex-standardized mortality (1981-2009) and hospital admission (1995-2010) rates by age group, sex and site of carbon monoxide exposure were calculated for each province and for all of Canada. We quantified the long-term trends by calculating the average annual percent change. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of carbon monoxide poisoning across age groups, sex and month of occurrence. RESULTS: In Canada, there were 1808 unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning deaths between 1981 and 2009 and 1984 admissions to hospital between 1995 and 2010. Average annual decreases of 3.46% (95% confidence interval [CI] -4.59% to -2.31%) and 5.83% (95% CI -7.79% to -3.83%) were observed for mortality and hospital admission rates, respectively. Mortality (IRR 5.31, 95% CI 4.57 to 6.17) and hospital admission (IRR 2.77, 95% CI 2.51 to 3.03) rates were elevated in males compared with females. Decreased trends in the rates were observed for all sites of carbon monoxide exposure, but the magnitude of this decrease was lowest in residential environments. Deaths and admissions to hospital were most frequent from September to April, with peaks in December and January. INTERPRETATION: Mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional nonfire-related carbon monoxide poisoning in Canada have declined steadily. Continued efforts should focus on reducing carbon monoxide poisoning during the cooler months and in residential environments.
Project description:Unintentional non-fire related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological data on UNFR CO poisoning can help monitor changes in the magnitude of this burden, particularly through comparisons of multiple countries, and to identify vulnerable sub-groups of the population which may be more at risk. Here, we collected data on age- and sex- specific number of hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of UNFR CO poisoning in England (2002-2016), aggregated to small areas, alongside area-level characteristics (i.e. deprivation, rurality and ethnicity). We analysed temporal trends using piecewise log-linear models and compared them to analogous data obtained for Canada, France, Spain and the US. We estimated age-standardized rates per 100,000 inhabitants by area-level characteristics using the WHO standard population (2000-2025). We then fitted the Besag York Mollie (BYM) model, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model, to assess the independent effect of each area-level characteristic on the standardized risk of hospitalization. Temporal trends showed significant decreases after 2010. Decreasing trends were also observed across all countries studied, yet France had a 5-fold higher risk. Based on 3399 UNFR CO poisoning hospitalizations, we found an increased risk in areas classified as rural (0.69, 95% CrI: 0.67; 0.80), highly deprived (1.77, 95% CrI: 1.66; 2.10) or with the largest proportion of Asian (1.15, 95% CrI: 1.03; 1.49) or Black population (1.35, 95% CrI: 1.20; 1.80). Our multivariate approach provides strong evidence for the identification of vulnerable populations which can inform prevention policies and targeted interventions.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Carbon monoxide poisoning affects 50,000 per year in the United States alone. Mortality is approximately 3%, and up to 40% of survivors suffer from permanent neurocognitive and affective deficits. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has shown benefit on reducing the long-term neurologic sequelae of carbon monoxide poisoning but has not demonstrated improved survival. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen for acute and long-term mortality in carbon monoxide poisoning using a large clinical databank. DESIGN:Retrospective analysis. SETTING:University of Pittsburgh Medical Center healthcare system (Pittsburgh, PA). PATIENTS:One-thousand ninety-nine unique encounters of adult patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Baseline demographics, laboratory values, hospital charge transactions, discharge disposition, and clinical information from charting were obtained from the electronic medical record. In propensity-adjusted analysis, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was associated with a reduction in inpatient mortality (absolute risk reduction, 2.1% [3.7-0.9%]; p = 0.001) and a reduction in 1-year mortality (absolute risk reduction, 2.1% [3.8-0.4%]; p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate that hyperbaric oxygen is associated with reduced acute and reduced 1-year mortality. Further studies are needed on the mortality effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in carbon monoxide poisoning.
Project description:Accidental non-fire-related (ANFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a cause of fatalities and hospital admissions. This is the first study that describes the characteristics of ANFR CO hospital admissions in England.Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) inpatient data for England between 2001 and 2010 were used. ANFR CO poisoning admissions were defined as any mention of ICD-10 code T58: toxic effect of CO and X47: accidental poisoning by gases or vapours, excluding ICD-10 codes potentially related to fires (X00-X09, T20-T32 and Y26).There were 2463 ANFR CO admissions over the 10-year period (annual rate: 0.49/100 000); these comprised just under half (48.7%) of all non-fire-related (accidental and non-accidental) CO admissions. There was seasonal variability, with more admissions in colder winter months. Higher admission rates were observed in the north of England. Just over half (53%) of ANFR admissions were male, and the highest rates of ANFR admissions were in those aged >80 years.The burden of ANFR CO poisoning is preventable. The results of this study suggest an appreciable burden of CO and highlight differences that may aid targeting of public health interventions.
Project description:Carbon monoxide poisoning is common and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The nervous system, particularly the brain, is frequently affected by it, owing to its high metabolic activity and oxygen requirements. Carbon monoxide damages the nervous system by both hypoxic and inflammatory mechanisms. Central diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. Herein, we report the case of a young lady, who developed this complication and severe hypernatremia after accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. She also developed a hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state during the treatment for hypernatremia. To the best of our knowledge, both these entities have not been reported together in association with carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the anticipation and early recognition of central diabetes insipidus in carbon monoxide poisoning. This can prevent severe hypernatremia and complications associated with its presence and treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), the odorless, colorless gas resulting from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, is preventable. Despite the significant risk of morbidity and mortality associated with CO poisoning, there currently exists no active national CO surveillance system in the United States (U.S.). Our study aims to use electronic health record data to describe the epidemiology of CO poisoning in the Veterans Health Administration healthcare population. METHODS:We identified unique inpatient and outpatient encounters coded with International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for CO poisoning and analyzed relevant demographic, laboratory, treatment, and death data from January 2010 through December 2017 for Veterans across all 50 U.S. states and Puerto Rico. Statistical methods used were 95% CI calculations and the two-tailed z test for proportions. RESULTS:We identified 5491 unique patients with CO poisoning, of which 1755 (32%) were confirmed/probable and 3736 (68%) were suspected. Unintentional poisoning was most common (72.9%) overall. Age less than 65 years, residence in Midwest U.S. Census region versus South or West, and winter seasonal trend were characteristics associated with confirmed/probable CO poisoning. Twenty-six deaths (1.5%) occurred within 30 days of confirmed/probable CO poisoning and were primarily caused by cardiovascular events (42%) or anoxic encephalopathy (15%). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings support the use of ICD-coded data for targeted CO poisoning surveillance, however, improvements are needed in ICD coding to reduce the percentage of cases coded with unknown injury intent and/or CO poisoning source. Prevalence of CO poisoning among Veterans is consistent with other U.S. estimates. Since most cases are unintentional, opportunities exist for provider and patient education to reduce risk.
Project description:Poisoning remains a major worldwide public health problem. Mortality varies by country, region and ethnicity. The objective of this study is to analyze recent trends in poisoning mortality in the Mexican population.Data regarding mortality induced by poisoning was obtained from a publicly available national database maintained by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography.During the period from 2000 to 2012, average mortality rates for unintentional and self-poisoning were 1.09 and 0.41 per 100000 population, respectively. The highest mortality rate for unintentional poisoning was in older individuals of both genders while the highest mortality for self-poisoning was in older men and young women. Additional studies are needed in Mexico, especially those that analyze risk factors in older individuals and young women.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The United States has higher infant and youth mortality rates than other high-income countries, with striking disparities by racial/ethnic group. Understanding changing trends by age and race/ethnicity for leading causes of death is imperative for focused intervention.<h4>Objective</h4>To estimate trends in US infant and youth mortality rates from 1999 to 2015 by age group and race/ethnicity, identify leading causes of death, and compare mortality rates with Canada and England/Wales.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This descriptive study analyzed death certificate data from the US National Center for Health Statistics, Statistics Canada, and the UK Office of National Statistics for all deaths among individuals younger than 25 years. The study took place from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2015, and analyses started in September 2017.<h4>Exposures</h4>Race/ethnicity.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Average annual percent changes in mortality rates from 1999 to 2015 and absolute rate change between 1999 to 2002 and 2012 to 2015 for each age group, race/ethnicity, and cause of death.<h4>Results</h4>Among individuals from birth to age 24 years, 1?169?537 deaths occurred in the United States, 80?540 in Canada, and 121?183 in England/Wales from 1999 to 2015. In the United States, 64% of deaths occurred in male individuals and 52.6% occurred in white individuals (25.1% deaths occurred in black individuals and 17.9% in Latino individuals). All-cause mortality declined for all age groups (infants younger than 1 year [38.5% of deaths], children aged 1-9 years [10.6%], early adolescents aged 10-14 years [5%], late adolescents aged 15-19 years [17.7%], and young adults aged 20-24 years [28.1%]) in the United States, Canada, and England/Wales from 1999 to 2015. However, rates were highest in the United States. Within the United States, annual declines in all-cause mortality rates occurred among all age groups of black, Latino, and white individuals, except for white individuals aged 20 to 24 years, whose rates remained stable. Mortality rates declined across most major causes of death from 1999 to 2002 and 2012 to 2015, with notable declines observed for sudden infant death syndrome, unintentional injury death, and homicides. Among infants, unintentional suffocation and strangulation in bed increased (difference between 2012-2015 and 1999-2002 range, 6.11-29.03 per 100?000). Further, suicide rates among Latino and white individuals aged 10 to 24 years (range, 0.21-2.63 per 100?000) and black individuals aged 10 to 19 years (range, 0.10-0.45 per 100?000) increased, as did unintentional injury deaths in white young adults (0.79 per 100?000). The rise in unintentional injury deaths is attributed to increases in drug poisonings and was also observed in black and Latino young adults.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Mortality rates in the United States have generally declined for infants and youths from 1999 to 2015 owing to reductions in sudden infant death syndrome, unintentional injury death, and homicides. However, US mortality rates remain higher than Canada and England/Wales, with particularly elevated rates among black and American Indian/Alaskan Native youth. Further, there is a concerning increase in suicide and drug poisoning death rates among US adolescents and young adults.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate differences in demographic and clinical characteristics of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children aged 0-4 years hospitalised for unintentional poisoning in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. DESIGN AND SETTING:Retrospective whole-of-population cohort analysis of linked hospital and mortality data for 2000-2014. PARTICIPANTS:All children (Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal) under the age of 5 years who were born in a hospital in NSW from 2000 to 2009. OUTCOMES:The primary outcome was hospitalisation for unintentional poisoning. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of poisoning hospitalisation for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Poisoning agents and clinical outcomes were compared by Aboriginality. RESULTS:The cohort included 767 119 children, including 28 528 (3.7%) Aboriginal children. Aboriginal children had approximately three times higher rates of hospitalised poisoning (1.34%) compared with non-Aboriginal children (0.41%). Poisoning incidence peaked at 2-3 years of age. Male sex, socioeconomic disadvantage and geographical remoteness were associated with higher odds of poisoning hospitalisation for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children, but associations with disadvantage and remoteness were statistically significant only for non-Aboriginal children. Most (83%) poisonings were caused by pharmaceutical agents. Few Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children had repeat admissions for poisoning; most had a length of stay of 1 day or less. Only 8% of poisoning admissions involved contact with a social worker. CONCLUSION:Commonly used medications in the general population contribute to poisonings among both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal preschool-aged children. This study highlights a need to develop culturally safe poisoning prevention strategies and policies.
Project description:Mortality in patients with paraquat (PQ) poisoning is related to plasma PQ levels. Concentrations lower than 5,000 ng/mL are considered critical but curable. This study assessed the effects of hemoperfusion (HP) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on the survival of PQ-poisoned patients with plasma PQ levels below 5,000ng/mL. We analyzed the records of 164 patients with PQ poisoning who were treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University in China between January 2011 and May 2015. We divided these patients into six sub-groups based on baseline plasma PQ levels and treatment, compared their clinical characteristics, and analyzed their survival rates. Patient sub-groups did not differ in terms of age, sex, time between poisoning and hospital admission, or time to first gavage. Biochemical indicators improved over time in all sub-groups following treatment, and the combined HP and CRRT treatment yielded better results than HP or CRRT alone. Fatality rates in the three treatment sub-groups did not differ among patients with baseline plasma PQ levels of 50-1,000 ng/mL, but in patients with 1,000-5,000 ng/mL levels, the mortality rate was 59.2% (HP treatment group), 48% (CRRT treatment group), and 37.9% (combined treatment group). Mortality rates were higher 10-30 days after hospitalization than in the first 10 days after admission. In the early stages of PQ poisoning, CRRT is effective in reducing patient fatality rates, particularly when combined with HP. Our data could be useful in increasing survival in acute PQ poisoning patients.
Project description:Although non-fire-related carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is almost entirely preventable, over 400 people die and 20?000 people are injured each year in the USA from unintentional CO poisoning. Thus, there is a critical need for evidence-based interventions for preventing CO poisoning and increasing the proper use and installation of CO detectors.A randomised, controlled trial (Project CODE, a Carbon Monoxide Detector Education intervention) with 2-week and 6-month follow-up home observations was conducted in 299 parents of children aged ?18?years recruited in the emergency department of a level 1 paediatric trauma centre. The intervention group received an educational tool, a spiral-bound, laminated booklet that resembled a CO detector containing theory-based safety messages based on the precaution adoption process model, a plug-in CO detector and 9?V battery. The control group received a one page flyer on CO poisoning prevention.Although the difference was not statistically significant, mean CO knowledge score increased at a greater rate for the intervention group than the control group. Intervention group parents were more likely to exhibit 'safe' CO detector use than control group parents at the 2-week follow-up (RR: 2.75; 95% CI 2.06 to 3.69) and 6-month follow-up (RR: 2.78; 95% CI 2.06 to 3.76), after adjusting for self-reported CO detector use behaviour at enrolment and annual per capita income.An emergency department-delivered intervention containing a theory-based educational tool paired with a CO detector can be an effective method for increasing knowledge about CO poisoning, for prevention and for appropriate use of a CO detector.NCT00959478.